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VOL. LXXVI, No. 1 



1908 



PRICE, 35 CENTS 



- * THE MAY- - v 

CENTUFCT 

• - MAGAZINE • • 



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MACMILLAN AND C? LTD ST MARTIN'S ST LONDON 

THE CENTURY COUNION SQUARENEWYORK 

FRANK H. SCOTT, PRE3. CHAS. F. CHICHE8TER, TREA9. WILLIAM W. ELLSWORTH, 8ECr. UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK 

Copyright, 1908, by The Century Co.] (Trade-Mark Registered Oct. 18th. 1881.) [Entered at N.Y. Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter 




The Nation^ 
Tribute 

is to the men and things 
which serve it 

Amomf the tofty shafts of 
gratitude and appreciation 
which America raises is 
the towering though invisible 
tribute to- the service rendered 
h/MPOLIO 




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Intending purchasers will find Tiffany & Co/s 1908 
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May 1908 



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CONTENTS OF THE CENTURY FOR MAY, igo8. 

E^Tlie articles .and pictures in this Magazine are copyrighted and must not be reprinted without special permission. 

Miss Mary Garden as " Melisande," in Debussy's " Pelleas Page 

and Melisande." Printed in color from a painting 

from life made for The Century by Sigismond de Ivanowski. . . . Frontispiece 

Literary Rolls of Honor in France : The Academie Francaise ^- _. . 

The Academie des Goncourt — The Committee of Women 

of "La Vie Heureuse " Th. Bentzon 3 

Pictures by Andre Castaigne and portraits. 

The Prince of the Power of the Air Edmund Clarence stedman 18 

With picture. 

Comment on the Foregoing Article .Dr. Alexander Graham Bell 26 

Some Mexican Churches Lockwood de Forest 27 

Pictures from photographs made by Henry Ravell. 
The Red City. V. A Novel of the Second Administration of 
Washington. By the author of "Hugh Wynne," "Con- 
stance Trescot, " etc S. Weir Mitchell . 32 

Picture by Arthur I. Keller. 

Declaration Edith Hope Kinney 43 

The Reminiscences of Lady Randolph ChurchilL VI. 

A Visit to Russia — Domestic Life and Recreations — An 
Audience with the Czar — Impression of Russian Society — 
Moscow — Russian Characteristics Mrs. George Cornwallis-West 44 

Pictures and portraits from photographs. 

The Scholar's Return .".....•.... William Ellery Leonard 56 

The Wickedness of Phoebe. A Story. By the Author of " Miss 

Primrose," " In the Morning Glow," etc ...... .Roy Rolfe Gilson 57 

Picture by Thomas Fogarty. 
The Elephant's Bride. (Adventures on the Ragged Edge. III.) John Corbin 63 

Pictures by May Wilson Preston. 

Negro Homes Booker T. Washington 71 

Pictures from photographs. 
HOW the Widow Tamed the Wild. A Story. By the author 

of " Under the Joshua-Tree " .Barton Wood Currie 80 

Pictures by Leon Guipon. 

Uncle Carter of the Peg-Leg. A Sketch From Life. By the 

author of "The Slaves Who Stayed " Lucine Finch 90 

A Florentine Roof Garden Helen Zimmern 93 

Pictures by Harry Fenn and from photographs. 

General Grant's Last Days. I. By one of his consulting 

surgeons George F. Shrady, M.D 102 

Portraits from photographs. 

What the World Might Have Missed. w. a. Newman Doriand 113 

In a Storm Harry H. Kemp 125 

Collies, Owned by Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. (The Cen- 
tury's American Artists Series.) From the painting by. .Charles R. Knight 126 

The Canals and Oases of Mars. (Mars as the Abode of Life) . Percival Lowell 127 

Pictures from drawings made by Professor Lowell. 

A Chant of Darkness Helen Keller ... . ; 142 

Decorations by R. Weir Crouch. 

Mary Garden Henry T. Finck 148 

A Tropical Tempest. A Tale of Yucatan Edward H. Thompson 151 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Topics of the Time 154 

Charles F. Chichester — "The Age of Mental Virility "-— The White House Conference on 

our National Resources. 
Open Letters , 157 

Charles R. Knight (The Century's American Artists Series) — "A Reception at the Academie 

Francaise." 
In Lighter Vein ; 158 

The Mythological ZOO : L PegasUS. 2. The Chimera {Oliver H erf ord) with pictures by the author — 
Little What-For (Julian Street) — Jes' a-Hopin' (Herman Da CostaJ — MOVmg (Edna Kingsley Wallace) — 

The Great Scrap-Book {Allen Wood). 

The Century Co. and its editors receive manuscripts and art material, submitted for picbhca- 
tion, only on tlie understanding that they shall not be responsible for loss or injury thereto 
•while in their possession or in transit. Copies of manuscripts should be retained by the authors. 

Terms: — $4.00 a year in advance; 35 cents a number. Booksellers and Postmasters receive subscriptions. Subscribers may 
remit to us in P. O. or express money-orders, or in bank checks, drafts, or registered letters. Money in letters is at sender's risk. 

Bound volumes (containing the numbers for six months), in old gold or green cloth, gilt top, each $3.00, or without gilt top, 
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Back numbers will be exchanged, if in good condition, for corresponding bound volumes. Terms upon application. 

FRANK H. SCOTT. Pres't. PUBLISHED MONTHLY. 

TO^&w^SSw&raSW: THE CENTURY CO., Union. Square, New York, N. Y. 



The June Century 



OLDCOLLECESONGS 

WITH DR/WINGS 
kr 

JOHN WOLCOTTADAMS 




OPENING PAGE OF 

A NOVEL EIGHT-PAGE INSET 

IN THE JUNE CENTURY 



LINCOLN'S VOTE FOR VICE-PRESIDENT 

The story of an interesting development of the Philadel- 
phia convention of 1856, by a notable Lincoln authority. 
By JESSE W. WEIK, joint author with W. H. Herndon of 
Herndon and Weik's Life of Lincoln." 

GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 

Further sympathetic and intimate memories of an 
heroic man's heroic struggle, by one of the consulting 
surgeons. 

By DK. GEORGE F. SHRADY 

OUR BARBAROUS FOURTH 

A common-sense plea for a saner observance of the 
National Holiday. 

By MRS. ISAAC L. 'RICE, President of the New York 
Society for The Suppression of Unnecessary Noise. 

The CONCEALING COLORATION of ANIMALS 

An interesting discussion of how, and to what extent 
animals are concealed by their colors. 
By GERALD H. THAYER 

THE ABBOTSHOLME 

An account of a visit to a remarkable English school. 
By PRESTON W. SEARCH 

Etc., Etc. 



FIVE COMPLETE STORIES 



THE HILL OF THORNS 

By Adele Marie Shaw 

An exquisite story of a husband and wife. 

A DESERT "SPORT" 

By Edgar Beecher Bronson 

A clever humorous story of the defeating of a 
braggart. 

A FORGIVENESS 

By Lily A. Long 

A strong story of a bitter man's revenge— and love. 



THE FUTURE PRESIDENT 

By Owen Johnson 

A quietly humorous sketch of life in a 
school, by the author of " Beauty's Sister.' 



boys' 



THE LAST CLASS-SUPPER 

By Herbert D. Ward 

A college story, rich in sentiment and in appeal- 
ing human quality. 



THE SPELL OF 
EGYPT 

Text by Robert Hichens, Pictures in color 
by Jules Guerin. 

Critics say: 

The illustrations in color by Jules Guerin are very 
remarkable, and add immensely to the interest of 
Mr. Hichens's fascinating account. — Bookseller, 
Newsdealer and Stationer. 

Something of the spell of Egypt does indeed ema- 
nate from these extraordinary pictures. — School 
Arts Book. 

The article which will awaken most interest is that 
by Robert Hichens on "The Spell of Egypt," with 
its striking colored illustrations. . . . The present 
descriptive paper is evidence of his power of visual- 
izing subtle impressions and communicating the 
effect of color and line. — Hartford Courant. 

Certainly there are few men better qualified to 
write of the charm and fascination of that ancient 
land, and his (Robert Hichens's) article will be found 
to be full of that " atmosphere " that appeals so 
strongly to one gifted with imagination when Egypt 
is the theme.— Brooklyn Eagle. 

Will attract wide attention. — Evansville Courier. 



Of great merit, 
Register. 



beautifully illustrated.— Wheeling 




THE COUKT OF AMENHOTEP III — TEMPLE OF LUXOR 



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6 MYSTERY 



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Salt Lake City Tribune. 

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Globe, New York. 

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" If you want a detective story 
to keep you awake nights and a 
mystery to pique your curiosity 
to the last chapter, read * The 
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Albany Argus. 



NOTABLE VOLUMES OF VERSE 



LYRICS AND LANDSCAPES 

Just Issued 

By Harrison S. Morris 

Author of "A Duet in Lyrics," ■«« Tales from 
Ten Poets," etc., and for many years Manag- 
ing Director of the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts. A charming collection of the latest 
poetical writings of this well-known Philadel- 
phia editor, author, and art critic. 

$1.00 net, postage 6 cents. 



POEMS 

New and Enlarged Edition 

By Robert Underwood Johnson 

A complete collection, virtually four volumes 
in one, including the five long pieces by which 
Mr. Johnson is best known: *< The Winter 
Hour," "Apostrophe to Greece," "Hands 
Across Sea," " Italian Rhapsody " and "The 
Voice of Webster." 

$1.20 net, postage 6 cents. 



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NEW SCRIBNER BOOKS 




THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF 
GEORGE BANCROFT 

By 

M. A. DEWOLFE HOWE 

Illustrated, 2 volumes. $4.00.nef, postage extra. 

One of the most important books of biography and history of recent years. 
The long life of George Banci oft (i 800-1891) almost covered the nineteenth 
century; and during the greater part of it, as scholar, historian, statesman 
and diplomatist, he had a wider personal acquaintance with the great figures 
among his contemporaries than perhaps any other American. 

SOME OF THE CONTENTS OF THE VOLUMES 



Student Life at Gottingen, 1818-1820 
The Ceremony of Taking the Doctor's Degree 
Visits to Goethe and to Wolff and Humboldt 
Meetings with Lord Byron, Lafayette, Thorwaldsen 
His Experience as Secretary of the Navy 



Minister to England in 1846 

Visit to Paris in 1847-49, and Anecdotes of Guizot, Lamar- 

tine, Benjamin Constant and Louis Philippe 
Minister to Germany, 1867-1874 
Intimate Friendship with von Moltke, Bismarck and the 

Emperor William. 



IN KOREA WITH 
MARQUIS ITO 

By George Trumbull Ladd 

Illustrated $2.50 net , postpaid $2.70 

The most important book yet published on Korea 
to-day, and the relations of Korea and Japan. 
Professor Ladd went to Korea with Marquis Ito 
and had extraordinary and unique chances of 
observation and gaining inside information. His 
book is of profound importance to-day. 

"The book is written with great care, and is one 
of the most informing books on the East yet pub- 
lished." — Phila. Inquirer. 



THE 
OLD DOMINION 

Her Making and Her Manners 
By THOMAS NELSON PAGE 

$1.50 net, postpaid $1.65 

An account of the early history and later develop- 
ment of Virginia and of the men and women and 
the manners and customs that grew up in it. 

"One of the most charming volumes ever written 
about Virginia." — Newark News. 

"A graphic portrayal of Southern life as it was 
and as he hopes it may be." — Boston Transcript. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY MEN OF LATITUDE 
By EDWARD AUGUSTUS GEORGE $1.25 net, postpaid $1.35 



Sketches of the life and writings of Hales of Eton, Chillingworth, Browne, 
Whichcote, Taylor, Lane, Baxter and Smith, giving a novel, true, and deeply 
interesting account of a generally ignored, but important and illuminating 
phase of the period. 

THE ESSENTIAL LIFE 

By STEPHEN B. STANTON. $1.00 net, postpaid $1.10. 

No profounder or more spirited essays on what may be called the philosophy 
of life have appeared in many seasons. Some of the essays are: "The 
Spirit in Man," "Time," "Individuality," "Imagination," "Happiness," 
"Moralitv," "Environment," "Spiritual "Companionship," "Eternal 
Youth." ' 

THE MONEY GOD 

By JOHN C. VAN DYKE. $1.25 net, postpaid $1.35. 

Brilliant and powerful discussion of modern business methods and money 
ideals in American life to-day. Stirring and of deepest appeal at the moment. 



PRACTICAL 
BRIDGE 

By 

J. B. ELWELL 

The most recent develop- 
ments of the game explained 
and discussed by the greatest 
of Bridge Experts. An indis- 
pensable book for anyone 
wishing to play an up-to-date 
game. 

$1.50 net, 
postpaid $1.62 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



SCRIBNER SPRING FICTION 



TRUE STORIES OF CRIME 

From the District Attorney's Office 
By ARTHUR TRAIN. Illustrated, $1.50 

Extraordinary stories of great crimes of our own day, fiction and yet fact, 
and told with the art of a true story-teller. The ingenuity and daring 
of these adventures make thrilling stories. They are history and fiction 
at once, and among the most dramatic stories of our day. 



OLD MR. DAVEN ANT'S MONEY 

A Romance of Long Island 
By FRANCES POWELL 

Author of "The House on the Hudson" 

A story with a mystery, full of sentiment, incident and dramatic situa- 
tions. The attractive heroine, the quality of romance and of mystery in 
absolutely modern and up-to-date surroundings, make this one of the 
most striking of modern stories. $1.50 





The Sentimental 
Adventures of 
Jimmy Bulstrode 

By MARIE VAN VORST 

The attractive and likeable personality of 
Jimmy Bulstrode and his ingenious and 
unexpected adventures in love and life 
give this book a rare charm. - The 
humor, the sentiment, and the cheerful 
originality of the hero make him a unique 
figure in fiction. 

Illustrated, $1.50 



The Footprint 
And Other Stories 

By 
GOUVERNEUR MORRIS 

" He is familiar with the bizarre, 
the strange; his sense of humor 
is healthy and well-developed; 
the knack of suspense is his ; he 
knows how to tell a story." 

Boston Advertiser. — 

$1.50 



THE NUN By RENE BAZIN, of the French Academy 

The exquisite and profoundly powerful story of a young and beautiful nun driven from the convent into 

the world by the recent French law. 

"A book which no one who reads it will ever forget." — Westminster Gazette. 

"A master work of fiction." — London Daily Graphic. 

" It is difficult to speak in measured terms of this book. An exquisite story, it is beautifully translated." 

— Daily Telegraph, London. $1.00 



THE OLD ROOM 

By CARL EWALD 

Translated by A. Teixeira de Mattos 

"An amazing psychological study of mod- 
ern, fashionable life at Copenhagen." 

— London Vanity Fair. 

$1.25 



The Girl and The Game and 

other -College Stories 
By JESSE LYNCH WILLIAMS 

Author of " Princeton Stories " 

The fun, adventure, work and play that make up 
life at college, including "Eight Talks with a Kid 
Brother," full of wise and witty comment. 

Illustrated, $1.50 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SOIXS 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



SCRIBNER'S NEJV IMPORTATIONS 

ICE-BOUND HEIGHTS OF THE MUSTAGH 

An Account of Two Seasons of Pioneer Exploration and High Climbing in the Baltistan Hima- 
laya. By Fanny Bullock Workman and William Hunter Workman, M.A., M.D., authors of "Tbrougn 
Town and Jungle," "In the Ice-world of the Himalaya," "Sketches a-wheel in fin-de-siecle Iberia," etc. 
With 2 maps and 170 illustrations. 8vo, $5.00 net. 

THE COURT OF RUSSIA 

in the Nineteenth Century. By E. A. Brayley Hodgetts. With 20 illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo, $6.00 net. 

A vivid picture of the life and character of the Emperors of Russia, their wives and families, their surroundings, and the promi- 
nent figures of their reigns, from Alexander I to Nicholas I. 

WANDERINGS IN ARABIA 

By Charles M. Doughty. With a portrait and a map •. 2 vols. 8vo, $4.50 net 

:est travel books in literature." — The Spectator. "A monument of c 
a classic." — The Nation (London). 

A Great Political and Social English History, 181 7-1879 



' One of the greatest travel books in literature." — The Spectator. "A monument of observation, insight, patience, and sympathy. 
The book is indeed a classic." — The Nation (London). 



JOHN THADEUS DELANE, 1817-1879 

EDITOR OF THE LONDON "TIMES" 

His Life and Correspondence. Compiled from Hitherto Unpublished Letters. By his nephew, 
Arthur Irwin Dasent. With portraits. 2 vols. 8vo, $7.50 net. 

A most valuable and important work. These letters by the famous editor of the "Times" throw a most interesting and illumi- 
nating light on the great events and people of his day. 

THREE VOYAGES OF A NATURALIST 

Being an Account of Many Little-known Islands in Three Oceans Visited by the " Valhalla " R.Y.S. 
By M. J. Nicoll, M.B.O.V. With an introduction by the Rt. Hon. The Earl of Crawford, K.T., F.R.S. 

With 56 full-page illustrations of life a?td scenery. 8vo, $2.50 net. 

The author was Naturalist on the Earl of Crawford's magnificent yacht, "Valhalla," on three long voyages round the world, 
round Africa, and to the West Indies. Most of the islands explored were previously very little known and others had been rarely, if 
ever, landed upon. 

MARIE DE MEDICIS 

And the French Court in the XVIIth Century. Translated from the French of Louis Batiffol, by 
Mary King, and supervised by H. W. C. Davis. With an engraved portrait. 8vo, $2.00 net. 

THE ARCHITECTURE OF GREECE AND ROME 

A Sketch of its Historic Development. By William J. Anderson, A. R. I. B. A., and R. Phene Spiers, 
F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A, Second edition, revised and enlarged by R. Phene Spiers. With 255 illustrations. 
Large 8vo, $7.50 net. 

A new and revised edition of this excellent work which found a large demand in its first edition. 

THE CICERONE 

An Art Guide to Painting in Italy. For the use of Travellers and Students. Translated from the German of Dr. 
Jacob Burckhardt by Mrs. A. H. Clough. A new and illustrated impression with a preface by P. G. Konody. 
With id plates. i2mo, $1.50 net. 

A new edition of one of the most useful books on Italian Art ever published. The original edition has long been out of print, and 
this new edition should find a very wide welcome. It combines a useful guide to Italian Art with a Chronological History of that Art 

BRITISH SOCIALISM 

An Examination of its Doctrines, Policy, Aims and Practical Proposals. By J. Ellis Barker, author 
of " Modern Germany," " The Rise and Decline of the Netherlands," etc., 8vo, $3.00 net. 

MODERNISM 

A Record and Review. By A. Leslie Lilley, Vicar of St. Mary's, Paddington, 8vo. $1.75 net. 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, New York 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



Anttfruan Nation 



A tttatnrg 



An entirely new work, seven years in the making. 

The work of author-scholars from twenty universities. 

Edited by Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History, Harvard, 
With the co-operation of four state historical societies. 

The first American Historical Atlas — 186 special maps. 
The standard work — of value for all time. 



Harper CBL Brothers, for 91 years publishers of 
books, believe this is their greatest achievement. 



QDngtnal Btmntz 



tflf This is the only history dealing with 
J* every field of our national life. Our 
political, economic, religious, industrial, 
financial, and social life is set forth side 
by side and in their relation one with 
another. 

The careful selection of authors who 
could write brilliantly as well as with 
scholarship and insight has made it pos- 
sible to carry the story of America through 
twenty-seven volumes with the glow and 
spirit of romance. It is, above all — ■ 
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The volumes are of crown-octavo size, 
in two styles of binding: (i) Red polished 
buckram, stamped in gold, with dark-blue 
leather labels; (2) Persian half-morocco 
of a rich crimson, stamped in gold, with 
cloth sides and special end-papers. Gilt 
tops, untrimmed edges, head-bands, etc. 



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output of modern scholarship in American history." — N. Y. Sun. 

" ' T he American Nation ? adds another and perhaps the 
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whole or in part" — Springfield, Mass., Republican. ■/ New York city 

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The Spring' Spirit in Fiction 



THE BARRIER 



By Rex Beach. This big new Rex Beach novel is out at last, and 
early readers have discovered that it is even better than The Sfloi/ers. 
Will it be the unanimous verdict? It will. For THE BARRIER is 
big with the swing and dash and color which spell success. A tri- 
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THE JUDGMENT OF EVE 



By May Sinclair. The story of the woman who did not shirk. There 
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— but it is a tremendous plea, for race suicide. Illustrated, $1.25 



KING SPRUCE 



By Holman Day. A fresh page of modern romance — the story of 
a strong man's fight for love in the great woods of Maine. Through 
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less men the story takes its picturesque, dramatic course. The woods 
tyrant, the hermit fire-warden, the woods poet and the outcasts of 
the woods are characters that appear in these pages with arresting 
vividness. Illustrated, $1.50 



THE GOLDEN LADDER 



By Margaret Potter. Dedicated to "the wives of American busi- 
ness men." It is a pulsating modern drama of the gold hunger of 
the unscrupulously ambitious. However, it is not a sermon — it is a 
story, and a good one. $1.50 



PURPLE and HOMESPUN 



By Samuel N. Gardenhire. It unfolds the brilliant vistas of Wash- 
ington official life, down which the view is never tiring. A self-made 
man and Senator sighs for the heart of Victoria Wemyss, daughter 
of the British ambassador. The reader soon suspects that there is a 
serious bar and the mystery makes a big story. $1.50 



BERTRAND OF BRITTANY 



By Warwick Deeping. A dashing tale of knights, tourneys, chivalry, 
adventure, and heroism. The manhood of Bertrand and his unselfish 
love, the nobility of Tiphaine and her simple faith, soften a story 
that is wild adventure. $1-5° 



HARPER. (St BROTHERS, Publishers, NEW YORK 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



1 1 



New WorKs of Importance 



THE DUKE OF GANDIA 

By Algernon Charles Swinburne. The importance of a new dra- 
matic poem by Swinburne is virtually beyond estimate. The present 
poem is an Italian tragedy in two acts, framed about the persons of 
the Cesare Borgias. Crown 8-vo. Cloth . . . Net, $1.25 

HYPNOTIC THERAPEUTICS 

By Dr. John D. Quackenbos, A.M. Mental healing is one of the 
most vital problems to-day. Assistance, both careful and author- 
itative, will be found in this book. It is in direct line with the great 
movement for mental treatment and suggestion. Cloth. 8vo. 333 
pages. . . . . ... . . . Net, $2.00 

HANDBOOK OF THE TREES 

By Romeyn Beck Hough, B.A. For Northern States and Canada. 
Over 800 plates. A complete, authoritative, and beautiful guide — a 
new idea in the literature of nature. The book is photo-descriptive. 
Two pages are devoted to each tree, and in most cases four pictures : 
(1) The leaves, fruits, twigs, etc., on an ingenious scale, showing 
their exact size. (2) The tree-trunks showing average size, dimen- 
sions, bark, etc. (3) Cross-section, magnified, showing the wood 
structure. (4) Map indicating localities where the tree grows. 
Large 8vo. 470 pages. 
Price . . . Buckram, net, $8.00; Half Morocco, net, $10.00 

ASTRONOMY WITH THE NAKED EYE 

By Garrett P. Serviss. It enables the casual observer of the night 
skies to appreciate the scheme of the constellations and to enjoy 
the knowledge gained by his vision. Every fact and every principle 
have been made concrete and specific. With Charts in Color. Crown 
8vo. Cloth Net, $1.40 

MOTLEY'S DUTCH NATION 

By William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L.H.D. Being "The Rise of the 
Dutch Republic," by John Lothrop Motley, D.C.L., LL.D., con- 
densed, with Notes, Introduction, and Biographical Sketch and Com- 
plete Historical Narrative, including the reign of Queen Wilhel- 
mina, continued to A.D. 1908. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. . $1.75 

THE STANDARD OF USAGE IN ENGLISH 

By Professor Thomas R. Lounsbury. A spirited and practical 
book, denying that English is degenerating through corrupt usage. 
A spoken language not only does change, but should change. Gilt 
Top. Untrimmed Edges. Price .... Net, $1.50 



HARPER (SL BROTHERS, Publishers, NEW YORK 



12 



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CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 13 



JACK SPURLOCK— PRODIGAL 

(In Press) By GEORGE HORACE LORIMER 

The truth and shrewdness of Mr. Lorimer's keen satire have made 
his inimitably witty sayings current everywhere. This is his first 
novel, in which. Jack Spurlock, expelled from college, gets a job. 
Illustrated by Gruger. $1.50. 

THE ANCIENT LAW 

By ELLEN GLASGOW 

" In the total of a novelist's equipment, Miss Glasgow has few equals." 

— Hartford Courant. 
"Miss Glasgow's latest novel has both dignity and charm." — The Dial, 

Third Printing now ready. $1.50. 

THE ROMANCE OF THE REAPER By Herbert n.casson 

Author of "The Great Races of America," "The Romance of Steel," etc. 

This book makes clear for the first time, why Americans monopolize the harvester business of the 
world. It is a wonderful story of our most useful business^a medley of mechanics, millionaires, 
kings, inventors and farmers. 15 pages of photographs. $1.10 postpaid. 

COUNTRY RESIDENCES IN EUROPE 

AND AMERICA B y louis v. le moyne 

A most beautiful and valuable book, by an expert architect and landscape gardener, and the first 
volume to show the historical development of architecture. Complete ground plans, practically 
impossible to obtain elsewhere, are given of each of the forty-six places included ; in addition, 500 
superb photographs by the author. $8.25 postpaid. 

THE SHELL BOOK By julia ellen Rogers 

Author of "The Tree Book." 

This is the first popular book on shells, authoritative but with few technical terms. The culti- 
vation of oysters and other shell-fish is described; and instructions are given for making aquaria. 
8 plates in color and 473 black-and-white photographs. $4.40 postpaid. 

POCKET EDITION OF- "THE DAY'S 

WORK" AND "KIM" ByRUDYARD KIPLING 

A most luxurious and delightful edition, printed on thin but opaque paper and bound in rich im- 
ported red leather, which is a real pleasure to handle. Each $1.57 postpaid. 

PROSE EVERY CHILD SHOULD KNOW 

Edited by MARY E. BURT 

This book is particularly adapted to classes in oratory and to the closing exercises of schools. It 
is a young people's guide to good authors — from Homer and ^Esop to Lincoln, Ruskin, Cable, 
Stockton, Markham, and other modern writers. Uniform with ''Poems Every Child Should 
Know." Decorated. $1 .00 postpaid. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 
133 EAST 16th STREET NEW YORK CITY 

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT: 

"The Spanish Jade," a fascinating tale by Maurice Hewlett, will be published May 15th. 



14 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



THE LATEST BOOKS 




"my folks just gettin' over the measles 



The Breaking in of 

A Yachtman's Wife 

By MARY HEATON VORSE 

Any one who is fond of a boat, be it a knock- 
about, cat, or sloop, and any one who is fond of 
the sea and a good time, will thoroughly enjoy 
this fresh, breezy, and amusing yarn, which de- 
scribes the experiences of a clever woman afloat 
and ashore with her nautical husband. 

The scene ranges from the wooded harbors of 
the Maine coast and Cape Cod to the Mediter- 
ranean and the lagoons of Venice. {Ready 
May 9.) 

Illustrated by Reginald Birch. $1.50. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE H. PALMER'S 

Life of Aliee Freeman Palmer 

A remarkable record of the life ol a remarkable woman. Mrs. Palmer was President of Wellesley College, 
and one of the leading educators of the country. This brilliant study of her life by Professor Palmer, her 

husband, will have, even for the reader who never knew Mrs. Palmer, all the 
interest of a novel. Illustrated. $x.$onet. Postage extra. 

Aliee Brown's Rose MacLeod 

In purecomedv and compelling pathos, in sheer narrative interest, Miss Brown 
has done nothing better. The book is full of real living people and abounds 
in many complications which never fail to hold the reader's attention. The plot 
is handled in a masterly manner and the solution is one with which the reader 
will have no quarrel. With frontispiece in tint by W. W. Churchill. $1.50. 

"It has been given to few authors to present so 
much ripe wisdom in a form which keeps one 
chuckling over every line." 

— Margaret Shericood, author of "Daphne.' 

Priest and Pagan 

By HERBERT M. HOPKINS 

"The priest is a real man; the pagan is a 

scholar and a gentleman who commands 

the sympathy of the reader even when he is 
most at fault, the heroine is a really charming creation, and the action has a 
setting that appeals at once to the imagination." — Hartford Times. 

With frontispiece by Martin Justice. $1.50. 

Arlo Bates 9 The Intoxicated Ghost 

An unusual collection of engrossing short stories, each having some striking 
psychological idea or haunting situation at the root of its plot. Mr. Bates 
knows how to write a readable tale, and he knows, too, how to leave the 
reader something to think about. $1.50. From "Priest and Pagan' 

John Corfain's Which College for the Boy? 

A lively and interesting description of several typical American colleges, told for the benefit of the present or 
prospective undergraduate, and likely to be of help to inquiring parents. It is a volume novel in conception, 
and should find an eager audience. Fully illustrated. $1.50;/^. Postage extra. 




From "Rose MacLeod" 




Home from Sea By George S. Wasson 

Salt-water yarns of the Maine coast. Illustrated. $1.50. 

The Bird Our Brother By Olive Thorn e Miller 

An intimate study of the ways and manners of birds. $1.25 net. 
Postage extra 



Lands of Summer By T. K. Sullivan 

Stories of travel through Italy, Sicily, and Greece. Illustrated. $1.50 
net. Postage extra. 

T,eaf and Tendril By John Burroughs 

Sympathetic observations of nature. With portrait. $1.10 net. 
Postage ri cents. 



boston HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & COMPANY new york 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — BOOKS 



*5 




Another stirring Bindloss 
book, with all the drive of 
action and zest of life of 
this author's work. 



It contains a romance of 
fresh charm and characters of 
unusual interest. The unself- 
ish comradeship of two men, 
who get the gold fever, and 
suffer hardship and despair to- 
gether, and the consequences 
of their finding themselves in 
love with the same woman, 
are told with keen insight into 
character. 



The reader will be puz- 
zled to foresee the end of 
the story, which has many 
unexpected turns. 

Cloth, 1 2tno, $1.50 postpaid. 



Sixteen volumes of 
Masterpieces in Color 

have been issued. Each con- 
tains 8 reproductions accurate 
in color and an appreciation. 

The latest issued are 

TITIAN, HOLMAN HUNT, 
MILLAIS, and LUINI. 
Each volume 65c, net; post- 
paid, 73c. 

Send for circular of these and 
other art books. 



LA Klondike Novel 



II. A Romance of a 
Vanishing Race 



III. A Novel of Society 





I YESTERDAY I 



MARY HOLLAND KINKAID 



W 



r-n=^r-n=iir-n=dir- 



m 



"A remarkable story, picturesque, 
tender, impressive throughout." — 
Chicago Record- Herald. 



A novel of civilized Indian 
lifeintheterritoryjust before 
it was incorporated in the 
new state of Oklahoma. An 
astonishing picture of con- 
ditions not usually known, 
graphically showing the situation brought 
about by the fraudulent division of tribal 
lands. A love story that is profoundly 
moving and full of poetic beauty. 



A novel dealing with people 
who are not in the " smart 
set," but who act out a sim- 
ilar program — with week- 
end parties, motor trips 
abroad, and all the costly 
pleasures. Though pub- 
lished anonymously, it is by 
an author who knows this life 
and whose books have sold 
many large editions. 



Patricia, the heroine of the 
story, is a captivating young 
person, innocent, shrewd, 
naive, daring, and altogether 
piquante. The unfolding of the 
strength and sweetness of her 
character amid insidious influ- 
ences is the theme of the story, 
which is exceedingly clever, 
wholesome, and of strong 
emotional interest. 

Illustrated in color by Armand Both . 
Cloth, i2mo, $1. jo postpaid. 



"A book of unusual dignity and power." 

— Chicago Tribune. 

Illustrated in color by Volney A. Richardson. 
Cloth, i2mo, $I.jO postpaid. 



FREDERICK A. 

PUBLISHERS 



STOKES 



COMPANY 
NEW YORK 










i6 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 



Everyone Enjoys Pictures 



4,000 of 
them in 



Burton Holmes Travelogues 

TiyHEN YOU SEE THE WORK YOU WILL ENTHUSIASTICALLY DECLARE that 
" * it is, without question, the most intelligently, lavishly and beautifully illustrated publication 
ever offered to the public. It contains: 

Over 1,000 views of natural scenery alone — the splendid mountains, gorges, canyons, cataracts, rivers, etc., of 
the world 5 

Over 1,000 views of the art and architecture of the world, the famous historical and modern buildings, the great 
engineering triumphs, the very best sculpture and painting ; 

Over 200 intimate picture studies of the most eminent men and women of the world, rulers, patriots, authors, etc.: 

Over 200 realistic views of the great streets of the world j 

Over 300 views of animal and vegetable life, and over 800 views of the people, their manners, customs and costumes. 

In fact, on every page of the ten volumes are lifelike pictures, with but few exceptions from photographs taken 
by Mr. Holmes himself, that really comprise a complete tour of the world. 

10 Royal 
Octavo Vols. 

4,000 
Illustrations 



3,500 pages 

of Descriptive 

Text 

30 Full-page 

Pictures in 

Colors 

Four Styles 
of Binding 

Easy 
Payments 




Mongolians Viewing Motion Pictures 



MANY OF THE MOST INTERESTING COUNTRIES AND PEOPLE OF THE WORLD are pre- 
sented by the author with a truth and vividness only equalled by the image formed in the mind 
through actual observation, and a vast deal is recorded that is quite outside the ordinary routes of travel and 
experience. 

While most enchanting to those who have never visited distant lands, these lectures are doubly 
interesting to those who have once witnessed the scenes and have forever left them behind. yS^ ^f May. '08 



One may again and again examine the thousands of superb illustrations, revivifying the mem- v/^O* 
ories of the past and enjoying over again the places of original travel and discovery. v^v^* 



TT TE have prepared a handsome booklet describing the work 
]/]/ and containing specimen illustrations that may be had s- ^ 
" ' for the asking. In it is a sample of the, thirty full > / v\Cv 
pages in colors. Payments may be arranged on the con- S^. < 
venient monthly payment plan. Send the coupon TO-DA Y. Srf<^ 



McClure's 

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New York City 



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44-60 East 23d Street 
NEW YORK CITY 



Dear Sirs: Please pre- 
sent without expense to 
me specimen pages, color 
S-S plate and full description of the 
Burton Holmes Travelogues. 



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CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



i7 



1908 

DODD, 



FROM SPRING LIST OF 



1908 



MEAD & COMPANY 



FICTION 



THE HUSBANDS OF EDITH 

By George Barr McCutcheon 

Author of "GEAUSTAKK," "THE DAY OF THE HOG," etc. 

Illustrations in color by Harrison Fisher. 

i2mo, cloth, $1.25. 

A clever story in Mr. McCutcheon's entertaining style. 



THE MOTHER OF THE MAN 

By Eden Phillpotts 

Author of "CHILDREN OF THE MIST." 

I2D10, Cloth, $1.50. 

A Dartmoor Romance. 




THE DISSOLVING CIRCLE 

By Will Lillibridge 

Author of "Ben Blair," "Where the Trail Divides, 
etc. 
Illustrations in color by The Kinneys. 
i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



ON THE KNEES OF THE 
GODS 

By Anna Bowman Dodd 

Author of "Cathedral Days," "Three Normandy 
Inns." i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



MERYL 

By William Tillinghast 
Eldridge 

Author of "Hilma." 

Full page illustrations by 

John Rae. 

i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



THE FAIR MOON OF 
BATH 

By Elizabeth Ellis 

Author of "Barbara Winslow, Rebel." 

Illustrated in colors by John Rae. 

i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



THE VIGIL 

By Harold Begbie 

Author of "The Penalty," . 
etc. i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 

"The very best of its kind in 
the language." 



MY LADY OF CLEEVE 

By Percy J. Hartley 

Fully illustrated. 
Cover in colors by Harrison Fisher. 

I2H10, cloth, $1.50. 



LORD OF THE WORLD 

By Robert Hugh Benson 

Author of " The Light Invisible," "A Mirror 
of Shalott," etc. 
i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



THE MAN WHO WAS THURSDAY 

By Gilbert K, Chesterton 

Author of "Varied Types," "Heretics," etc. i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 



EXTOR MANOR 

By Archibald Marshall 

Author of "Richard Baldock," "The House of Merrilees," etc. i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 

MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS 



A GUIDE TO THE WEST INDIES. By Frederick A. Ober,) q fl ., ,. , .. . * „„ 

author of " Our West Indian Neighbors," etc. Profusely illustrated, l*% g«g£ £* ; ; ; <^ /fl/ Jg *»;»* 

and with many colored maps. J ' ' r ' /J 

TUSCAN FEASTS AND TUSCAN FRIENDS. By Dorothy Nevile Lees. Illus., i2mo, cloth, . net, 1.75 
PASSAGES FROM THE PAST. By His Grace, The Duke of Argyll, author, of "Life of Queen Victoria," 

etc., etc. Copiously illustrated, large 8vo, cloth. Two volumes, net, 6.50 

LETTERS FROM PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY TO ELIZABETH HITCHENER. Now first pub- 
lished. With introduction and notes by Bertram Dobell. Large paper edition, i2mo, cloth, .... ne-t, 1.50 



DODD, MEAD & COMPANY, Publishers, 



372 Fifth Avenue 

New York 



May 1908 



l8 CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BUSINESS HELPERS 



r 



Economic Prizes 



■FIFTH YEAR- 



In order to arouse an interest in the study of topics relating to commerce and industry, 
and to stimulate those who have a college training to consider the problems of a 
business career, a committee composed of 

Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, University of Chicago, chairman; 
Professor J. B. Clark, Columbia University; 
Professor Henry C. Adams, University of Michigan; 
Horace White, Esq., New York City, and 
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Clark College, 

have been enabled, through the generosity of Messrs. Hart Schaffner & Marx, of Chicago, 
to offer in 1909 prizes under two general heads. Attention is expressly called to a new 
rule that a competitor is not confined to subjects mentioned in this announcement; 
but any other subject chosen must first be approved by the Committee. 

I. Under the first head are suggested herewith a few subjects intended 
primarily for those who have had an academic training; but the posses- 
sion of a degree is not required of any contestant, nor is any age limit set. 

1. German ajid American methods of regulating trusts. 

2. The logic of "Progress and Poverty." 

3. What are the ultimate ends of trade-unions and can these be gained by any appli- 

cation of the principles of monopoly? 

4. In view of the existing railway progress, should the United States encourage the 

construction of waterways? 

5. Is it to be expected that the present and recent production of gold will cause a 

higher level of prices? 
Under this head, Class A includes any American without restriction; and Class B 
includes only those, who, at the time the papers are sent in, are undergraduates of any 
American college. Any member of Class B may compete for the prizes of Class A, 

A First Prize of Six Hundred Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Four Hundred Dollars 

are offered for the best studies presented by Class A, and 

A First Prize of Three Hundred Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Two Hundred Dollars 

are offered for the best studies presented by Class B. The committee reserves to itself 
the right to award the two prizes of $600 and $400 of Class A to undergraduates in Class 
B, if the merits of the papers demand it. 

II. Under the second head are suggested some subjects intended for 
those who may not have had academic training, and who form Class C: 

1. The best scheme for uniform corporation accounts. 

2. Desirable methods of improving our trade with China. 

3. The proper spheres of the trust company and the commercial bank. 

4. The relations of oriental immigration to American industries. 

5. The relative efficiency of American and European labor in manufacturing 

industries. 

One Prize of Five Hundred Dollars 

is offered for the best study presented by Class C; but any member of Class C may com- 
pete in Class A. 

The ownership of the copyright of successful studies will vest in the donors, and it is expected that, 
without precluding the use of these papers as theses for higher degrees, they will cause them to be issued 
in some permanent form. 

Competitors are advised that the studies should be thorough, expressed in good English, and although 
not limited as to length, they should not be needlessly expanded. They should be inscribed with an 
assumed name, the class in which they are presented, and accompanied by a sealed envelope giving the real 
name and address of the competitor, If the competitor is in Class B, the sealed envelope should contain 
the name of the institution in which he is studying. The papers should be sent on before June 1, 1909, to 

J. Laurence Laughlin, Esq. 

The University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



*9 



By Ellis Parker Butler 



Author of "Pigs Is Pigs," 
" The Confessions of a Daddy. 



55 



THE CHEERFUL 
SMUGGLERS 




&M 



THE BABY 




" I DECLARE ONE COLLAR 

The arrival of a guest in " The Cheerful Smugglers " 



Everybody knows the " Pigs Is Pigs " man. He is cleverer and 
funnier than ever in " The Cheerful Smugglers." The Fenelbys 
start out most innocently to raise funds for their nine-months-old 
son's education by taxing every necessity and luxury that comes 
into the house — even the cook's new bonnet. The working out of 
the scheme proves decidedly ludicrous; and when the household's 
guests are asked to share in the delightful plan the fun gets up- 
roarious. First one and then another smuggles, then everybody 
smuggles — except the baby — till the house of Fenelby comes near 
dissolution. It 's all told as only Ellis Parker Butler can tell such 
things — 277 pages of fun. $1.00. 

Eight illustrations by May Wilson Preston. 
THE CENTURY CO. Union Square NEW YORK 



20 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 




" Elizabeth Robins 

has written nothing stronger or more * 
appealing than 

OME AND 
FIND ME 



" In it she shows a deftness of touch that is rare indeed among con- 
temporary novelists, and a positive genius for characterization. ' 

" GOME AND FIND ME 

is the best novel of the North that has yet appeared, and one that 
will command the interest of both the seeker for amusement and the 
thoughtful student of the literary best. ' ' 

But the book is much more than a mere story of courage, of steadfast 
love, and of a great compelling devotion to the cause of Arctic discovery. 
It is full of a genuine philosophy of life that shows one may bring the 
romance of the days of the Troubadours or of Arthur's knights into daily 
prosaic life, if one has only the heart and the imagination." 

— San Francisco Chronicle. 

Illustrations by Blumenschein. $1.50. 



A FOUNTAIN SEALED 



66 It is a true 
comedy of 
the soul, and 
one of the 
most brilliant 
I have ever 
read." 

— London A cademy. 



By Anne Douglas Sedgwick 

Says Philadelphia Book News : A Fountain 

Sealed' is a strong, noble work of fiction. It 
has a place in literature as a study in present- 
day life, and a study that gives truth. It 
teaches a lesson — in an unobtrusive but effect- 
ive way. It is art — art of the kind that we 
do not meet with save at long intervals in con- 
temporary fiction. It is a book to reassure us 
as to the possibilities for genius existing among 
us, and, reading it, we must concede that the 
art of the novel is growing rather than 
diminishing." $1.50 



" It holds 
the attention 
with a power 
equal to that 
of a story of 
breathless 
adventure. ' ' 

— New York Tribune. 



THE CENTURY GO. 



UNION SQUARE 



NEW YORK 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



21 



A&. 



"There is a beautiful girl 
in this town who has lately 
contracted an agreeable 
habit of making a trium- 
phal tour up the crowded 
Avenue past my window. 
She is rather tall, with a 
great amount of brownish 
hair, and wondrous eyes, 
which you might call 
starry, if that admits of a 
twinkle in them." 

"At the very least a 
duchess." 




"She coolly sweeps past 
with that light strong 
stride of hers, as though it 
were the greatest fun to 
walk — and I suppose it 
must be when you do it 
that way — thinking the 
loveliest thoughts (which 
have nothing to do with 
me) and yet taking such a 
charming interest, a gently 
humorous— I almost said a 
genial — interest in every 
one (except those in club 
windows), though looking 
all the while at something 
a million miles beyond the 
Avenue and me." 



MY LOST 
DUCHESS 

BY JESSE LYNCH WILLIAMS 

Author of " The Adventures of a Freshman, " "The Stolen Story," etc. 

A romance of Fifth Avenue, and not since the advent of dear Van Bibber has 
anything so charmingly idyllic sprung out of old New York. Nick in his 
club window sees the Duchess" with all her serene beauty march past him 
up the Avenue, and Nick loses his heart. Who she is and how he finds her 
makes up a most romantic and swift-moving love story*. It is as vivid a pic- 
ture of the Fifth Avenue phase of New York life as "The Stolen Story,'* 
by the same author, is of the newspaper world. An ideal springtime story. 

Six insets in tint and lunette on cover by Wallace Morgan. $1.50 



THE CENTURY CO. 



UNION SQUARE 



NEW YORK 



May 1908 



22 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



New- York, Scarsdale. 




HEATHCOTE HALL 

The Misses Lockwood's Collegiate School for Girls 

Beautifully located among the hills of West Chester County, 40 
minutes from Grand Central Station. Certificate admits to leading 
colleges. General course of study. Offering fullest opportunities 
in literature, languages, art and music. Outdoor sports. Catalogue 
on request. 

New- York, Briarcliff Manor. 

Miss Knox's School for Girls 

The next school year will open on Thursday the 8th oj October. 
Terms $1,000 per year. Address 

Miss Mary Alice Knox. 



New-York, Long Island, Garden City. 
a school for 



18 miles 



O 4- TV/T «„)„ CJ y-vl-. y-vy-vl A slhuul (UK GIRLS, 10 limes 

bt. Mary S oCUOOl f rom New York. Number limited; 
healthful location ; spacious buildings; college prep. work. Excel- 
lent advantages in music and modern languages. References 

required. Address Miss Annie S. Gibson, Principal. 

New-York, Garden City, Long Island. Endowed church 
fatliorlr'cil Qr»>ir»r>l OF ST. PAUL, school for boys, 
LxaiJj.eQrd.1 OCIIOOI offering thorough preparation for 
college. 18 miles from N. Y. City. Superior athletic facilities — 
gymnasium, swimming pool, baseball and football fields, cinder 
track. For cata. address Walter Randall Marsh, Head Master. 

New- York, Peekskill-on-the- Hudson. 

PEEKSKILL ACADEMY 

IT 76th Year begins Sept. 22. Over 3000 Former Students. 
f[ College Preparatory. Cottages and Dormitories. 

f[ Enrollment Upper School (Ages 15-19) 117 

(1908) Lower School (Ages n-14) 40 

If Military System Refined. Government Report "Class A." 
ff Athletics for all, with unsurpassed facilities. Country life. 
For catalogue address The Secretary. 

John Calvin Bucher, A.M. 1 Principals. 

Charles Alexander Robinson, Ph.D. ) 

New- York, Pelham Manor. (Half hour from New York.) 

FOR 

Mrs. Hazen's Suburban School girls 

Mrs. John Cunningham Hazen, Principal. 

Miss M. L. McKay, ) a • . r> • • 1 

Miss S. L. Tracy, j Associate Principals. 

New-York, Rye. 

RYE SEMINARY 

For particulars, address 

Mrs. S. J. Life, The Misses Stowe. 



New-York, Tarry town-on- Hudson, 



The Castle. 

Miss C. E. 

Mason's 

Suburban 

School 

for Girls 

and Young 

Women 



Crowns one of the most beautiful heights of the Hudson. 30 mile 
view of the river. An ideal union of home and school life. 
Thorough methods. Advantage of close proximity to the acad- 
emies of art and science of New York, yet environed by the most 
beautiful surroundings and beneficial influences. College prepar- 
atory, graduating, and special courses; all departments. For 
illustrated circular, address 

Miss C. E. Mason, LL.M., Lock Box 701. 




New- York, New- York, 607 Fifth Ave., bet. 48th and 49th Sts. 

GARDNER SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 

Mrs. Charles Huntington Gardner, Principal. 
Miss Louise Eltinge, ) . • t -n • • 1 

Miss M. Elizabeth Masland, A.B., f Associate Principals. 

New-York, New-York, 338 Lexington Avenue. 

MiSS LOUise F. WiCkham will reopen her home 
Oct. 7th. Girls received who wish to study Art, Music, Lan- 
guages, etc. Sixteenth year. 

New York, New York, 30, 32 and 34 East 57th Street. 

The Merrill-van Laer School 

Boarding and Day School for Girls. Formerly The Peebles and 
Thompson School. Opens October 7th. 

New-York, New-York, 30-West 55th Street. 

Miss Spence's Boarding and Day 

School for Girls. Number in each class limited to eight pupils. 
Removed from 6 West 48th Street to new fireproof building, 
30 West 55th Street. Residence 26 West 55th Street. 

New- York, New- York. 

AMERICAN ACADEMY 
OF DRAMATIC ARTS 

Founded in 1884. 

The oldest and most fully organized 
Dramatic School in the United States 
affording the thorough training es- 
sential for a successful stage career. 

Connected with Mr. Charles Frohman's 
Empire Theatre and Companies 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
FRANKLIN H. SARGENT, President 
DANIEL FROHMAN JOHN DREW 

BRONSON HOWARD BENJAMIN F. ROEDER 

FOR INFORMATION APPLy TO 

THE SECRETARY, Carnegie Hall, New York, N. Y. 
New- York, New-York, 15 West 86th Street. 

The Semple Boarding and Day School 

for Girls Special Music, Language-s, Art, Foreign 
Travel. Social Recreation. Formerly 
Leslie Morgan School building. Mrs. Darrington Semple. 

New-York, New-York, 2042 Fifth Avenue. 

Mrs. Helen M. Scoville's ScH (3SsS 

Music, Art, Languages. Home care and social life. Special and reg- 
ular studies. Outdoor exercise. Annex in Paris. Open all year. 
Summer Travel Party, sailing June 6, 1908. 
New-York, New-York, 61-63 East 77th Street. 

THE FINCH SCHOOL 1^™*™^ 

A School with a College Atmosphere. 

New fireproof building. 

Mrs. James Wells Finch, A.B., LL.B., Principal. 

New- York, New-York. 

MISS BANGS AND MISS WHITON 
Residential and Day School for Girls 

Certificate Admits to Colleges. 

Upper House for Graduates and Advanced Students. 
Unexcelled Music Department. 
Summer Camp in New Hampshire. 

733-735 Madison Avenue, one block from Central Park. 
New- York, Binghamton. 

THE LADY JANE GREY SCHOOL 

For girls. Mrs. Jane Grey Hyde, ^ 
Twenty-sixth year. Miss Mary R. Hyde, > Principals. 
Miss Jan e Brewster Hyde, ) 

New- York, Poughkeepsie, Box 702. 

Riverview Academy 

Consecutive management for seventy-three years. School opens 
September 23d. For catalogue, address Joseph B. Bisbee, A.M. 

New-York, Poughkeepsie. 
t-\ j. tt- -n o~"u~~i Boarding school for girls. 

Putnam Hall SchOOl College Preparatory De- 
partments and General Course. Certificates admit to leading 
colleges. For catalogue, address Box 802. 

Ellen Clizbe Bartlett, Principal 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



23 



New- York, Fort Edward, Lock Box 101. 



FOR 



Fort Edward Collegiate Institute girls 

54th year. $400. On the Hudson. Location eminently health- 
ful and attractive, Endowment warrants highest efficiency, with 
reasonable rates. College preparatory. High School graduate and 
five other courses. Superior advantages in Music, Art, Elocution, 
and Domestic Science. Out-of-door sports. Physical and Social 
Culture. Character-making. Illustrated catalogue free. 

Jos. E. King, D.D., President. 

New- York, Saint John's, Manlius. 

SAINT JOHN'S 
SUMMER CAVALRY SCHOOL 

A school of recreation. 

Complete equipment for sports and pleasures'of a boy's summer 
vacation. 

Tutoring if desired. 

Constant supervision. Apply to William Verbeck. 

New-Jersey, Summit (Suburban to New York). 

KENT PLACE SCHOOL for Girls 

Mrs. Sarah Woodman Paul, Principal. 
Hamilton Wright Mabie, LL.D., Presd't Board of Directors. 

New Jersey, Bordentown-on-the-Delaware. 
RnrrlPntnwn MILITARY INSTITUTE. Ourfirstaim 
DOrQcIllOWIl i s to make strong, manly, successful men — 
physically, mentally, morally. College and business preparation. 
Illustrated book and school paper. Rev. T. H. Landon, A.M., 
D.D., Prin. Lieut.-Col. T. D. Landon, Comm'd't. 

New Jersey, Hackettstown. 

Centenary Collegiate Institute 

A high-grade college preparatory school. Located in the hill- 
section of New Jersey. Buildings new and fine. The rates are 
very moderate. For catalogue, address E. A. Noble, President. 

New Jersey, Freehold. 42 miles from New York. 
AT/^-r-rr TnncnTr MILITARY Academic Department. Prep- 
IVeVV UerSey ACADEMY, aration for college or business. 

H Preparatory Depart- 
ment in separate 
building for quite 
young boys. Modern 
improvements in all 
departments. New 
athletic field. Illus. 
catalogue. Col. C. 
J. Wright, Prin. 

New Jersey, Orange, Berkeley Avenue. 

Miss Beard's Boarding and Day School 

IOr GirlS College Preparatory, Post-graduate and special 
courses. Suburban to New York. 

New Jersey, Lakewood. 

The Knox School for Girls 

Miss Mary F. Knox, A.B., Principal. 
New Jersey, Montclair, 24 Walden Place. 

Montclair Academy E^Hgy.. 

tion. Gymnasium and Swimming Pool. "Your Boy and Our 
School" is a little book which will interest parents, no matter 

where their sons are educated. John G. M acVicar, A.M. 

New Jersey, Plainfield. (45 minutes from New York.) 

The Hartridge School 

A Boarding School for Girls and Day School. 
College Preparatory and General Courses. Gymnasium and 
o utdoor sports. Miss Emelyn B. Hartrid ge, A.B., Principal. 
Maryland, Baltimore, 122 and 124 W. Franklin Street. 

Edgeworth Boarding and Day School 

For GirlS The 46th year begins Thursday, Oct. i, 1908 
Mrs. H. P. LEFEBVRE ^ 




same head- 



Miss E. D 



\ LEFEBVRE ) t> • • 1 
. HUNTLEY J Principals 



Delaware, Wilmington. 

The Misses Hebb's School for Girls 

General and College Preparatory Courses. Resident and day 
pupils. 

Illinois, Lake Forest. Fortieth Year. 
F*PrrV Trail * r ° R Young Women. College preparatory 
rcu J XXo.ll an d Junior college. Certificate admits to 
Smith, Vassar, Wellesley, etc. Art, music, domestic science, 
physical training. Beautiful location, home care. For catalogue 
and book of views address Miss*Frances L. Hughes, Box 306. 



New-York, Troy. 




EMMA WILLARD SCHOOL ™rls. 

(Formerly Troy Female Seminary.) Certificate admits to Welles- 
ley, Vassar, Smith, Wells Colleges, and Cornell University. Gen- 
eral and Special Courses. Music and Art Schools. Fireproof build- 
ings. Basket-ball, hockey and other out-of-door games. For circu- 
lars, address Miss Anna Leach, A.M., Principal. 

New- York, Cornwall-on-Hudson. 

NewYork Military Academy ^l^flol 

Prepares for the great Engineering School and for business life. 
Beautifully located in the Hudson River Highlands, near West 
Point. For catalogue apply to Sebastian C. Jones, C.E., Sup't. 

New- York, Dobbs Ferry-on-Hudson. 

THE MACKENZIE SCHOOL 

Fall term, September 23d. 
Early application for admission advisable. 
New-York, Aurora-on-Cayuga. 

The Wells School for Girls 

On the east shore of Cayuga Lake. Thorough training for the 
leading women's colleges. Strong General Course of. Study. Foril- 
lustrated catalogue, address Miss Anna R. Goldsmith, A. B., Prin. 

New- York, Mohegan, Westchester Co. 

MOHEGAN LAKE SCHOOL ggrg} 

A true interest in every boy; close attention to his needs and to 
development of character. Students carefully selected. Classical, 
Scientific and English Courses. Prepares for college or business. 
Located on shores of beautiful Mohegan Lake, 500 feet above 
Hudson River level. Athletics and all land and water sports 
under competent supervision. New hall for senior students. 
Refined home life. For illustrated catalogue, address Box 72. 

A. E. Linder, A.M., Chas. H. Smith, A.M., Principals. 

New-York, Ossining-on-Hudson, Box 501. 

Mount Pleasant Academy 

Just now the most talked of school in the East. Our Booklet tells 
the story. This, with our artistic year book, on application to the 
Principal. Also Mount Pleasant Hall for Young Boys. 

New-York, Ossining-on-Hudson. 

OSSINING SCHOOL for Girls 

41st year. Miss Clara C. Fuller, Principal. 

New-York, Ossining. A famous prepara- 

The Dr. Holbrook School KbSSr 

Located on Briar Cliff, 500 feet above sea level. Athletics. Gym- 
nasium. Satisfactory references as to character necessary for en- 
rollment. For catalog, address The Dr. Holbrook School. 

New- York, Dutchess County, Millbrook. 




The Bennett School for Girls 
HALCYON HALL 

CATALOGUE AND PORTFOLIO OF VIEWS 



2 4 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



y£f. r 



The place for your boy to 
spend his summer vacation 
this year is tne Camp for 
Boys at Blees, where he 
can enjoy eleven weeks 
of active, healthful, out-of- 
door life with proper asso- 
ciates, under careful super- 
vision, free from the bad in- 
fluences of large watering 
places. Boating, swimming, 
baseball, tennis, golf, horse- 
back riding — every sport 
and pleasure dear to wide- 
awake, fun-loving boys will 
be enjoyed ; and the boys 
will return to their studies 
refreshed in mind and body. 
An opportunity to make up 
studies will be afforded to 
boys who desire it. 

Parents or guardians are 
especially invited to join 
the boys and the best ac- 
commodations will be pro- 
vided for them at very mod- 
erate rates. 

Send for beautifully illus- 
trated book which explains 
the plan and purpose of 
,the Camp, and gives full 
'detailed information. 

BLEES MILITARY ACADEMY 
MACON, MO. 






Ohio, Cincinnati, Avondale, Lenox Place. 
TVna T-T TV»o-r»ck TV/Mll^v» School for Girls. Limitedin 
inen " inane lVlllier numbers. College prepara- 
tory and advanced courses. Special advantages in Languages, Lit- 
erature, History, Music and Art. Preparation for foreign travel. Ad- 
dress Mrs. E. Park Smith Miller, or Miss E. Louise Parry, A. M. 

Ohio, Cincinnati, 211 West Seventh St. Offers unrivaled 

Ohio Conservatory of Music SS'Sjrf m" 

sic, Dramatic Art, Painting. Faculty of specialists. Delightful home 
life. Students may enter at any time. Summer term. Fifty scholar- 
ships. For catalogue, address Mrs. E. C. GRANiNGER.Directress. 

Georgia, Decatur (6 miles from Atlanta). 

AGNES SCOTT COLLEGE 
For Women 

Offers advantages equal to any educational institution in the 
South. Elegant buildings. Full college equipment. Music and 
Art. Ideal climate. Health record unsurpassed. For Catalog K, 

F. H. Gaines, D.D., Pres. 

Massachusetts, Waban, Box 14 C- 
"Wa"hun Q/*"hr*nl For Boys, 12 to 18. A good time and 
YV auail OCIlUOl i ots to do; a man ly life and splendid 
physical development will bring any boy success when he gets out 
of school. That 's what gives Waban so wide a name. Our Camp 
helps mightily to it also. J. H. Pillsbury, A.M., Principal. 

Massachusetts, Auburndale. 

LASELL SEMINARY Briefly, the school aim is 
to cultivate the intellect, develop a sound body and to fit the stu- 
dent for the womanly duties of life. For particulars address 
C. C. Bragdon, Principal. 

Massachusetts, Bradford. 

BRADFORD ACADEMY, For Young Women 

One Hundred and Fifth Year. 
Thirty miles from Boston. Twenty-five acres of grounds. Cer- 
tificate admits to Wellesley, Smith, Vassar and other colleges. 
General course of four years and two years' course for High 
School graduates. For catalogue and book of views, address the 
Principal. Mlss Laura A. Knott, A.M. 



Massachusetts, Norton. 

Wheaton Seminary for Young Women 

Rev. Samuel V. Cole, A.M., D.D., President. 
74th year begins Sept. ibth, igo8. Endowed. Certificates to 
college. Advanced courses for high-school graduates and others. 
Art and music. Native French and German. New dining hall 
and dormitories. Modern gymnasium, with resident instructor; 
tennis, basket-ball, field-hockey, etc. Steam and electricity. 
Healthful location, within 30 miles of Boston. For catalogue and 

views, address Wheaton Seminary, Norto n, Mass. 

Massachusetts, Natick. 

Walnut Hill School 

A college preparatory school for girls. Seventeen miles from 
Boston. Miss CON ANT, Miss BIGELOW or the Secretary will 
be at the school on Wednesdays of Ju ly and August. 

Massachusetts, Pittsfield. 

IN THE BERKSHIRE HILLS 

Miss Hall's School for Girls 

Miss Mira H. Hall, Principal. 
Massachusetts, Duxbury. 

Powder Point School for boys, 

Prepares for Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, or 
Business. Individual teaching. Home life. Elementary Classes 
for Young Boys. Laboratories. F. B. Knapp, S.B. 

Massachusetts, Newton. 

MOUNT IDA SCHOOL 

FOR GIRLS 

D miles from Boston. 4 connected buildings. General courses 
(diploma). Advanced courses in English, History, Latin, French, 
German, Spanish, Italian, Music. Certificate Without 
examination to Vassar, Wellesley, Smith, Mt. Holyoke. 
Piano, Voice count for diploma. Address 94 Summit Street. 

Massachusetts, Boston, 324 Commonwealth Avenue. 

The Commonwealth Avenue fo s r ci girls 

(The Misses Gilman's School) 
General and College Preparatory Courses. Resident and day 
pupils. Miss Gilman, Miss Guild, Principals. 

Massachusetts, University Section of Worcester. 

Miss Kimball's School for Girls 

22nd year. College Preparatory and General Courses. 
Scholarships. Gymnasium, field sports, etc. Permanent home 
if needed. Illustrated booklet. 

Massachusetts, Franklin. 

DEAN ACADEMY 

Young men and young women find here a homelike atmosphere, 
thorough and efficient training in every department of a broad 
culture, a loyal and helpful school spirit. Liberal endowment 
permits liberal terms. $250 per year. 
For catalogue and information address, 

Arthur W. Peirce, Litt.D., Principal. 

Massachusetts, Springfield, 170 Central Street. 

THE MACDUFFIE SCHOOL 

A school for the careful education of girls and young women. 
t> . . , (JOHN MACDUFFIE, Ph.D. 
Principals J MRS j QHN MACDUFFIE, A.B. 

Massachusetts, Springfield. 
"The Elms." Home, Day, and Music School for Girls 
English, Music, Special, and College Preparatory courses. Certifi- 
cate admits to Vassar, Smith, Mt. Holyoke, and Wellesley. 
Miss Charlotte W. Porter, Principal. 

Massachusetts, Lowell. 

ROGERS HALL SCHOOL 
For Girls 

Faces Rogers Fort Hill Park. Beautiful 
grounds devoted to outdoor sports. Golf, tennis, 
basket ball, field hockey, horseback riding. 

Thorough preparation for Bryn Mawr and 
Radcliffe examinations. Certificate admits to 

Smith, Vassar, Wellesley, Wells and Mt. 

Holyoke. Advanced General Course for 

graduates of High Schools. For catalogue 

address 

Mrs. E. JP. Underhill, M.A., Principal. 




CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



25 




Pennsylvania, Birmingham. 

The Birmingham School, Inc. 

FOR GIRLS. Main Line, P. R. R. 
A Girls' School in an invigorating mountain climate. 
For information address A. R. Grier, Pres., Box B. 

Pennsylvania, Chester. 46th Year. 

Pennsylvania Military College Engineering 

(C.E.); Chemistry (B.S.); Arts (A.B.). Also Preparatory Courses. 
Infantry, Artillery, Cavalry. National reputation for excellence of 
system and results. Catalogue of Col. Charles E. Hyatt, Pres. 

Pennsylvania, Bethlehem. 

MORAVIAN SEMINARY for Girls 

Founded 1749. 159th year opens September 23rd. Address 
J. Max Hark, D.D., Principal. 
Pennsylvania, Ogontz School P. O. 

Ogontz School for Young Ladies 

Twenty minutes from Philadelphia, two hours from New York. 
The late Mr. Jav Cooke's fine property. For circulars, address 
Miss Sylvia J. Eastman, Principal. 

Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr. 




Specially designed building with every improved equipment. 

The Misses Shipley's School 

Preparatory to Bryn Mawr College. College Preparatory and 
Academic courses. Small classes. Resident athletic director. 
For illustrated circular address The Secretary, Box "C." 

Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr. 

The Baldwin School for Girls 

{Formerly Miss Bald-win's School.) 

Preparatory to Bryn Mawr College. Within 17 years 216 stu- 
dents from this school have entered Bryn Mawr College. Cer- 
tificate admits to Vassar, Smith, and Wellesley. Diploma given 
in both general and college preparatory courses. Fireproof stone 
building. Twenty-five acres of ground. A separate cottage for 
young girls. Jane L. Brownell, A.M., Head of the School. 
For circular, address the Secretary, P.O. Box D., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr. 
Tint*. TV/Moo£ko TTiy^It-'o College Preparatory School 
I ne iVllSSeS iVlFK S Preparatory to Bryn Mawr and 
other colleges for women. Small classes supplemented by careful 
individual instruction. Teachers all thoroughly familiar with 
Bryn Mawr requirements. Tennis and basket ball. 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Chestnut Hill. 

SPRINGSIDE 

Boarding and Day School for Girls. 

Mrs. Chapman and Miss Jones, Principals. 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Oak Lane. 

Miss Marshall's School L°d Gi mSc A d^S 

ments. College Preparatory and Special Courses. Ideal location. 
Comfortable home life and out-door sports. For catalogue, ad- 
dress • Miss E. S. Marshall. 

Pennsylvania, Concordville, Delaware Co. 
TV/T A IDT T7'AA7'Or^T^ A successful school, near Phila. One 
n/LAtrL* H. YY KJKJLJ f t h e best to infuse with energy, to 
wake up Boys to the duties of life. Prepares 40 Boys for college 
or business. 46th year. Large gymnasium. Dept. for little Boys. 
Manual training. Box 31. J. Shortlidge, A.M., Yale, Prin. 

Pennsylvania, Meadville. 

The Choice of a Profession 

An address by President Southworth, sent free on application to 
the Librarian. 

The Meadville Theological School 

Trains men and women for the present day ministry. No doc- 
trinal tests. Generous beneficiary and scholarship funds. Fellow- 
ship for study abroad yielding $810, awarded annually to a 
competent graduate. Special lectureships. Member of The 
American Committ ee for Lectures on the History of Religions. 
Pennsylvania, Mercersburg. 

Mercersburg Academy J^^e^fS: 

sonal interest taken, with aim to inspire in pupils lofty ideals of 
scholarship, sound judgment and Christian manliness. For cata- 
logue address William Mann Irvine, Ph.D., President. 



District of Columbia, Washington. 




WASHINGTON COLLEGE ^ id g hh "and 

young women, located on a beautiful estate of 10 acres, within the 
National Capital. Surrounded and within easy reach of the many 
and varied educational institutions for which Washington is famed. 
Cultured instructors ; delightful home life ; refined associations ; 
sight-seeing systematized ; social advantages wholesome. Prepar- 
atory, Certificate and College Courses. Music, Art, Elocution. 
Catalogue on request. F. Menefee, President, 

3 rdandTSts., N.E. 

District of Columbia, Washington, 1691 Connecticut Ave. 
T 5ii«S«=> Phllll-nsi School for girls and young women. Honor 
J_«clloc;-X^XHliJ.}JS S y S tem develops true womanliness and mod- 
est self-reliance. Elective or College Preparatory. Two years' colle- 
giate course for high school graduates. Art, Music, NativeLanguage 
Teachers. Domestic Science. Mrs. J. Sylvester Phillips, Prin. 

District of Columbia, Washington, iqo6 Florida Ave. N.W. 

GUNSTON HALL 

A beautiful Colonial Home School for young ladies. Illustrated 
catalogue. Mr. and Mrs. Beverley R. Mason, Principals. 

Miss E. M. Clark, LL.A., A ssociate Principal. 

District of Columbia, Washington, Mintwood Place and 

BriStOl SchOOl ^ N Episcopal School for Girls. 

Home and College Preparatory Courses. The French Depart- 
ment occupies a separate residence, where French is the language 
of the house. Address Miss Alice A. Bristol, Principal. 
Maryland, Forest Glen, Suburbs of Washington, D. C. 

National Park Seminary F w R men NG 

Eighteen Buildings. Beautiful Grounds. Good work secured 
without examinations. Sight-seeing every Monday. Send for 
catalogue. Address Box 100. 

District of Columbia, Washington, 2103-9 S St. 

Washington Seminary tTsVsctTfio/lafnZ't 

Girls. Planned for those who desire the best advantages, asso- 
ciation and instruction. Certificate admits to leading colleges. 
Culture class for special students. Mr. and Mrs. G. T. Sm allwood. 
District of Columbia, Washington, 1377 Fairmont Street. 

Fairmont Seminary Regufaran^ele^tivTcours'es 5 ' 
Music and Art Schools. Fullest benefits of the educational advan- 
tages of Washington. Beautifully located on Columbia Heights 
— in the city. Playground adjoining. Golf and Tennis. 

District of Columbia, Washington, Mt. St. Alban. 




National Cathedral School for Girls 

Within the Cathedral Grounds of 40 acres. Fireproof building 
enlarged on account of increased pupilage, from 60 to 80 boarding 
pupils. Single and double rooms. Certificate admits to College. 
Special Courses. Music and Art. 

The Bishop of Washington, President Board of Trustees. 
Mrs. Barbour Walker, M.A. , Principal. 

Pennsylvania, Chambersburg, 56 College Ave. 

Wilson College for Women cUberwvS 

ley. Classical, Music, and Art courses. Faculty of University 
graduates. Excellent advantages in Music and Art. Fine Gymna- 
sium. Moderate expe nses. Matthew Howell Reaser, President. 
Pennsylvania, Bala, near Philadelphia. 

MISS RONEY'S SCHOOL 

FOR GIRLS 
38th year. Healthful Location. College Preparatory. Modern 
Equipment. Catalogue on Request. 



26 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



Virginia, Hollins, Box 302. 

Hollins Institute founded 1842. 

For the Higher Education of Young Ladies. 
Elective and College Courses. Enrollment 268 pupils 
from 26 States and 4 foreign countries. High stan- 
k dards maintained in all departments. Languages, Sci- 
ence and Arts. Salubrious climate. Sul- 
phur and Chalybeate Springs. Electric 
light and steam heat from plant outside of 
the buildings. The 66th session opens 
Sept. 16th, 1908. For catalogue address 
Miss Matty L. Cocke, President. 




<ms% 



Virginia, Sweet Briar. 

SWEET BRIAR COLLEGE 

A New College For Women. A college of the grade of Vassar, 
Wellesley, Smith, and Bryn Mawr. Four years of collegiate and 
two years of preparatory work are given. Located on the South- 
ern Railroad only a few hours from Washington. Catalogue and 
views sent on application to 

Dr. Mary K. Benedict, Prest., Box 105, Sweet Briar, Va. 

California, Los Angeles. 

California Hospital, school for nurses. 

Three years. Ideal, private hospital. 150 beds. Maternity, 
Medical, Surgical Departments. Beautiful semi-tropic surround- 
ings. Superior training. Illustrated booklet free. Write. 
California, Los Angeles. 

GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

Seventeenth year begins Sept. 2qth. (Casa de Rosas) Certificate 
admits to all leading colleges. Post-graduate work added this 
year. Out-door study. "An ideal school amid ideal surroundings." 




FRENCH, GERMAN 
SPANISH or ITALIAN 

To speak it, to understand it, 
to read it, to write it, there is 
but one best way. 

You must hear it 

spoken correctly, over 
and over, till your ear 
knows it. 

You must see it 
printed correctly till your 
eye knows it. 

You must talk it and 
write it. 

All this can be done 
best by the 

LANGUAGE-PHONE 
METHOD 

c °^m i Rosenthal's Practical Linguistry 

With this method you buy a professor outright. You own 
him. He speaks as you choose, slowly or quickly ; when you 
choose, night or day ; for a few minutes or hours at a time. 

Any one can learn a foreign language who hears it spoken 
often enough ; and by this method you can hear it as often 
as you like. 

The method has been recommended by well-known mem- 
bers of the faculties of the following universities and col- 
leges : Yale, Columbia, Chicago, Brown, Pennsylvania, 
Boston, Princeton, Cornell, Syracuse, Minnesota, Johns 
Hopkins, Virginia, Colorado, Michigan, Fordham, Man- 
hattan, De La Salle, St. Joseph's, St. Francis Xavier. 

Send for booklet, explanatory literature, andfacsimile letters 
from men who know. Our students complain of imitators. 
Beware. 

THE LANGUAGE=PHONE METHOD 
813 Metropolis Bldg., Broadway and Uth St., N. Y. 



Connecticut, Brookfield Center. 

IS YOUR YOUNG SON'S 

education a matter for solicitude? A successful school under the 
continuous management of its founder for thirty-three years, and 
to-day standing without endowment, debt or encumbrance, has 
something to say in its book that will interest you deeply, if you 
care to write for it. 

The Curtis School for Young Boys 

The boys number twenty-eight, from ten to sixteen years; no 
new boy is received after he has reached his fourteenth birthday. 
Each boy has a separate room. 
The price for one school year is $600. 

FREDERICK S. CURTIS, Yale '6 9 , Master. 
Connecticut, Lakeville. 

The TaCOIliC SchOOl f or younger girls. Thorough 
college preparatory and special courses. Golf, tennis, basket-ball, 
boating. Miss Lilian Dixon, A.B. (Wellesley and Bryn Mawr), 

Miss Bertha Bailey, B.S. (Wellesley). 

Connecticut, Norwalk, "Hillside." 

Mrs. Mead's School for Girls 

affords thorough preparation for College. Certificate admits to 
leading Colleges. Well equipped General and Special courses of 
study. Mrs. M. E. Mead, Principal. 

Connecticut, Stamford, near New York City. 

The Catharine Aiken School for Girls 

Address 
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Scoville Devan, A.B. (Wellesley.) 

Connecticut, Cheshire. 

CHESHIRE SCHOOL 

FOUNDED A. D. 1794 

Situated on high ground in the 
beautiful rolling country of Cen- 
tral Connecticut. College and 
general courses, combined with 
a well-directed physical training. 
Modern equipment. Appeals to 
parents requiring a careful and 
thorough education for their 
sons. Acquaint yourself with 

the advantages this school offers before deciding upon 

a boarding school for your boy. 

Rev. JOHN D. SKILTON, M.A., Headmaster. 
Connecticut, New Milford, Litchfield Co. 

INGLESIDE— A School for Girls 

School year begins Tuesday, October 6, 1908. 

Mrs. Wm. D. Black, Patroness. 
Connecticut, Greenwich. 

The Ely School for Girls 

College Preparatory and General Course. Beautiful location, 
overlooking Long Island Sound, and only 50 minutes from New 
York. New buildings. Gymnasium. Catalogue upon request. 

Connecticut, Washington. 

WYKEHAM RISE 

A Country School for Girls. 

Miss Davies, Principal. 

Connecticut, Waterbury. 

St. Margaret's School 




Miss Mary R. Hillard, Principal. 



Michigan, Detroit. 

The Detroit Home and Day School. 

Established 1878. Twenty received in the school-family. Prepares 
for College. Well-equipped gymnasium and laboratories for physics, 
chemistry and domestic s cience. The Misses Liggett, Principals. 

Michigan, Houghton. 

Michigan College of Mines 

Located in the Lake Superior district. Mines and mills acces- 
sible for practice. For Year Book and Record of Graduates 
apply to President or Secretary. F. W. McNair, President. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SCHOOLS 



27 



BERLIN, GERMANY KJ&^S 

French, Art, Music, History, Literature. College Preparation. 
School party sails in September. Address Miss Alice H. Luce, 
Ph.D. (Heidelberg), 27 Luitpold Strasse, Berlin, Germany. 
American address, 383 Broadway, Winter Hill, Boston, Mass. 
Minnesota, Faribault. 

SHATTUCK SCHOOL During forty years has 
been giving boys an excellent preparation for life. New gymna- 
sium, swimming pool, and armory just added to its great advan- 
tages. Limit 180. Address Rev. James Dobbin, D.D., Rector. 

Wisconsin, Delafield. For boys in the Wisconsin Woods. 
Tfooixrotin r* arrive Saddle-horses, sail-boats, motor- 
ic tJtJW a till ^aillJJJs boats, shells, baseball, tennis, fenc- 
ing, boxing, track, swimming, fishing, music. Trips over trail and 
waterway thru Mich., Minn., and So. Ont. College preparation, one 
counselor for four boys. Winter Tutorial Camp. J.H.Kendregan. 

Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 
r*>mn "Pr»lr^crc»mci For Girls, in Northern Wisconsin. 
l^ailip .fOKegama Saddle-horses,motor-boat, land and 
water sports, athletics. Music, Nature Study. Tutoring for School 
or College. Constant care. Cultured companions. 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Sherwood Bishop, East Division High School. 

Maine, Bridgton. 

Wyonegonic Camps for Girls ttltoS! 

New motor boat, war canoe, ten saddle horses, archery, etc. 
Highland Lake Camp For Women. Send for illustrated booklet 
of the three camps. Mr. and Mrs. C. E. COBB, Providence, R. I. 

Maine, Oxford. 

CAMP OXFORD 

A superior summer camp for boys ; everything for his comfort 
and delight! Send for Booklet. A. F. Caldwell, A.M. 

New Hampshire, Plymouth, Holderness School. 

ramn WQ^ncotr Lake As Q uam > Holderness, 
l^amp YV aCnUSeit N> H . Sixth season. Boating, 
canoeing, fishing, swimming, water and land sports. Instruction 
by a specialist in Natural History. Tutoring if desired. Highest 
references. Send for circular to the Rev. Lorin Webster. 

A ^irnnrlQ^o In the great woods, under the pines and 
AU.II UllUdt^S balsams and hemlocks— at Beautiful Blue 
Mountain Lake, the Summer Camp for Boys — July 1st to Sep- 
tember 1st, 1908. Hunting, fishing, boating, etc. Tutoring, if de- 
sired. Illustrated booklet — apply to 

The Director, The Rectory, Pulaski, N. Y. 




are INTERESTING as well as beautiful pictures. 
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THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



Vol. LXXVI 



MAY, 1908 



No. 1 



LITERARY ROLLS OF HONOR 

IN FRANCE 

THE ACADEMIE FRANCAISE— THE ACADEMIE DES 

GONCOURT— THE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN 

OF "LA VIE HEUREUSE" 

BY TH. BENTZON 1 



IN a period when so many time-honored 
traditions of France sink beneath the 
waves of what we are pleased to style 
progress, without perhaps caring to learn 
whether we gain or lose as the stormy 
tide flows on, there is one national insti- 
tution still standing firm, which, despite 
all that is said against it, is unique : 
I mean the French Academy. In vain 
have men tried to raise up rivals : it re- 
mains the sole arbiter of taste, the guar- 
dian of our language, the last surviving 
vestige of sovereignty. To prove this 
would be an interesting study, in view of 
the increasing importance attached to the 
"Academie des Goncourt," and to the 
committee which has been humorously 
called the "Academy of Women." 

When the Goncourt brothers gathered 
round them that literary set to which 
they themselves never gave the name of 
Academy, though it did not displease 

1 Madame Therese Blanc, author of this article, 

Copyright, 1908, by THE CEN 



them that it should be so styled, they 
were in a certain way renewing the at- 
tempt of Baif, who, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury assembled at his house in the Fau- 
bourg St. Marceau, Paris, the wits of his 
day. The Goncourts, Edmond and Jules, 
received in an upper room of their 
house at Auteuil, in what they called the 
garret. Here Theophile Gautier, Louis 
Veuillot, Gustave Flaubert, Paul de 
Saint- Victor, Fromentin, Barbey d'Aure- 
villy, Theodore de Banville, and Jules 
Valles took the place of Ronsard and the 
poets of the Pleiade. The aim of these 
latter had been to enrich their mother- 
tongue by judicious borrowings from the 
ancients, and to make it bear comparison 
with Latin and Greek. The new neolo- 
gists, bolder than their forerunners, re- 
fused on any pretext whatsoever to be 
patronized by the great, even should they 
be poets, as was King Charles IX. In 

died in February, 1907. She was one of the few 

TURY Co. All rights reserved. 



LXXVI— 1 



4 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



this they were unlike another company of 
writers who in the seventeenth century, 
from 1629 till 1634, when the French 
Academy was created, had weekly meet- 
ings, with discussions about their own 
books in Conrart's hospitable and com- 
fortable home. The all-powerful min- 
ister Richelieu heard of these meetings, 
and he offered the society, or, rather, 
he imposed on it, his patronage, making 
it almost against its will a publicly con- 
stituted body. 

The improvement of our language 
from that time forward — an improvement 
which had begun in the subtle conversa- 
tions at the Hotel de Rambouillet — owes 
much to the famous dictionary, where 
the new forms of speech introduced by 
the "Precieuses" were carefully sifted, 
method and good taste prevailing over 
boldness and mannerism. The "Diction- 
naire de lAcademie" still diligently oc- 
cupies the "Forty" and almost justifies 
the raillery of Boisrobert, a well-known 
wit, one of the first elected : 

Depuis six mois dessus l'F on travaille, 

Ft le destin m'aurait fort oblige 

S'il m'avait dit : Tu vivras jusqu'au G. 

(For .six long months they have worked on 

the F, 
And I 'd feel much obliged to Fate 
Had it told me : You '11 live to see the G.) 

This long and careful work of un- 
equaled importance, inasmuch as it shaped 
the language forever, began under the 
auspices of Richelieu. 

Conrart was named secretary. His 
title of "secretaire perpetuel," handed 
down from generation to generation, be- 
longs now to a most distinguished scholar, 
M. Gaston Boissier. Conrart was scarcely 
what can be called an author, and in sting- 
ing verse Boileau commends his "prudent 
silence." He published very little, al- 
though he left behind him many ponder- 
ous manuscripts ; but he was the gener- 
ous friend of many good writers and 
therefore deserved their gratitude. 

The real ruler of the new-born Acad- 
emy was the great Cardinal. Outside the 

women admitted to the Legion d'Honneur. Aside 
from her writings, chiefly novels, some of which 
had the distinction of being crowned by the French 
Academy, she appealed to Americans by her inter- 
est in our literature, the knowledge of which in 
France she greatly promoted, and by her sympa- 



range of politics, he sought to prepare 
and encourage the splendid efflorescence 
of French literature which was to blos- 
som during the following reign. One 
cannot but admire his foresight and his 
genius for organization. No doubt he 
had his failings, chiefly his despotism; 
and this is why the parliament tried 
at first to oppose the formation of the 
Academy, fearing to see it become in his 
hands an instrument something like a 
tyrannical board of censure. Richelieu 
had also great literary pretensions; he 
wrote bad plays and in consequence felt 
jealous of Corneille's "Le Cid." His in- 
fluence prevented the Academy from do- 
ing justice to this masterpiece ; but public 
opinion was the stronger, and good judges 
kept on saying "Beautiful as 'The Cid.' " 

Still, notwithstanding their flattery of 
Richelieu and their exaggerated praise of 
other men in power, the Forty were never 
subservient to the government. A too- 
powerful protector is often as dangerous 
as he may be helpful, and this they found 
when patronized by Louis XIV, who was 
with difficulty persuaded to accept the 
nomination of La Fontaine. Yet surely 
no man could ever be more worthy to 
take a seat among the "immortals." 
When at length the king consented, he 
did so in a few characteristic words : 
"You may name him; he has promised to 
be good." ^ 

This submission excited the ire of in- 
dependent minds like Messieurs de Gon- 
court, and to avoid slipping into a similar 
groove, they decided to exclude forever 
politicians and men of rank from their 
small circle. 

With them there are no formal calls 
by the candidate upon his future col- 
leagues, an obligatory and rather arduous 
task, and of course no visit to the head 
of the state after the election. Those 
various steps for obtaining a vote and for 
thanking; have been deemed bv some hu- 
miliating to the candidate and by others 
a mere form of politeness. It would 
seem that there is somewhat more ground 
for reproach in the fact that the Academy 
elections often single out men of second- 

thetic regard for American ideals. She followed 
especially the progress of women in this country, 
and wrote a volume on the subject. In The Cen- 
tury for May, 1903, will be found an appreciative 
article regarding her by Mrs. James T. Fields. — 
The Editor. 




From a carbon print by Braun, Clement & Co., of the painting in the Louvre by Philippe de Champagne 
Half-tone plate engraved by H. Davidson 



CARDINAL DE RICHELIEU, FOUNDER OF THE ACADEMIE FRANCAISE 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



rate talent while stars of the first magni- 
tude are excluded from this literary 
firmament. Such was the case with Des- 
cartes, Rotrou, Pascal, Moliere, Reg- 
nard, La Rochefoucauld, Malebranche, 
Le Sage, Vauvenargues, Diderot, and 
Beaumarchais. Nor in our own time did 
Paul Louis Courier, Benjamin Constant, 
Lamennais, Beranger, Balzac, Alexandre 
Dumas, the elder, or Alphonse Daudet 
belong to the Academy. Questions of 
morality, political opinions, and social 
importance are sometimes considered, just 
as they would be in a drawing-room. The 
Academy is above all things anxious to 
remain the "bonne compagnie," that is to 
say, a society of gentlemen in the real 
acceptation of the word ; the man, there- 
fore, may be chosen rather than his 
works. Such as it is, those who profess 
most disdain for the Acad'emie Fran- 
chise are proud to enter its list, and fre- 
quently do so after exhausting against 
it all their powers of satire. Like La 
Fontaine, people "promise to be good" 
as they grow older. In fact, the adver- 
saries of the Academy as a rule are those 
to whom justly cr unjustly it has refused 
admittance. We have only to ask the de- 
serters of the Goncourt Society : Zola 
strove in vain to effect an entrance into 
its precincts, and for that purpose actu- 
ally paid those customary visits he had 
denounced as a shame. Guy de Maupas- 
sant had his place marked out there when 
madness overtook him. With the excep- 
tion, perhaps, of the uncompromising 
Daudet, who had cut himself off from 
the Academy by attacking it in a vio- 
lently written book, many others would 
have taken the same path if the Society 
had remained what it was in the life of 
the Goncourt brothers, a bunch of emi- 
nent literary gossips. The Academy pos- 
sessed the superior advantages of its 
emoluments, its rewards for being pres- 
ent, and its prizes. During the Consulate, 
after the French Revolution had trans- 
formed it into an "Institut National," 
divided into as many classes and sections 
as there are branches of human know- 
ledge, a decree was issued by which each 

1 The Institute was then composed of one 
hundred and forty-four residing in Paris and 
an equal number of associates scattered in dif- 
ferent parts of the Republic, without counting 
twenty-four foreign savants who were to take 
part in its labors. General Bonaparte was elected 



of its members was to receive pecuniary 
advantage consisting in a modest annuity 
of fifteen hundred francs. 1 As to the 
prizes, they had existed since 1671, when 
the first laurel crowns for eloquence and 
poetry had decked the brows of a woman, 
Mademoiselle de Scudery and of a much- 
forgotten author named Lamonnoye, who 
had boldly written about the abolition of 
dueling, a clear proof that the Academy 
favored no prejudices. 

Many prizes were founded in the eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth centuries, among 
others those by the philanthropist Mon- 
tyon, with prix de vcrtu at the head of the 
list. Those prix de vertu are rewards 
granted to persons who have accom- 
plished any act of heroism, of self-sacri- 
fice, of devotion to old age, to sickness, 
to infirmity. Together with the speeches 
that accompany these awards, they prove 
from year to year that praiseworthy ac- 
tions are performed in every scale of 
French society, so much cried down by 
those who take seriously its boastful con- 
fession of vices, whereas the addition of 
a little hypocrisy is perhaps all that is 
wanting to make it exactly like its neigh- 
bors. 

Once a year, thanks to M. de Mon- 
tyon, this mask is snatched off and our 
French nation most unwillingly shows its 
good creeds. 

The same benefactor bequeathed prizes 
for the best works published during the 
year and especially for the book that 
should seem most likely to promote the 
cause of morality. The Goncourt Acad- 
emy, on the contrary, utterly disclaims 
any moral aim, and pretends to represent 
art solely for art's sake — "Part pour 
Part." Exclusive in its own way, it is 
not quite free from some of the very re- 
proaches it casts at the cupola which still 
shelters Bossuet's statue ; only the exclu- 
siveness tends the other way. While the 
venerable body insists on principles and 
seeks to avoid or to moderate excess, 
the younger strives at any cost to break 
down old barriers and throw open new 
roads. Its influence is all the greater be- 
cause, since the death of Edmond de 

member of the Institute of Physical and Mathe- 
matical Sciences (1797). An act of the 26th of 
January, 1803, signed by him, contains the nomina- 
tions of members for the several classes. He 
himself and his brother Lucien appear among the 
number. 




A RECEPTION AT THE ACADEMIE FRANCAISE 



8 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



Goncourt, its encouragement is not merely 
honorary. In his will the founder be- 
queathed an annuity of six thousand 
francs to every member of the literary 
society whose formation had been the 
dream of his own life and of that of his 
deceased brother. To Alphonse Daudet, 



brought in nearly one million four hun- 
dred thousand francs at the sale thereof), 
did not all together produce the neces- 
sary funds. The sum was further di- 
minished by the decision of the Conseil 
d'Etat, that stout protector of family 
interests, allotting four or five thousand 




Drawn by Andre Castaigne. Half-tone plate engraved by C. W. Chadwick 

MEMBERS OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY, AFTER A SESSION, CROSSING 
THE PONT DES ARTS, FROM THE INSTITUTE 



the executor of his last wishes, was in- 
trusted the task of carrying out this pro- 
vision, and also of establishing an annual 
prize of .five thousand francs for a purely 
literary work. All this demanded a 
yearly sum of seventy thousand francs, 
and the difficulty was to find it. The 
house at Auteuil, the bonds in which the 
fortune of Edmond de Goncourt con- 
sisted, his collections (although they 



francs to certain relatives of the Gon- 
courts who had advanced claims to his 
inheritance. Besides all this, the will, 
dated in 1890, was open to discussion, 
for the incorrigible champion of artistic 
style {Vecriture artiste), though he care- 
fully consulted a lawyer before drawing 
up this will, declined to word it as the 
lawyer advised, his own prose seeming 
to him, he said, "more literary by far." 




py&Zeztt-tM**.*^ 



From an etching by Bracquemond. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 

EDMOND DE GONCOURT 



10 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



So it was indeed, and so much so at the 
expense of legal terms that it was almost 
null and came near being canceled. At 
last, by means of a reduction in the yearly 
annual sum allotted to each member, the 
Academy was formed with the following 
ten associates, the first eight having been 
chosen by Edmond de Goncourt himself. 
Alphonse Daudet, Huysmans, Mirbeau, 
the two brothers Rosny, Leon Hennique, 
Paul Margueritte, and Gustave Geffroy. 
Leon Daudet has since taken the place of 
his father, and two remaining places have 
been filled by Descaves and Elemir 
Bourges, author of the "Crepuscule des 
Dieux." x Annual prizes are given: that 
of 1904 went to a very fine work full 
of healthy humanity in its rather coarse 
realism, "La Maternelle" 2 by Leon 
Frapie. 

There is nothing like one good deed 
for producing others. Such generosity 
gave the great publishing firm of Ha- 
chette the idea of founding a prize of the 
same value. It takes its name from the 
wide-spread monthly "La Vie Heureuse," 
and a jury of twenty women of letters is 
to award it annually to the best work 
published by a writer of their own sex. 

But see how impartial Frenchwomen 
are ! They have resolved of their own 
accord that men shall be allowed to 
compete. This, indeed, is clever as well 
as liberal, for the average standard of 
the competitions is thereby considerably 
raised. Besides which it gives a piquant 
lesson to the Goncourt Academy, which 
affects the most rigorous exclusion of 
women from its rewards. Till now the 
best reception women who write have met 
with has been at the old French Acad- 
emy, some of its most important prizes 
having been awarded to Arvede Barine, 
Th. Bentzon, Daniel Lesueur, to mention 
chiefly those of late years. The Academy, 
it is true, admits women only as competi- 
tors for prizes. George Sand herself was 
never offered a chair, even as an hon- 
orary member. Let us recall some pretty 
verses the good-hearted Theophile Gau- 
tier wrote to her about this exclusion : 

Je vois l'Academie oil vous etes presente. 
Si vous m'y recevez, mon sort est le plus 
beau. 



Nous aurons, a nous deux, l'esprit de 

quarante — 
Vous comme quatre et moi comme zero. 

(I see the Academy wherever you are. 
If you receive me there, my bliss is complete. 
We two shall unite the wit of the Forty— 
You shall stand for the four and I '11 stand 
for the nought.) 

However, if they do not put themselves 
forward, women have always taken an ac- 
tive part in the Academy elections, each 
literary salon having its own candidate. 
We may say, therefore, that though they 
are not Academicians, they often have the 
making of them, therein playing the same 
powerful though secret part they play 
in politics. We need only watch their 
triumphant looks when, from the places 
of honor in the center, they witness the 
sittings for the reception of their friends. 
But there are no seats for them either 
at the Palais Mazarin or the garret 
at Auteuil. From time to time, how- 
ever, the newspapers publish the names 
of the forty Frenchwomen of letters 
who would form a very respectable acad- 
emy. Grapes being not yet ripe for 
them, what can they do but assume of 
their own accord the dignity that mascu- 
line selfishness refuses to grant with a 
good grace? "La Vie Heureuse" ("The 
Happy Life"), which has such a lucky 
title, helped them in this matter. With 
the free disposal of five thousand francs 
to be awarded every year to the best work 
of the season either in prose or poetry, it 
gave, moreover, into their hands the right 
to have printed by Hachette the first 
manuscript from the pen of any gifted 
young author. What a blessing this con- 
fers when we think of the difficulties 
that beset the paths of beginners ; but at 
the same time what an arduous task is 
the reading of such a mass of written or 
printed matter undertaken by women who 
of their own free will deny themselves 
the right to compete, and simply take all 
the trouble without any compensation ! 
The jury formed in 1904 elected succes- 
sively as president Arvede Barine (Ma- 
dame Vincens), the author of that fine 
life-like history "La Grande Mademoi- 
selle," and Th. Bentzon, who is best 



iln 1907, Jules Renard, author of " Poil de Carotte," was elected 

in place of Huysmans, deceased. — The Editor. 
2 The Maternal School (the public kindergarten for working people). 



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LXXVI— 2 



12 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



known in America under the name of 
Madame Therese Blanc. Both declined 
the honor, leaving it to a poet, their 
youthful colleague, Comtesse Mathieu de 
Noailles. Madame Dieulafoy, another 
clever writer, the partner of her husband 
in the excavations made in Persia, whose 
name is affixed to one of the halls of 
the Louvre, is vice-president; Madame 
de Broutelles, the very intelligent and 
amiable directress of "La Vie Heu- 
reuse," is secretary. So, at a first sitting 
in the Hotel des Societes Savantes, with 
a good deal of fuss and bustle, for we 
Frenchwomen are not yet accustomed to 
public meetings, the Committee was 
formed for one year. 

After having looked over the numerous 
volumes sent in by the candidates, the 
Committee assembled at the Avenue 
Henri Martin in the drawing-room of the 
Comtesse de Noailles. It had put on a 
holiday look for the occasion. Ah ! how 
far superior to their male competitors 
these writing women look at first sight ! 
The green coats embroidered with palm 
branches, and even the carefully sheathed 
sword, cannot rival such dresses. That 
worn by the frail and graceful mistress 
of the house is a dream in nasturtium- 
colored velvet and "style empire"; the 
short waist encircled with satin ribbons, 
the long skirt striped with rolled bands 
of sables and old "point d'Alencon." We 
see side by side the handsome Baronne de 
Pierrebourg, who signs Claude Ferval to 
the novels she writes for the "Revue des 
Deux Mondes" and the "Revue de 
Paris" ; Madame Felix-Faure-Goyau, 
who adds to the name of her husband, 
himself a writer, that of her father, the 
former president of the Republic ; Sever- 
ine, with white, powdered hair crowning 
her expressive countenance, which might 
be that of a Madame Roland or any 
other heroine of the French Revolution ; 
Marni, a rival of Gyp, whose sharp 
and subtle wit, decidedly modern, has 
sparkled in the newspapers and won ap- 
plause on the stage; Madame Marcelle 
Tinayre, looking almost like a girl, the 
author, however, of the most talked-about 
novel of the last few years, "La Maison 
du Peche" ; Madame Alphonse Daudet, 
who has written exquisite books in verse 
and in prose, faithful mirrors of her life 
as wife and mother; Madame Jean 



Bertheroy, whose fine Greek romances 
show learning and wealth of imagination 
closely allied; another novelist, Daniel 
Lesueur (Madame Lapauze), who also 
entered her career through the lofty gate 
of poetry by translating Byron; Madame 
Georges de Peyre-brune, whose great suc- 
cesses, "Marco" and "Victoire la 
Rouge," are of a much earlier date. By 
a piquant coincidence, the two successive 
wives of Catulle Mendes are both pres- 
ent ; the first having resumed by divorce 
right the glorious name of her father, 
signs Judith Gautier to her masterly 
works on Chinese literature ; the other is 
a young and pretty poet whose esthetic 
attire makes a sensation wherever she ap- 
pears. The only celebrities wanting to 
the assembly were Madame Adam and 
Madame Gabrielle Reval, whose "Sevri- 
ennes," a picture of the great normal 
school of Sevres, met with varied appre- 
ciation, although no one denied the talent 
displayed therein. 

The votes are called ; it is to be a se- 
cret ballot. The urn passes round, Ma- 
dame de Noailles counts the votes and 
Madame Myriam Harry is elected by an 
overwhelming majority. She is the au- 
thor of a singular, remarkable book, "The 
Conquest of Jerusalem," and fully un- 
derstands her subject, treating it in a 
novel and startling way. She was born 
in the East, and the mingled race from 
which she springs has given a most pe- 
culiar bent to her mind. As a child she 
spoke indifferently a smattering of Eng- 
lish, German, and Arabic ; her first books 
were composed in German, yet she now 
writes admirable French. She has lately 
married a sculptor, Perrault, and thus 
belongs to the land in which chance 
brought her literary talents to maturity. 

Amid the rustle of silk and velvet, the 
sheen of furs and lace and plumed hats, 
we notice the close-cropped head of Ma- 
dame Dieulafoy, with her masculine coat 
just enlivened with the narrow red strip 
of ribbon, sign of the Legion of Honor. 
Since her travels in Asia, where she lost 
the habit of wearing our irksome skirts, 
she dresses as a man. 

Some of the ladies meet here for the 
first time. We in France have none of 
the freemasonry among women of the 
same profession that obtains in Amer- 
ica. No club has ever assembled us, 




From the painting- by A. de La Gandara. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 



COMTESSE MATHIEU DE NOAILLES, PRESIDENT OF THE COMMITTEE 
OF WOMEN OF ".LA VIE HEUREUSE" 



14 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



though there is a project afloat for found- 
ing in the Madeleine quarter one .for 
women artists and writers. 1 It will be 
very much like the Lyceum Club in Lon- 
don. Indeed, as we have gone so far, I 
may as well say at once that a branch of 
the Lyceum will shortly be opened. It is, 
my readers may know, an international 
club. The Committee of "La Vie Heu- 
reuse" will set up its headquarters there. 
Meanwhile the members meet in turns at 
one another's houses to discuss new books 
or anything that may seem interesting. 
At one meeting the question was : " Should 
the word author serve for both genders?" 
Madame Dieulafoy read some letters 
from learned philologists whom she had 
consulted — Messrs. Meyer, Breal, Salo- 
mon Reinach, Thomas, de Gourmont, 
and Havet. Oddly enough, these gentle- 
men, probably from a sentiment of chiv- 
alry, were in favor of a word with a fem- 
inine ending, such as auteuresse or auto- 
rcsse, and some actually proposed autrice ; 
but our members are conservative and not 
at all devoid of taste : they inclined for 
the old form, and we shall continue to 
say femme auteur. After the settlement of 
this delicate question, Madame Th. Bent- 
zon read a report about the future Lyceum 
Club, of which she is an ardent promoter. 

How rapidly things change even in our 
old, slow-moving land, where woman 
seemed destined to sit forever by the fire 
and spin ! Here we have already an 
Academy of Women, a women's club, 
without counting the Puteaux Tennis 
Club or the La Boulie Golf Club, and 
other similar associations. Decidedly 
America has invaded our shores. What 
will come of the change? The future 
alone will show. 

A new member has been elected in the 
person of Mm'e. Duclaux (A. Mary F. 
Robinson), who writes English and 
French equally well and who will bring 
a foreign element into this most eclectic 
society, "La Vie Heureuse." 

Summer vacations, of course, inter- 
rupted the sittings, but it was all gain, as 
holidays bring time for reading and ap- 
preciating new books. This was done 
scrupulously and to good purpose, the 

1 This project has not been realized. The meeting of 
November 30, 1 907, which awarded the year's prize 
to Madame Colette Yver, was held at the house 
of Madame Felix-Faure-Goyau.— The Editor. 



reader may be assured. Most votes, at 
the next competition, would in all likeli- 
hood have fallen upon "L'Esclave," a 
novel by Madame de Regnier, who has 
chosen New Orleans as the scene for her 
book. But on account of the recent death 
of her father, the perfect poet Jose Maria 
de Heredia, the lady refused to be a can- 
didate, as indeed she has refused to be 
among the jury. We may, incident- 
ally, regret that the latter should be so 
numerous, some of the best books of 
the year coming generally from experi- 
enced writers, who award, but do not ac- 
cept, prizes. 

There is, however, a goodly crop of 
novels from women lately embarked in 
the literary career. One of them: "Com- 
ment s'en vont ies reines" by Colette 
Yver, a political romance, was very near 
winning the palm which, after all, a man, 
Romain Rolland, carried away. His 
"Jean Christophe" reminds us somewhat 
of the first part of "Wilhelm Meister," 
without being similar. It is, on the con- 
trary, original in its simple straightfor- 
wardness, and relates impressions of 
childhood and the growth of a musical 
vocation. 2 

Most books written by women just now 
treat of the evolution brought about in 
the female mind by a new system of edu- 
cation and new surroundings. No less 
suggestive are the opinions expressed as 
to the necessity of love in marriage and 
on the melancholy want of respect in the 
stronger sex for the weaker. As to the 
style, it makes us sometimes feel how use- 
ful, nay, how necessary, is the sheltering 
grand old dome of the aged Academy, so 
frequently and so unjustly ridiculed. 
What, I wonder, would become of pure, 
good French without it? It is accused of 
shutting out with its formidable walls 
every bold flight of fancy. But all its ef- 
forts hardly suffice to stem the rising tide 
of newfangled words that threaten to 
invade and spoil our sober, precise lan- 
guage. No form of speech is more diffi- 
cult to wield or to master, but none is 
more exact, more accurate, than French. 
Master-minds have taught us' that it re- 
quires to be respected ; you cannot play 

2 In 1907, the prize was awarded to Madame 
Colette Yver's " Princesses de Science." The prize 
of 1906 went to "Gemmes et Moires," a volume 
of poems by Mademoiselle Andre Corthis. 



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16 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



with it, enriching it at will, as other lan- 
guages are enriched by borrowings from 
abroad. Some innovations it does in time 
accept, but not till they have been tried 
and weighed in every way by the forty 
guardians of the Iron Gates. By such se- 
verity of choice alone can we still hope to 
preserve an instrument worthy of a Renan, 
of a Pierre Loti, of an Anatole France. 

The venerable French Academy, the 
only academy, let us say, is at once the 
refuge and the reward of those who dis- 
dain to court a vulgar, unwholesome no- 
toriety, and we should be justly surprised 
were not the indignant defenders of 
moral cleanliness grateful for its oppo- 
sition to a kind of noisome looseness in 
print. When its gray old walls crumble 
away, we may bid good-by to French in- 
tellect, "l'esprit francais," such as it was 
when it won and wore through centuries 
the admiration of the world. This does 
not mean that any bold literary innova- 
tion should be despised, but the outlets 
sought for by amateurs of unrestrained 
impressionism and realism are abundantly 
afforded by the Goncourt society. Peo- 
ple who find fault with the dark as- 
pect of the Palais Mazarin ; its wide, dull, 
sunless courtyards ; its galleries lined 
with formal rows of marble statues ; its 
stern-looking office ; the ill-stuffed green 
leather benches and narrow tribunes 
of the Salle clu Dome, formerly the 
Chapel of the "College des Quatre Na- 
tions," — these fastidious people may con- 
sole themselves by thinking of the elegant 
rooms, so snugly upholstered, so artisti- 
cally adorned, those picturesque retreats 
of women of the world, artists, and trav- 
elers, where the jury of " La Vie Heu- 
reuse" holds its meetings. Unfortunately, 
these are never public, as are the recep- 
tions at the French Academy. Other- 
wise what a crowd would rush to them, 
exactly as it does to the gates of the 
Palais Mazarin when we see the lucky 
possessors of admission tickets assemble 



early on the mornings of public sittings 
in interminable rows before the closed 
door, thereby showing that, in spite of all 
the detractors may say, these solemn fes- 
tivities are still in favor. 

However private the sittings may be in 
the salons of Madame de Noailles, Ma- 
dame Alphonse Daudet, Madame Daniel 
Lesueur, or Madame Dieulafoy, caricature 
has not spared them ; but every one knows 
that caricature is but a form of notoriety. 
The jury of "La Vie Heureuse" is rather 
proud that pens and pencils should have 
already been wielded against its brilliant 
discussions, which generally end at a 
daintily served tea-table. After all, there 
is nothing either very amazing or very 
new in the idea of an academy of women. 
In the Middle Ages did not a learned 
lady of Toulouse distribute to the poets 
flowers in gold and silver which the Col- 
lege du Gai Savoir owed to her munifi- 
cence? And was not the blue room of 
the Marquise de Rambouillet, almost as 
much as the cozy dinners of Conrart him- 
self, the beginning of an Academy where 
the Precieuses sifted and enriched forever 
the French language? Nowadays the 
"Vie Heureuse" Committee is perhaps 
the only place in Paris from which politi- 
cal quarrels and social prejudices are 
banished. The proof is that in December, 
1905, the new Committee was elected 
with Severine as president — Severine the 
one woman journalist really worthy of 
that name, the eloquent public speaker 
who calls herself aloud an anarchist ; 
and beside her, as vice-president, the most 
womanly of women, the refined and dig- 
nified Madame Poradowska, a close 
French observer of country and clerical 
life in Poland and Galicia. You will see 
that the two together will join in doing 
good work and at first join their fellow- 
members in tine most excellent work of all 
— the work of mutual tolerance and con- 
ciliation which for several years has not 
been sufficiently attended to in Paris. 




LITERARY ROLLS OF HONOR IN FRANCE 



17 




MEMBERS OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY MARCH, 1908 



Messieurs Elected 

Emile Ollivier 1870 

Alfred Mezieres 1874 

Gaston Boissier 1876 

Victorien Sardou l &77 

Francois Coppee 1884 

Ludovic Halevy 1884 

Jules Claretie 1888 

Comte d'Haussonville .... 1888 

Vicomte Melchior de Vogue . . 1888 

Charles de Freycinet .... 1890 

Pierre Loti 1891 

Ernest Lavisse 1892 

Paul Thureau-Dangin .... 1893 

Paul Bourget . . 1894 

Henry Houssaye 1394 

Jules Lemaitre ^95 

Marquis Costa de Beauregard . 1896 

Anatole France 1896 

Comte Albert Vandal .... 1896 

Gabriel Hanotaux 1897 



Messieurs Elected 

Comte Albert de Mun .... 1897 

Henri Lavedan 1898 

Paul Deschanel ^99 

Paul Hervieu ^99 

Emile Faguet 1900 

Edmond Rostand 1901 

Marquis de Vogue 1901 

Rene Bazin I 9°3 

Frederic Masson 1 9°3 

Emile Gebhart 1904 

Etienne Lamy ^OS 

Alexandre Ribot 1905 

Maurice Barres 1906 

Cardinal Mathieu 1906 

Henri Barboux 1907 

Maurice Donnay l 9®7 

Marquis de Segur 1907 

Francis Charmes 1908 

Jean Richepin 1908 

Henri Poincare 1908 



MEMBERS OF THE GONCOURT ACADEMY (1908) 



Messieurs 

Elemir Bourges 

Leon Daudet (vice Alphonse Daudet") 

Lucien Descaves 

Gustave Geffrey* 

Two brothers who sign "J.-H. Rosny"' 
* Original members chosen by Edmond de Goncourt 



Messieurs 

Leon Hennique* 

Paul Margueritte* 

Octave Mirbeau* 

Jules Renard (vice Huysmans*) 



MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 
HEUREUSE"IN 1907 (THE SO- 

Mesdames 

Juliette Adam 
Jean Bertheroy 
C. de Broutelles 
Alphonse Daudet 
Delarue-Mardrus 
Dieulafoy 
Duclaux 
Claude Ferval 
Judith Gautier 
Felix-Faure-Goyau 
Myriam Harry 



AWARDING THE PRIZE OF "LA VIE 
CALLED "ACADEMY OF WOMEN") 

Mes dames 
Daniel Lesueur 
Jeanne Marni 
Catulle Mendes 
Comtesse Mathieu de Noailles 
Georges de Peyrebrune 
Poradowska 
Gabrielle Reval 
Duchesse de Rohan 
Edmond Rostand 
Severine 
Marcelle Tinayre 




MR. STEDMAN'S FORECAST OF AN "AERONON OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY" 
(REPRINTED FROM HIS ARTICLE "AERIAL NAVIGATION," f 
IN THIS MAGAZINE FOR FEBRUARY, 1879 ) 



THE PRINCE OF THE POWER 

OF THE AIR 

AERIAL NAVIGATION A MENACE TO 
BRITISH SUPREMACY 

BY EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN 

Mr. Stedman was engaged upon this article at the time of his death on the 
morning of January 18, 1908, and the first paragraph was his last written words. 
As the reader will perceive, the subject is one in which Mr. Stedman for many 
years had taken more than merely speculative interest. The article is printed 
from a full but obviously not a final draft, with slight transpositions and omissions, — 
among the latter chiefly an incomplete resume of what has been accomplished or under- 
taken in aeronautics by various governments. — The Editor. 



THIRTY years ago, having business 
with the most restless and formida- 
ble of American financiers, — one success- 
ful in getting hold of railways and tele- 
graph on his own terms, and applying 
something like genius to their develop- 
ment, — I asked him why, with his engi- 
neering bent and imagination, in view of 
what seemed to me fairly close at hand, 
he was not moved to devote a befitting 
sum — say five per centum of the year's 
profits — to experiment in construction of 
a flying-machine or, rather, of a dirigible 
aerostat. He replied very mildly, in his 



best vein of cynical humor, that life was 
short, and he would leave that field, and 
the means of exploiting it, to his heirs ; 
for himself, he preferred the modest com- 
petence obtainable from roads for which 
he had an exclusive right of way to gains 
wrested from the atmosphere — a region 
where there was no monopoly of road- 
beds, and where the world at large could 
cross and even use his track. Possibly he 
had some premonition that he was to die 
comparatively young. For all then said 
of him, I admired his intellect and liked 
his courteous ways ; and, taking one thing 



13 



THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR 



19 



with another, I trust he may have gone to 
some clime whose habitants are equipped 
with plumes which render artificial means 
of flight superfluous. 

In the autumn of 1878 I wrote an ex- 
tended paper entitled, "Aerial Naviga- 
tion (a priori)," which was published by 
"Scribner's Monthly," now The Cen- 
tury Magazine, in February, 1879. Its 
acceptance, bearing in mind the state of 
opinion on this topic twenty-eight years 
ago, showed both open-mindedness and 
courage, and a willingness to follow Dr. 
Hale's motto, "Look forward and not 
back." 

The paper opened with a confession 
that its writer rode a hobby, and a hobby 
early bestraddled ; for it was as a young- 
ster on a vacation, before the Civil War, 
fishing at Greenwood Lake and watching 
the perch move below, up and down, back 
and forth, in the shallows, that I con- 
ceived the idea that the fish model should 
be the first to insure measurable success 
— however advantageously progressive in- 
genuity might imitate the bird and arrive 
at the idea, in time, of a flying-machine 
heavier than the air. Of course I knew 
little of the mechanics of resistance, — 
who did? — but my instinct was that the 
fish, totally immersed in its. fluid ele- 
ment, was a palpable prototype of an 
"aerobat." This word I coined as a com- 
panion to "aerostat" — the word still 
properly used for a gas-bag that is not 
propulsive and dirigible at command. 
"Aeronon" is an equally good word, and 
"aeroplane" exactly expresses the new 
machine on the kite principle. At this 
time I went so far as to make some rude 
and crude diagrams, merely to show the 
application of certain principles ; so I 
may confess myself sorry that they were 
reproduced then, for the paper already 
is yellow with age. Two other pictures 
were added, giving my notions of what 
might be expected at the end of twenty- 
one years, and possibly to lend a little 
more picturesqueness to my exposition. 

First, I proceeded to show the utter 
failure of the slightest advance, over a 
hundred years earlier than my paper, 
upon [the Americans] Rittenhouse and 
Hopkins's use of hydrogen for ascension 
of a gas-balloon in 1783. Among the 
causes of the failure, I cited: (a) the 
impotence of an aerostat that is forced to 



lose ballast to compensate for the loss of 
gas; (b) the globular shape of the bal- 
loon, with its car hung far below, as if a 
fish shaped like an inflated bladder had 
tiny fins suspended by a ligament; (c) 
misconceptions caused by the use of 
the word air-ship — an aerial machine be- 
ing in one element only, and not in an 
elastic and an unelastic element; (d) the 
futile attempts to capture and include 
the secret of flight, the study of the bird 
having had then only one outcome, 
namely, that its hollow bones furnished 
the natural combination of lightness and 
strength; (<?) there had been no delib- 
erate and scientific attempt by skilled en- 
gineers, and with co-adequate means, to 
navigate the air — all experiments having 
been relegated to the ignorant enthusiast, 
the crack-brained theorist, the would-be 
inventor, who, each in turn, spent only a 
few hundred or a few thousand dollars 
on his respective failure, where the aid of 
capitalists and governments was required. 
In contrast with the $5000, the most 
which any of these novices had expended, 
I referred to the readiness with which 
capital had placed $500,000 at the dis- 
posal of Captain Ericsson to build a 
steamer to test his caloric engine for ma- 
rine propulsion. This showed that capital 
is provided when conditions are under- 
stood or even imagined. 

Offsetting this failure, the fact re- 
mained that there was nothing in nature 
against the solution of the problem, 
which was wholly a mechanical one. 

I condense briefly the long series of 
statements of what seemed to me then 
essential to reach an outcome : 

(1) Forget the shape and uses of the 
•old balloon : what was w r anted was an air- 
traveler, governable at will. Forego at- 
tempts to construct a flight-machine until 
the principle of the fish model is thor- 
oughly developed and utilized. The first 
confidence of the people at large must 
thus be gained. The submarine torpedo- 
boat was cited. 

(2) An aerobat must resemble its 
model in being so delicately upheld that 
the slightest motive power would elevate 
or depress it. Further on, I termed this 
condition "buoyant equipoise," and pre- 
dicted the use no less of the vertical 
screw above or below for this purpose, 
than of the propeller in front or rear for 



LXXVI— 3 



20 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



horizontal traveling; the aerobat to be so 
weighted as to float naturally a short dis- 
tance above the earth ; and to be depen- 
dent upon its motor for change of eleva- 
tion. 

(3) Every particle of advance toward 
unity of design was a gain. The machine 
must contain its power and freight within 
itself, at least as near as possible; must 
be an integral structure, not a motive ap- 
pendage dragging an aerostat high above 
it with an adverse leverage proportioned 
to its flexibility. 

(4) As to form, attention was invited 
to the shape of the elliptic fishes — to the 
fact that a pickerel will change its local- 
ity so swiftly that the eye cannot follow 
the movement ; that the trout and salmon 
dart up the swiftest rapids ; that the por- 
poise plays round the fastest steamer. 
Consideration, also, was given to the law 
that, although the air packs in front of a 
projectile like snow before an engine, and 
the resistance increases as the square of the 
velocity, yet the law is modified by the 
shape of the moving body ; and that 
doubtless the side of the body, even not 
less than its head, shares in this modifi- 
cation. 

(5) Motive power, and its application 
by means of the screw, was considered, 
and how the benefit for the invention 
would be determined exactly by the ad- 
vance in producing engines that would 
utilize greater proportion of the energy 
produced, and give vastly greater horse- 
power for each unit of weight. 

(6) Coming to structure, it was held 
that the aerobat must be solidly framed 
and protected, not flexible ; must be greatly 
longer than its beam, and divided into 
upper and lower chambers, if possible ; 
must have a rigid framework, and in the 
end be made so large as to permit a me- 
tallic covering. Here aluminum was 
dwelt upon, the lightest of plentiful 
metals; the scale of reduction noticed in 
its cost ; and the prediction made that 
it would soon be so cheaply produced 
as to be available. Some years after- 
ward, attention was called to its greatly 
reduced price, in a letter to the "New 
York Tribune," supplementary to an 
article by Professor Newberry in the same 
newspaper. But at a long period later, 
Clarence King gave the writer his opinion 
that steel, on account of its greater ductil- 



ity, would furnish the greater strength for 
the same weight, and that the structure, 
if large, must be bulwarked at the front. 

( 7 ) Finally, questions of money, safety, 
steering, and the field of motion were dis- 
cussed ; as to dimensions and outlay, it 
was claimed that these must be on a 
grandiose scale, proportionate to the great- 
ness of the enterprise, before practicable 
results could be reached ; that any smaller 
demonstration would be merely a working 
model, which might warrant the applica- 
tion of the services of the best engineers 
to produce an adequate one. 

One point also remains to be made. Two 
cuts in the article illustrated air-travelers 
of the near future, one of which, after the 
earlier stages of navigation, would be con- 
sidered a clumsy affair, a kind of "Dutch 
bottom." The other was far more elon- 
gated, and a kind of "aeronon of the 
twentieth century." (See cut page 18.) Fi- 
nally, it was shown that the gradual lines 
of advance should be through increase of 
lifting and propelling mechanical power, 
which should finally be so great as to 
meet the views of those claiming that at- 
mospheric navigation can be effected only 
by a machine far heavier than the air. 

About the time when that article was 
in hand, I had very fresh in mind the old 
Commodore's .monition, "Sonny, don't 
prophesy unless you know!" — a monition 
strengthened by the fact that, within a 
few weeks after he himself said that he 
never bought more than he could pay for, 
his brokers temporarily suspended pay- 
ment until he could raise money on the 
lender's terms to receive his own pur- 
chases. But I did not consider my fore- 
cast a prophecy, — that is, I did not look 
upon it as containing much left to the 
fates or chance, — it seemed to me but the 
reading and interpreting of a text already 
inscribed on the wall ; not the promise of 
things hoped for, but the evidence of 
things not yet seen by the average eye. 
And I repeat that time has warranted the 
confidence of conviction upon which I 
acted. 

For the problem was even then solved 
in so far as that portion of it was con- 
cerned which was only the precedent to 
the other, and which is the only one in 
open practice at this writing. I made no 
claim to the invention of anything : so far 
as this was concerned, my work was a 



THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR 



21 



priori, abstract and not concrete. An- 
thony Pollok of Washington, a trained en- 
gineer no less than a great and successful 
patent lawyer, the hero of the Goodyear 
litigation, and later the very protagonist 
of the Bell telephone war and victory, 
believed in my general theory, but held 
that even a model would not secure a 
patent for that which was in the air and, 
willy-nilly, "dedicated to the public" by 
its feeble experimenters. What can be 
patented are the special devices for ap- 
plied results. Not the man who sees or 
expounds, but the man who does the thing, 
is the only legitimate patentee of modern 
inventions — or, more likely, the capitalist 
to whom he assigns them. 

I will not deny that in day-dreams I 
often fancied myself doing the thing ; 
but my own theory was against any par- 
tial experiments. Sometimes, with some- 
thing of the childish pride which always 
accompanies our sleep dreams of levita- 
tion, I used to lie with shut eyes imagin- 
ing the glory of appearing over New 
York, soaring above the course of Broad- 
way, circling about the then "tall Tower" 
or Trinity spire, as a beginning of a 
straight course for Washington and a 
landing demonstration to Congress on 
Capitol Hill. Nothing at that day — not 
even news from Mars — could have been 
more amazing to the pub'lic. The man 
who should have done it would have made 
his name as unforgettable as Christopher 
Columbus. Yet now the evolution has 
come on so gradually, from the day of 
De Rosier in France and Rittenhouse and 
Hopkins in America to the beginning and 
latest of flights of Santos-Dumont and 
Count Zeppelin, that nothing short of an 
unexpected battle in the air would aston- 
ish us, in the proper sense of the word. 
Have we not had the search-light, the sky- 
scraper, wireless telegraphy, the automo- 
bile, all within this period? The truth is, 
the public imagination is so trained upon 
invention and discovery that everything is 
possible to it. The error now is in favor 
of encouragement to inventors — just as in 
the literary realm there is too facile a pro- 
cess for making and selling worthless 
books, as a result of the copyright law and 
the transformation of our forests into 
printing paper. 

In the summing up of the article, the 
writer "let himself go" — if he did not 



rise "upon the wings of prophecy" — in 
contemplating what doubtless would be 
the effect of man's final conquest of the 
air, the only region as yet unadded to his 
domain. Presuming that if all things 
seen be regarded as a fanciful day-dream, 
I implied that the race had first to attain 
majority to be intrusted with the conse- 
quent illimitable freedom. Earlier, the 
gift would be fatal. I now feel like add- 
ing this : During my own life, no epoch- 
making invention has ever come until it 
was needed. Until the means of traffic 
and travel on the sure and firm-set earth 
had been thoroughly exploited, and it was 
time for flight, invention and capital never 
seriously essayed the problem, which is 
to be, after all, a greater advance for the 
twentieth century than the railroad and 
telegraphy for its predecessor. Moreover, 
until those former processes had stead- 
ily increased the economy of energy, and 
the advance toward perfection of mechan- 
ical motors, serious effort was impossible. 
As to the effects of aerial navigation, I 
said that the first and obvious one would 
be to make Decatur, Illinois, a seaport. 
I might as well have said Denver or 
San Moritz, the new ocean being every- 
where and every spot on earth, from the 
Victoria Embankment to either pole, a 
"port of entry." Fourier's idea of the 
slower growth of overgrown cities would 
follow, and the multiplication of smaller 
land-locked centers of habitation, cul- 
ture, and trade. I showed that Fou- 
rier's mistake was in urging us to ef- 
fect, by a forcing artificial process, what 
only time and evolution could bring 
about — the desired distribution of pop- 
ulation throughout the land. I showed 
that the change must be gradual; the 
art of aerial navigation long in per- 
fecting; our primitive vessels and motors 
as rude as was Stevenson's locomotive ; 
freight would long move, if not al- 
ways, by water and rail ; mails and ex- 
press packages, and passengers would be 
the first transmitted; and a picture was 
drawn of the swift dropping of the great 
newspapers into towns and villages every- 
where. Space was devoted to the thrills 
of wonder and ecstasy pertaining to the 
luxury of flight, which would render all 
former travel tame by comparison. And, 
those twenty-eight years ago, the article 
enlarged on the check upon the arrogance 



22 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



of monopolies, — the great transportation 
companies, — whose license and immunity 
and freedom were dwelt upon, including 
their evil control of law-making and prac- 
tice. Aerial companies of course will be 
chartered, but who could impede the right 
of way upon these higher than the high 
seas? The quick adjustment of science to 
the new opportunities was predicted; me- 
teorology, discovery, astronomy from the 
clear upper air, geology — in every direc- 
tion knowledge would be amazingly in- 
creased. 

Eventually new mechanical and manu- 
facturing industries would arise, marked 
by grace, lightness, and strength. A new 
profession of aeromanship would exercise 
the labor of a countless army of trained 
officers and airmen ; a new poetry and ro- 
mance would have birth. Landscapes 
painted between earth and skies would 
take on a new universe of drawing, color, 
light, and shade. The ends of the earth 
would be visited by all. Sportsmen would 
have the world for a sporting-ground; 
the yachts of the air would be christened 
with beautiful names — Iris, Aurora, Hebe, 
Ganymede, Hermes, Ariel, and others not 
derived from the pure springs of Aryan 
beauty. 

Above all, and influencing all, a new 
departure must at once be made in politi- 
cal science and international comity. 
Boulevards would be virtually abolished ; 
laws and customs must soon more closely 
assimilate ; free trade must be imperative 
and universal ; the Congress of nations no 
longer would concern itself with aca- 
demic questions. War perforce would 
come to an end, after perhaps a few de- 
structive experiments ; there would be no 
"ghastly dew" from "the nations' airy 
navies." Death-dealing aerial vessels and 
squadrons would be maintained solely for 
police surveillance over barbarous tribes 
and nations. The dawn of a Saturnian 
age at least would be at hand. I closed 
with an appeal for the liberal expenditure 
of a single government., or even of one of 
the moneyed corporations or some multi- 
millionaire, of that former time, toward 
a solution of the problem. With or with- 
out their efforts. I said the result was even 
at our door. 

The appearance of this article brought 
the writer into business. The general 
reader found it interesting. Fellow-wri- 



ters thought it an ingenious flight of 
fancy, the verisimilitude of realism and 
romance, akin to Locke's "Moon Hoax," 
Poe's adventure of "Hans Pfaall," "MS. 
Found in a Bottle," "The Gold-Bug," 
"M. Valdemar," "Arthur Gordon Pym." 
A fellow-member of the Century Club — 
Newton, an accomplished engineer — said 
that between ourselves I "meant it as a 
fake," and looked upon me incredulously 
when I assured him that I was in dead 
earnest. All this I expected, but I had 
not foreseen the instant attention the arti- 
cle gained from people in Europe and the 
States, who, it appeared, were concerned 
about the prophecy. I soon learned of 
the existence of foreign aerial societies 
from their official committees. From that 
time, for several years aspiring and im- 
poverished inventors sent me diagrams, 
theories, even models. I have a great box 
full of such matters accumulated in those 
years. Despite newspaper scoffing, and 
the banter of minor engineers, and the 
raillery of my really learned friend New- 
ton, who soon after died, I was surprised 
and gratified to find that various distin- 
guished professional experts expressed 
great interest in my views, and, allow- 
ing for such defects as would be ex- 
pected in a long article not based upon 
a full study of a subject, in the main 
coincided with them r so far as the com- 
ing solution of the matter was con- 
cerned. Notably so, Mr. Chanute, that 
able, open-minded, and distinguished 
civil engineer, official, and inventor, who 
has been the most able and hopeful thinker 
on the subject from that time to the pres- 
ent day. The talks with him and the 
views he gave me from his full knowledge 
made me quite content to have ventured 
with that paper at that time. At the date 
of my paper, I think he was the chief en- 
gineer of the Erie Railway, and soon 
afterward made his earlier experiments to 
test the relative resistance of the atmos- 
phere to differently shaped railway cars, 
moving at different velocities. He never 
lost sight of the subject either by word or 
act, keeping step with every advance both 
in dirigible aerostats and in gliders heavier 
than the air. Toward the latter he di- 
rected in the end his chief interest, and 
he has always claimed that only two ques- 
tions are left — those of stability and 
power. He has been the friend and con- 



THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR 



23 



fidential ally of the Wright brothers, and ting and striving to excel him. Motors 



his paper on their motor-flyer, forming 
the opening chapter of our Aero Club's 
volume, informed the experimenters of 
Herring's automatic gliding-machine, run 
by a light yet strong gasolene motor. He 
himself also constructed a multiple- 
winged machine, which was "demon- 
strated" near Chicago in 1896. 

In addition to the general and quasi- 
imaginative forecast of what would be 
the results of aerial navigation, I ven- 
tured, from the progress of what in 1878 
had already to be observed, to make cer- 
tain chronological expectations ; to wit, 
that by the end of the nineteenth century, 
dirigible air-travelers, substantially on the 
fish model, would be making at least 
twenty miles an hour in perfect calm, and 
that from this they would soon advance 
to three times that potential. All would 
depend upon the inventions and improve- 



weighing only one pound to the horse- 
power have been produced. Structure has 
been refined and strengthened. The ver- 
tical screw has been taken in hand. Not 
only private capital, but that of govern- 
ments, is devoted to the competition. In 
France, speeds of over twenty miles an 
hour in a calm were attained in the first 
lustrum of this century. Germany, in- 
stantly alert as a military nation, has 
reached the greatest success thus far with 
Count Zeppelin's air-ship, its buttressed 
frame, its large proportions, its actual 
calm-speed of thirty-eight miles an hour, 
its double motors. Previously La Pa- 
trie had gone from Paris to . Verdun, 
a distance of 187 miles, in six hours, 
forty-five minutes, but making 23 miles 
an hour when not helped by the wind. 
The most successful machines have dem- 
onstrated my early protest against car- 



ment of motors ; upon the shape, and leverage by placing the car and motor 



structure of the machines ; and upon the 
engines and steering-apparatus, and so on. 
As a matter of fact, within five years 
(in 1884) a dirigible flight of a spindle- 
shaped machine, at the rate of fifteen 
miles an hour, was executed by La 
France ; but the structure, and its mo- 
tor and steering-apparatus, were too prim- 
itive to justify any confidence in its prac- 
tical utilization. The weight of this 
motive power was near 170 pounds to the 
horse-power. Little advance was made 
for years, but in 1890 Maxim demon- 
strated that a heavy aeroplane could be 
made at least to rise from the ground, and 



close to the end of the aerostat, and Zep- 
pelin's magic attachment almost reaches 
my ideal of an integral moving body. 
The account of all this, regularly taken 
by me from the press for a quarter- 
century, is well condensed and illus- 
trated in Mr. Augustus Post's first hand- 
book of the Aero Club of America, with 
plenteous other matter. This book, 1 the 
club, the experiments of its enthusias- 
tic members, show how thoroughly the 
demonstration that the problem of aerial 
navigation is solved has entered into the 
mind, and has promoted the contests of 
sport and venturous amateurs, as of gov- 



since then we have had the daring and , ernments and savants. At this moment the 



brilliant experiments of Langley, Le- 
baudy, Lilienthal, Herring, Chanute, and 
others, culminating, up to date, in the 
motor-flyer of the Wright brothers and 
the tetrahedral designs of Professor A. 
G. Bell. Unquestionably Santos-Dumont 
gave the greatest new stimulus to the cam- 
paign, and fired the public imagination by 
both practical and dramatic success with 
the aerostatic air-ships, which his fortune 
enabled and his ambition nerved him to 
build and navigate successively, and also 
by his prize- winning 'dirigible flights in 
full view of the French capital, con- 
tinued for years ; and soon ambitious dem- 
onstrators, and governments were imita- 



highest mechanical genius of the world 
is applied to the perfection of motors and 
dirigible aerostatic ships, and to the solu- 
tion of the problems of power and stabil- 
ity for aeroplanes and tetrahedral kites. 
Of all the dirigible fish patterns, those by 
the Germans are the most successful, and 
certainly most conform to my require- 
ments of unity, rigidity, and front 
strengthened lika the head of a fish ; they 
are also the largest, profiting by the fact 
that, as Mr. Carl Dienstbach states it, 
"By the law of air accumulation in front 
of a moving body, the resistance becomes 
proportionately less for one big body than 
for many small ones," together equaling 



iThis volume was compiled by the Committee of Publication of the Club: Mr. W. J. Hammer, 
Mr. Israel Ludlow, and Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Club. 



24 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



it in cross-section. This has virtually jus- 
tified my argument for liberal outlay and 
magnitude of dimensions. Finally, at the 
present writing, England has waked up to 
the necessity of grappling the problem as 
a war measure, and her engineers are at 
work. Then our Government, viewing 
with sympathy the efforts for ultimate 
achievement and management of the aero- 
plane flyers and gliders, sees that the di- 
rigible is already accomplished, and needs 
only a little further application to mili- 
tary needs, and has gone to work itself, 
with all the advances of other govern- 
ments to start with. I conclude that the 
era of life and government as effected by 
man's conquest of the air is upon us ; that 
certain radical results are to follow, as 
surely as the simple invention of the ele- 
vator has quadrupled the residence capac- 
ity of any given area of city, and the toy- 
bicycle, first, and the automobile later, 
have revolutionized road-building — to 
take only two of the modern inventions of 
general utilization ; and that the aerial 
age is yet in its infancy. 

But at this moment I am not half so 
much intent upon rehearsing my "told 
you so" as about completing the train of 
results which would follow upon even ini- 
tiatory navigation of the air. For, in fact, 
I made the strangest possible omission — 
an omission that to me would be incredi- 
ble, if I did not plead the absolute in- 
credulity at that time prevailing as to the 
solution of the problem at all — a problem 
then classed with the squaring of the cir- 
cle. It is true, I reflect with complacency, 
that I did devote picturesquely eloquent 
passages to what would follow man's con- 
quest of the air, and I did say, as all have 
found obvious, that it would make war a 
hideous impracticability. But of late — 
that is, since the appearance of Captain 
Mahan's masterwork, in 1893, on the "In- 
fluence of Sea Power in History" — I have 
wondered how it was that, going at such 
length into the corollaries of the German 
nature, I could have failed to think of 
the one result — of that glaring concrete 
type which most impresses the unreflect- 
ing average class,— most instantaneous in 
existence, and most dramatic and start- 
lingly recognizable and to be reckoned 
with. 

When four grand armies of Germany, 
France, Great Britain, and the United 



States find themselves in possession of 
aerostats manageable for flight and mili- 
tary use, the very first question in world- 
politics to be asked is, How will this af- 
fect the foreign policy and international 
status of Great Britain, now for two cen- 
turies demonstrably the Princess of the 
Power of the Sea, and by the same token 
unassailable whether in her insular strong- 
hold, or upon the waves which Britannia 
has ruled? The question is not, What of 
her colonies, where her scepter guides the 
sun around the globe, but, What of the 
nucleus of Great Britain? What of the 
tight little island, mother and defender 
of them all? Is there to be, — can there 
be? — a Prince of the Power of the Air? 
For if there is, then the distinction, the 
unique advantage of the British empire 
vanishes, and Great Britain must take her 
place on a level with all the other sover- 
eign great powers. This may not, will 
not, imperil her safety; but it must re- 
duce her pride, her vaunted superiority, 
and her prerogatives, to the common in- 
ternational denominator. Either this 
must eventuate or the assent of historians 
and history to her insularity and her sea- 
domain as the basis of her greatness has 
been purely chimerical — an illusion upon 
which her supremacy has been as well as- 
sured as if it were fact. 

It is no illusion. Her sea-power, sup- 
plemented by her statesmanship and valor, 
has forwarded her growth and sustained 
her greatness. It must cease to do so from 
the decade in which the atmosphere en- 
veloping the globe becomes man's greater 
ocean. So far as war is concerned — as 
the deterring factor, the "Last Chantey" 
of the waves as dominating alike Lon- 
don's "gossiping Mall and Square" and 
"The naked shingles of the world" will 
be sung, and a new song may be sounded 
in the empyrean, the way of a ship in the 
sea — of an eagle in the air. 

"The sea is a wide common, over which 
a man may pass in all directions." Thus 
writes Mahan, and he adds that there are 
certain trade-routes "which controlling 
reasons" have led men "to choose . . . 
rather than others." But, after all, the 
surface of the sea, with its trade-routes, 
bears to the upper ocean the fancied rela- 
tion of flatland to actual space. The at- 
mosphere has no continental borders, no 
island coasts. The sea is "cabin'd, 



THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR 



25 



cribb'd, confin'd," not "broad and general 
as the casing air." Yes, supremacy in 
peace and war has indeed depended upon 
sea power, and "man's commerce on se- 
cure ports where his ships could lie in 
safety" ; and such ports set close together 
against all waves and against all winds 
have made Britain what she is. So from 
the date when Anglo-Saxon and Norman 
blended on English soil, two concepts 
have possessed the national mind. First, 
a perfectly clear understanding of the 
source and muniment of the national 
greatness, and, second, that apprehension, 
often dormant in tranquil periods, but 
alert at the least suggestion of trouble 
with the first-class neighboring power. 
Every true son of Britain feels that the 
vital spot of the empire, the source of 
energy, is the tight little island : threaten 
it, and a tremor runs throughout the colo- 
nial system ; pierce it, and, for the mo- 
ment at least, paralysis must ensue. 

For this reason solely, our transatlantic 
kinsmen, — from whom we derive, how- 
ever mixed the increased immigration, 
our own equipoise, — as heroic a people as 
any men on earth, and the most steadfast 
when once in fight and the battle goes 
wrong, are periodically falling, without 
apparent sense of the grotesque, into 
funks which the less brave and competent 
seldom display. Their hysteria is that of 
a people long immune, whose insularity 
is wealth and comfort. To those who 
have nothing to lose, but everything to 
gain, — the gipsies and the free-lances 
among countries, the proletarians of the 
world, however ignoble in war, — the Brit- 
isher's spasms of alarm afford diversion. 
Nothing has added more to the gaiety of 
nations than English governmental oppo- 
sition, and the reasons given for it, to the 
tunnel — thrice cabled to halt — between 
the coast at Cap Blanc-Nez, in France, 
and that below Shakspere's Cliff "near 
Dover." More reasonable, of course, has 
been the national attitude toward a suc- 
cession of suspects and rivals. First, 
within memory of those now living, it was 
France, the hereditary foe ; then, for half 
a century, Russia — the one power that 
would seem Great Britain's natural ally 
in mutual exploitation of Asia upon lati- 
tudinal lines; and now Germany, whom, 
it must be confessed there is manifest rea- 
son for dreading not only as a trade-rival, 



but for her masterful determination to 
figure in all respects as what an English 
school-boy would call "one of her own 
size." 

Concerning Germany, and all uninsu- 
lar compeers, she has had much reason, 
hitherto, for complacent reliance upon 
the principle laid down by Mahan : "If a 
nation be so situated that it is neither 
forced to defend itself on land, nor to 
seek extension of its territory by way of 
the land, it has, by the very unity of its 
aims directed upon the sea, an advantage 
as compared with a people one of whose 
boundaries is continental. This has been 
a great advantage to England over both 
France and Holland as a sea-power." 

But when he says, elsewhere, "if she 
maintain her navy in full strength, the 
future will doubtless repeat the lesson of 
the past," the world, once awakened to 
what aerial war-power means, will enter 
a demurrer. Is, then, the lesson of the 
past, which depends upon the unique in- 
sularity, so surely to be repeated? There 
are portents to the contrary : the shadow 
cast by Zeppelin's air-ships— even by the 
heavier-than-air scouts appearing across 
the horizon; La Patrie dropping out of 
a clear sky into an astonished village in 
Ireland ; and the promise of aerial crea- 
tions which shall flock at the mariner's 
hallo, and skim and hover like ospreys on 
the track of the seafaring fleet. 

And what of England, the country 
which of all has most to lose and least 
to gain? How is she contemplating the 
era when all nations equal her in posses- 
sion of the atmospheric ocean, the higher 
seas? When the aerial fleets of the world 
can pass as readily as her own not into, 
but over, the Cinque Ports; over St. 
Paul's, and Lombard Street, and Buck- 
ingham Palace ; over Windsor, over Man- 
chester, and Birmingham, and Sheffield; 
over the length of the fairest, strongest, 
securest, most historic, and richest of ar- 
gosied realms, from Land's End to John 
o' Groat's, — from her new naval base at 
Rosyth to the borders of the Mersey? 

Major F. S. Baden-Powell, late of the 
Scotch Guards, summed up the whole 
matter, last year, with so quiet a signifi- 
cance that one would think there could 
be no other subject so occupying the mind 
of his countrymen. "If in the future all 
nations adopt air-ships for war, much of 



26 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



our insularity will be gone and we must 
make clue preparation." 

But in the event of England's loss of 
insularity, what preparation, or equality 
of aerial equipment, can restore to her a 
specific supremacy like that, — with all it 
includes, — which is possessed by her, so 
long as sea-power is trie sovereign power, 
and "Britannia rules the waves"? 

Recalling the past, it is atypical, to say 
the least, that all England is not at this 
moment evincing for once a just apprehen- 
sion ; not of defeat in war or even of vio- 
lence at alien hands, but of the falling-in 
of that concession of specific immunity 
which has been a sound warrant for the 
"gude conceit of hersel" so little relished 
by the envious. A like apathy, however, 
prevails in other countries most con- 
cerned, in some of which the people at 
large express a full realization of what is 
soon to affect modes of life and interna- 
tional liberties and restrictions. The sub- 



jugation of the atmosphere has not come 
impressively like the steamboat of Fulton, 
or the "What hath God wrought" over 
Morse's wire, but has crept slowly from 
the diversion stage to the utilization of 
advanced engineering and equipment. 

Who can doubt that the actual condi- 
tion is understood in the chancelries of 
Europe — it must be that cabinets and 
rulers have an inkling of it, that British 
statesmen know what it means, else why 
are they watching so intently the efforts 
made by one another? England, as usual, 
is letting others pull the chestnuts out 
of the fire, ready to profit in imitation 
of what others may produce ; although, 
even she, at last, has tested, rather un- 
successfully, a dirigible air-ship of her 
own. 

And yet, if the statesmen of the great 
powers really appreciate what is coming, 
why do they insist so on the increase of 
their navies? 



DR. BELL'S COMMENT ON THE FOREGOING ARTICLE 

The letter which follows, written m response to a request from the Editor of The 
Century that Dr. Bell would read the proofs of this article, is here printed with his 
consent : 

Many thanks for the privilege of reading Mr. Stedman's article, which I return. I 
see nothing to correct in it. 

While of course the bird is Nature's model for the flying-machine heavier than air, 
Mr. Stedman is undoubtedly right in looking upon the fish as the true model for the 
dirigible balloon. It is certainly noteworthy that the dirigible war-balloon of to-day 
already approximates the fish-like form predicted by him. 

He is also right I think in supposing that of all the nations of the world the inter- 
ests of Great Britain will be most vitally affected by progress in aeronautics. For it 
is obvious that sea-power will become of secondary importance when air-power has 
been fully developed through the use of dirigible balloons and flying-machines in war. 
The nation that secures control of the air will ultimately rule the world. 

Yours sincerely, 

Alexander Graham Bell. 

Washington, D. C, March 16, 1908. 




I 





owe mexicHn gmiRcnes 



FROffi PHOTOGRAPHS 



mil dc by HeRRYHAveM 

ttSITfi TGXT BY 



lOCKOGOOD DG Horgst 




iraiRcn built oi^cr Tne Ioly Iprihg m Munmmpe 



saineD liraiRCfi at mommeY 



02XJ6R0F smiRcn at HmiRireusco 



IlmiRcn £T Irurubusco 



LXXVI— 4 



28 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 




"HERE is no country 
better worth visiting 
than Mexico. It is 
very striking, in cross- 
ing the border from 
the United States, to 
note how completely 
everything changes. 
Here there hardly seems anything man 
has constructed which harmonizes with 
its surroundings ; there everything seems 
to be entirely a part of the country. 
It is more foreign than Europe is now, 
and constantly reminds one of the East. 
Riding in some of the little-traveled 
districts, I could hardly believe that I 
was not in India. The dust in the 
road, the thorn-scrub on both sides, with 
that pungent smell of the blossoms, all 
reminded me of the country about Ah- 
medabad. The plateau in winter, the 
dry season, is very much like the desert 
— long stretches of country, with pur- 
ple mountains in the distance, without 
a tree in sight except where there is a 
town, or where irrigation has kept a 
little green and a few trees have been 
planted. Often the horizon is so dis- 
tant that the mountains melt into the 
sky, and perhaps one catches a glimpse of 
the snow on one of the volcanoes. The 
color is that of its own Mexican opal — 
greens, blues, and reds. Everywhere the 
distinctive features are the church towers 
and tiled domes rising above the towns. 
The exteriors of these churches are al- 
ways picturesque and interesting ; but the 
interiors are usually disappointing, for 
they have suffered much during many 
revolutions, and perhaps even more from 
senseless renovations. There are a few 
still untouched, where one can see them 
as nearly all were once, entirely covered 
with richly carved wood heavily gilded. 
Gold was used thickly everywhere, till 
the carving looked like solid metal. I 
have seen much gold in churches, but 
none to equal that in Mexico. 

In the cathedral of the City of Mexico 
there is still some of the' gilded carving 
left, but not enough to give the real ef- 
fect. As I never passed a church without 
going inside to see what there was, I was 
able to form a very correct estimate of 
the interiors. The cathedral in Puebla 
has the finest inlaid choir stalls to be 
found anywhere. I do not remember 



having seen any more beautiful geomet- 
rical designs even in the Orient. There is 
a very beautiful chapel in the church of 
Santo Domingo, entirely unspoiled, and 
nearly all the churches in Puebla have 
more or less of this gilded carving — cer- 
tainly enough to show how general it was. 

The most beautiful is the church of 
San Francisco, about three miles from 
Cholula. It is almost unknown, and I 
heard of it only from one of my resident 
friends, who arranged with the chief po- 
litico to let me have his carriage to get 
there, with the necessary order to enter. 
The church stands on a hill overlooking 
the Atoyac Valley and facing Popocate- 
petl to the west. The entire exterior is 
covered with tile, the only example of 
this in Mexico. The interior is one mass 
of the richest gilded carving of the old- 
est and best period. The effect is won- 
derful. One gets none of the glare of 
European gilded decoration. 

The only other examples to compare with 
this are the cathedral at Taxco and the 
church on the hill above Tlaxcala, both 
of later date. The little church at Tla- 
colula, on the road to Mitla, has a very 
fine chapel, and the church of Santa Rosa 
at Queretaro is another beautiful example 
of the gilded carving. Santo Domingo 
at Oaxaca is interesting, but its gilded 
stucco, does not equal the carving in the 
other churches I have mentioned. The 
Mexican Indian is an instance in which 
the skill of the workman has turned even 
bad designs into works of art. 

Thephotographsby Henry Ravel], here re- 
produced, give a very good idea of the type. 

So much interest is being taken in the 
artistic development of photography that 
something should be said about Ravell 
and his work. His father was a pho- 
tographer in one of the photographic en- 
largement firms at Auburn, New York, 
which in the seventies and early eighties 
was the most important center of this in- 
dustry in the world. Ten Eyck & Co., 
the largest of. the ten principal concerns, 
did a business of $75,000 a year, and had 
two hundred agents scattered nearly all 
over the world, even as far as Australia. 
They employed not only a staff of pho- 
tographers but of artists, and were pre- 
pared to furnish portraits from eight by 
ten to life-size in photograph or any other 
medium, including oil. Some of our sue- 




RUINED CHURCH AT MONTEREY 



cessful artists of to-day began there. 
Ravell, after being his father's assistant 
as a boy, studied water-color painting 
with Henry W. Ranger, and twenty-five 
years ago was sent to Mexico as an agent. 
He has been at work there ever since, 
painting a little, but mainly photograph- 
ing. He has had to work everything out 
for himself. His early training has given 
him exceptional skill in developing dif- 
ferent printing processes, which he has 
brought to great excellence. Last sum- 



mer he started experiments in color- 
printing. His process is simple. Instead 
of introducing colors on the negative, as 
in the Lumiere process, he is using the 
colors in the sensitizer of the printing 
paper. The specimens he has sent me are 
printed in three or four colors. Each 
print is finished, recoated all over with 
the sensitizer with the next color, and 
again printed. This is done for each color 
separately, the black print coming last, 
as in the regular color-printing process. 

29 







TOWER OF THE CHURCH AT CHURUBUSCO 




CHURCH AT CHURUBUSCO 



THE RED CITY 

A NOVEL OF THE SECOND ADMINISTRATION 
OF WASHINGTON 

BY S. WEIR MITCHELL, M.D. 

Author of "Hugh Wynne," "Constance Trescot," etc. 



X 



IT was after dark when Schmidt left 
Margaret at her home. As he was 
about to drive away to the stable, he said : 
"Those are wild girls, but, my dear child, 
you were so very pretty, I for one almost 
forgave them." 

"Oh, was I?" she cried, shyly pleased 
and a little comforted. "But the lottery 
prize ; I shall hear about that, and so will 
my mother, too. I never gave it a thought 
when uncle spoke of it long ago." 

"It is a small matter, Pearl. We will 
talk about it later. Now go in and quit 
thinking of it. It is shrewd weather, and 
nipping." 

Margaret knew very well that she had 
good cause to be uneasy. Friends had 
been of late much exercised over the evil 
of lotteries, and half of Langstroth's sat- 
isfaction in this form of gambling was due 
to his love of opposition and his desire to 
annoy the society of which he still" called 
himself a member. Although, to his 
anger, he had long ago been disowned, he 
still went to meeting once or twice a year. 
He had had no such sacrificial conscience 
in the war as made Clement Biddle and 
Wetherill "apostates," as Friends called 
them. He was by birthright a member 
of the society, and stood for King George, 
and would pay no war tax. But when the 
vendue-master took his old plate and 
chairs, he went privately and bought them 
back ; and so, having thus paid for the 
joy of apparent opposition, drank to the 
king in private, and made himself merry 
over the men who, sturdily accepting loss 
for conscience's sake, sat at meals on their 

32 



kitchen chairs, silently unresistant, but, if 
human, a little sorrowful concerning the 
silver which came over with Penn and 
was their only material reminder of the 
Welsh homes their fathers had left that 
they might worship God in their own 
simple way. 

The one person Langstroth loved was 
his great-niece, of whose attachment to 
the German he was jealous with that keen 
jealousy known to those who are capable 
of but one single love. He had meant to 
annoy her mother; and, with no least idea 
that he would win a prize for her child, 
was now vexed at Margaret's want of 
gratitude, and well pleased with the fuss 
there would be when the news got out and 
Friends came to hear of it. 

When Pearl threw herself into the 
mother's arms and broke into tears, sob- 
bing out the double story, for a moment 
Mrs. Swanwick was silent. 

"My dear," she said at last, "why 
didst thou let them dress thee?" 

"I — I could not help it, and — and — 
I liked it mother. Thou didst like it 
once," she added, with a look of piteous 
appeal. "Don't scold me, mother. Thou 
must have liked it once." 

"I, dear? Yes, I liked it. But — scold 
thee? Do I ever scold thee? 'T is but a 
small matter. It will be the talk of a 
week, and Gainor Wynne will laugh, and 
soon it will be forgotten. The lottery is 
more serious." 

"But I did not do it." 

"No." 

"They will blame thee, mother, I know 
— when it was all my uncle's doing. Let 
them talk to him." 



THE RED CITY 



33 



The widow smiled. "Nothing would 
please him better ; but — they have long 
since given up Josiah for a lost sheep — " 

"Black, mother?" She was a trifle re- 
lieved at the thought of an interview be- 
tween Friend Howell, the gentlest of the 
gentle, and Josiah. 

"Brown, not black," said the mother, 
smiling. " It will someway get settled, 
my child. Now go early to bed and leave 
it to thy elders. I shall talk of it to 
Friend Schmidt." 

"Yes, mother." Her confidence in the 
German gentleman, now for five years 
their guest, was boundless. 

"And say thy prayers with a quiet 
heart. Thou hast done no wrong. Good 
night, my child. Ask if Friend de Cour- 
val wants anything. Since her son went 
away, she has been troubled, as who 
would not be. Another's real cause for 
distress should make us feel how small 
a matter is this of ours."' She kissed her 
again, and the girl went slowly up-stairs, 
murmuring: "He went away and never 
so much as said good-by to me. I do not 
think it was civil." 

Meanwhile the mother sat still, with 
only the click, click of the knitting- 
needles, which somehow seemed always to 
assist her to think. She had steadily re- 
fused help in money from Uncle Josiah, 
and now, being as angry as was within the 
possibilities of a temper radiant with the 
sunshine of good humor, she rejoiced that 
she owed Josiah nothing. 

"He shall have a piece of my mind," 
she said aloud, and indeed a large slice 
would have been a sweetening addition to 
his crabbed sourness. "Ah, me!" she 
added, " I must not think of the money ; 
but how easy it would make things !" Not 
even Schmidt had been permitted to pay 
more than a reasonable board. No, she 
would not repine ; and now Madame, re- 
luctantly accepting her son's increased 
wages, had insisted that his room be kept 
vacant and paid for, and was not to be 
gainsaid about the needed fur-lined 
roquelaure she bought for her hostess and 
the extra pay for small luxuries. 

"May God forgive me that I have been 
unthankful for his goodness," said Mary 
Swanwick, and so saying put aside her 
thoughts with her knitting, and sat down 
to read a little in the book she had 
taken from the library, to Friend Poul- 



son's dismay. "Thou wilt not like it, 
Mary Swanwick." In a minute of mis- 
chief young Mr. Willing had told her of 
a book he had lately read — a French 
book, amusing and witty. He had left 
her wishing he could see her when she 
read it, but self-advised to stay away for 
a time. 

She sat down with anticipative satis- 
faction. "What hard French!" she 
thought. "I must ask help of Madame," 
as she often called her, Friend Courval 
being, as she saw plainly, too familiar to 
please her guest. She read on, smiling at 
the immortal wit and humor of a day long 
passed. Suddenly she shut the book with a 
quick movement, and set it aside. "What 
manner of man was this Rabelais ? Friend 
Poulson should have been more plain with 
me; and as for Master Willing, I shall 
write to him, too, a bit of my mind." But 
she never did, and only said aloud: "If 
I give away any more pieces of my mind, 
I shall have none left," and turned, as 
her diary records, to "The Pilgrim's 
Progress," of which, she remarked, "an 
old book by one John Bunyan, much read 
by Friends and generally approved, rid- 
iculed by many, but not by me. It seems 
to me good, pious wit, and not obscene 
like the other. I fear I sin sometimes in 
being too curious about books." Thus 
having put on paper her reflections, she 
went to bed, having in mind a vague and 
naughty desire to have seen Margaret in 
the foolish garb of worldly folk. 

Margaret, ashamed, would go nowhere 
for a week, and did more than the needed 
housework, to Nanny's disgust, whose re- 
membrances were of days of luxury and 
small need for "quality folks" to dust 
rooms. The work over, when tired of her 
labor, Margaret sat out in the winter sun- 
shine in the fur-lined roquelaure, Ma- 
dame's extravagant gift, and, enraptured, 
read "The Mysteries of Udolpho," or 
closing the book, sailed with the Marie, 
and wondered what San Domingo was 
like. 

Meanwhile the town, very gay just now 
with dinners Mr. John Adams thought so 
excessive, and with sleigh-riding parties 
to Belmont and Cliveden, rang with wild 
statements of the dressing scene and the 
lottery. Very comic it was to the young 
bucks, and, "Pray, Mrs. Byrd, did the 
garters fit?" "Fie, for shame!" "And 




Drawn by Arthur I. Keller. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 

"'THOU CANST NOT SHOE MY CONSCIENCE, DANIEL OFFLEY'" 



THE RED CITY 



35 



no stays, we hear," wives told their hus- 
bands, and once in the London Coffee- 
house, in front of which, long ago, Congo 
slaves were sold and where now men dis- 
cussed things social, commercial, and 
political, Schmidt had called a man to 
stern account and exacted an apology. 
The gay girls told their Quaker cousins, 
and at last Friends were of a mind to talk 
to Mary Swanwick, especially of the lot- 
tery. 

Before graver measures were taken, it 
was advisable that one should undertake 
to learn the truth, for it was felt not to 
be desirable to discipline by formal meas- 
ures so blameless a member where clearly 
there had been much exaggeration of 
statement. 

• Ten days after the dinner at Lands- 
downe, John Pemberton was met in the 
hall of the Swanwick house by Mr. 
Schmidt, both women being out. The 
German at once guessed the errand of this 
most kindly of Quaker gentles, and said, 
"Mr. Pemberton, you are come, I sup- 
pose, to speak for Friends of the gossip 
about these, my own friends. Pray be 
seated. They are out." 

"But my errand is not to thee, who art 
not of the Society of Friends." 

"I am of the society of these friends. I 
know why you are come. Talk to me." 

"I am advised in spirit that it may be 
as well to do so. Thou art a just man. I 
shall speak." 

On this he sat down. It was a singular 
figure the German saw. The broad, white 
beaver hat, which the Quaker gentleman 
kept on his head, was turned up in front 
and at the back over abundant gray hair. 
A great eagle nose overhanging a sharp 
chin, brought near to it by the toothless 
jaws of age, gave to the. side face a queer 
look of rapacity, contradicted by the re- 
finement and serene kindliness of the full 
face now turned upon the German. 

"Friend Schmidt," he said, "our young 
friend, we are told, has been unwise and 
exhibited herself among those of the 
world in unseemly attire. There are those 
of us who, like Friend Logan, are setting 
a bad example in their attire to the young. 
I may not better state how we feel than 
in the words of William Penn : ' Choose 
thy clothes by thine own eye, not by an- 
other's ; the more simple and plain they 
are the better ; neither unshapely nor fan- 



tastical, and for use and decency, not for 
pride.' I think my memory serves me." 

"I shall not argue with you, sir, but 
being in part an eye-witness, I shall relate 
what did occur," and he told very simply 
of the rude jest, and of the girl's embar- 
rassment as he had heard it from the 
mother. 

"I see," said Pemberton. "Too much 
has been made of it. She will hear no 
more of it from Friends, and it may be a 
lesson. Wilt thou greet her with affec- 
tionate remembrance from an old man 
and repeat what I have said?" 

"I will do so." 

"But there is a matter more serious. 
We are told that she bought a lottery- 
ticket, and has won a great prize. This 
we hear from Josiah Langstroth." 

"Did he say this — that she bought a 
ticket?" 

"We are so advised." 

"Then he lied. He bought it in her 
name, without asking her." 

"Art thou sure? Thy language is 
strong." 

"Yes, I am sure." 

"And what will Mary Swanwick do 
with this money won in evil ways?" 

"I do not know." 

"It is well that she should be coun- 
seled." 

"Do you not think, sir, as a man of 
sense and a gentleman and more, that 
it may be well to leave a high-minded 
woman to dispose of this matter? If she 
goes wrong, will it not then be time to 
interfere? There is not a ha'-penny of 
greed in her. Let her alone." 

The Quaker sat still a moment, his 
lean figure bent over his staff. "Thou 
art right," he said, looking up. "The 
matter shall rest, unless worse come of 
it." 

"Why not see Mr. Langstroth about 
it?" said the German, mischievously in- 
clined. "He is of Friends, I presume." 

"He is not," said Pemberton. "He 
talked in the war of going forth from us 
with Wetherill, but he hath not the cour- 
age of a house-fly. His doings are with- 
out conscience, and now he is set in his 
ways. He hath been temperately dealt 
with long ago, and in vain. An obstinate 
man; when he sets his foot down thou 
hast to dig it up to move him. I shall not 
open the matter with Josiah Langstroth. 



LXXVI-5 



36 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



I have been led to speak harshly. Fare- 
well." 

When Mrs. Swanwick heard of this and 
had talked of it to Margaret, the Pearl 
said, "We will not take the money, and 
uncle cannot; and it may go." Her de- 
cisiveness both pleased and astonished the 
mother. It was a maturing woman who 
thus anticipated Schmidt's advice and her 
own- and here for a little while the mat- 
ter lay at rest. 

Not all Friends, however, were either 
aware of what Pemberton had learned or 
were fully satisfied, so that one day Dan- 
iel Offley, blacksmith, a noisy preacher in 
meetings and sometimes advised of elders 
to sit down, resolved to set at rest alike 
his conscience and his curiosity. There- 
fore, on a February afternoon, being the 
2 2d, and already honored as the birthday 
of Washington, he found Margaret alone, 
as luck would have it. To this unusual 
house, as I have said, came not only 
statesmen, philosophers, and the rich. 
Hither, too, came the poor for help, the 
lesser Quakers, women and men, for coun- 
sel or a little sober gossip. All were wel- 
come, and Offley was not unfamiliar with 
the ways of the house. 

He found Margaret alone, and sitting 
down, began at once and harshly to ques- 
tion her in a loud voice concerning the 
story of her worldly vanity, and asked 
why she could thus have erred. 

The girl had had too much of it. Her 
conscience was clear, and Pemberton, 
whom she loved and respected, had been 
satisfied, as Schmidt had told them. She 
grew red, and rising, said: "I have list- 
ened to thee ; but now I say to thee, Dan- 
iel Offley, that it is none of thy business. 
Go home and shoe thy horses." 

He was not thus to be put down. "This 
is only to add bad temper to thee other 
faults. As a Friend and for many of the 
society, I would know what thee has done 
with thee devil wages of the lottery." 

She looked at him a moment. The big, 
red, coarse face struck her as comical. 
Her too often repressed sense of humor 
helped her, and crying, "Thou canst not 
shoe my conscience, Daniel Offley," she 
fled away up-stairs, her laughter ringing 
through the house, a little hysterical, per- 
haps, and first cousin to tears. The 
amazed preacher, left to his meditations, 
was shocked into taking off his beaver and 



saying strong words out of a far-away and 
naughty- past. 

She was angry beyond the common, for 
Schmidt had said it was all of it unwise 
and meddlesome, nor was the mother bet- 
ter pleased than he when she came to hear 
of Offley's visit. "I am but half a 
Friend," she confessed to Schmidt, not 
liking altogether even the gentler in- 
quiries of John Pemberton. 

When on the next Sunday Madame de 
Courval was about to set out for the 
Swedes' church, Mrs. Swanwick said, "It 
is time to go to meeting, my child." 

"I am not going, mother." 

"But thou didst not go last First Day." 

"No. I cannot, mother. May I go 
with Madame?" 

"Why not?" said Schmidt, looking up 
from his book. And so the Pearl went to 
Gloria Dei. 

"They have lost a good Quaker by 
their impertinence," said Schmidt to him- 
self. "She will never again go to meet- 
ing." And, despite much gentle urging 
and much persuasive kindness, this came 
at last to be her custom, although she still 
wore unchanged her simple Quaker garb. 
Madame at least was pleased, but also at 
times thoughtful of the future when the 
young vicomte would walk between them 
down Swanson Street to church. 

There was, of course, as yet no news of 
the Marie, and many. bets on the result of 
the bold venture were made in the coffee- 
houses, for now, in March of the year '93, 
the story of the king's death and of war 
between France and England began fur- 
ther to embitter party strife and alarm 
the owners of ships. If the vicomtesse 
was anxious, she said no word of what she 
felt. Outside of the quiet home where she 
sat over her embroidery there was an in- 
crease of political excitement, with much 
abuse, and in the gazettes wild articles 
over classic signatures. With Jacobin 
France for exemplar, the half-crazed re- 
publicans wore tricolor cockades, and the 
bonnet rouge passed from head to head at 
noisy feasts when "£a Ira" and the 
"Marseillaise" were sung. Many persons 
were for war with England, but the wiser 
of both parties were for the declaration 
of neutrality, proclaimed of late amid the 
fury of extreme party sentiment. The 
new French minister eagerly looked for 
by the republicans was soon to come and 



THE RED CITY 



37 



to add to the embarrassments of the Gov- 
ernment whatever of mischief insolent 
folly could devise. 

Meanwhile the hearts of two women 
were on the sea, and the ship-owners were 
increasingly worried ; for now goods for 
P'rench ports would be seized on the ocean 
and sailors claimed as English at the will 
of any British captain. 

Amid all this rancor of party and in- 
crease of anxiety as to whether America 
was to be at war or peace, the small in- 
cident of a girl's change of church was 
soon forgotten. It was not a rare occur- 
rence, and only remarkable because, as 
Schmidt said to Gainor Wynne somewhat 
later, it proved what a convincing 
preacher is anger. 

Mistress Wynne had come home from 
Boston after a week's travel, and being 
tired, went to bed and decided to have a 
doctor, with Chovet for choice, because 
Rush had little gossip. She was amply 
fed with it, including the talk about the 
change of dress and the lottery. So good 
was the effect that, on the doctor's depar- 
ture, she threw his pills out of the win- 
dow, and putting on pattens, took her 
cane and went away through the slush to 
see Margaret. On the way many things 
passed through her mind, but most of. all 
she remembered the spiritual struggles of 
her own young days, when she, too, had 
broken with Friends. 

And now when she met Margaret in the 
hall, it was not the girl who wept most. 
Miss Gainor, looking up, saw Schmidt, 
and cried to him to go and not mock at two 
women in tears no man could understand. 

"Ah," cried Schmidt, obediently disap- 
pearing, "he who shall explicate the tears 
of women shall be crowned by the ser- 
aphs." Thus he saw Gainor in her tender 
mood, such as made her to be forgiven 
much else of men and of angels. She 
comforted the girl, and over the sad story 
of the stays and garters she laughed — not 
then, but on her homeward way in very 
luxury of unfettered mirth. 

He who got the largest satisfaction out 
of poor Margaret's troubles was Josiah 
Langstroth, as he reflected how for the 
first time in his life he had made Mary 
Swanwick angry, had stirred up Friends, 
and at last had left the Presbyterian min- 
isters, the trustees of Princeton College, 
in .a hopeless quandary. If the owner of 



the prize in their lottery would not take 
it, to whom did it belong? And so at last 
it was left in Miss Swanwick's name in 
the new bank Hamilton had founded, to 
await a use of which as yet no man 
dreamed. 

XI 

When De Courval lost sight of the red 
city, and while the unusual warmth of the 
winter weather was favoring their escape 
from the ice adrift on the bay, the young 
man reflected that above all things it was 
wise to be on good terms with his captain. 

Accordingly, he said : "It is fit, sir, that 
you should advise me as to Mr. Wynne's 
instructions. Have the kindness to read 
them. I have not done so." 

Much gratified, the captain took the 
paper. "Hum!" he exclaimed, "to reach 
Port au Prince in time to prevent unload- 
ing of the George Washington. To get 
her out and send her home with her 
cargo." He paused. "We may be in 
time to overhaul and stop her ; but if 
she has arrived, to carry her out from 
under the guns of the fort is quite an- 
other matter. ' To avoid the British cruis- 
ers.' Well, yes, we are only in ballast," 
— he looked up with pride at the raking 
masts and well-trimmed sails, — "the ship 
does not float can catch the Marie. l Free 
to do as seems best if we are stopped by 
privateers.' Ah, he knows well enough 
what I should do." 

"He seems to have provided for that," 
said De Courval, glancing at the carron- 
ades and the long Tom astern such as 
many a peaceful ship prudently carried. 

The captain grinned. "That is like 
Hugh Wynne. But these island fools rely 
on us for diet. They will be starving, 
and if the George Washington reach the 
island before we do, they will lose no 
time, and, I guess, pay in worthless bills 
on France, or not at all. However, we 
shall see." This ended the conversation. 

They had the usual varied luck of the 
sea ; but the master carried sail, to the 
alarm of his mates, and seeing none of 
the dreaded cruisers, overtook a French 
merchant ship and learned with certainty 
of the outbreak of war between France 
and Great Britain, a fresh embarrass- 
ment, as they well knew. 

At sundown on February the 15th, the 
lookout on the crosstrees saw the moun- 



38 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



tains of San Domingo back of the city of 
Port au Prince, and running in under 
shelter of one of the many islands which 
protect the bay, the captain and the su- 
percargo took counsel as to what they 
should do. 

"If," said De Courval, "I could get 
ashore as a French sailor at night, and 
learn something of how things stand, we 
might be helped." 

The captain feared risks neither for 
himself nor for another, and at last said : 
"I can run you in at dark, land you on a 
spit of sand below the town, and wait for 
you." 

Thus it was that in sailor garb, a tri- 
color cockade in his hat, De Courval left 
the boat at eight at night and began with 
caution to approach the town. The bril- 
liant moon of a clear tropic night gave 
sufficient light, and following the shore, 
he soon came upon the warehouses and 
docks, where he hoped to learn what ships 
were in the harbor. Soon, however, he 
was halted by sentries, and being refused 
permission to pass, turned away from the 
water-front. Passing among rude cabins 
and seeing almost no one, he came out at 
last on a wide, well-built avenue and into 
a scene of sorrowful misery. Although 
the new commissioners of the republic had 
put down the insurrection of the slaves 
with appalling slaughter, their broken 
bands were still busy with the torch and 
the sword, so that the cities were filled 
with refugees of the plantation class — of 
men and women who were quite helpless, 
and knew not where to turn for shelter 
or for the bread of the day. 

De Courval had been quite unprepared 
for the wretchedness he now saw. In- 
distinct in the moon-made shadows, or 
better seen where the light lay, were 
huddled groups of women and children, 
with here and there a man made help- 
less by years of the ownership of man. 
Children were crying, while women tried 
in vain to comfort them. Others were 
silent or wildly bewailing their fate. To 
all seeming, indifferent to the oft-repeated 
appeals of misery, went by officials, army 
officers, smoking cigarettes, drunken sail- 
ors, and such women as a seaport educates 
to baseness. Half of the town had been 
for months in ashes. The congestion of 
the remainder was more and more felt as 
refugees from ruined plantations came 



hither, hungry and footsore, to seek food 
where was little and charity where was 
none. 

Unable to do more than pity, the young 
vicomte went his way with care along a 
street strangely crowded with all manner 
of people, himself on the lookout for a 
cafe where he might find sailors. Pres- 
ently he found what he sought, and easily 
fell into sea-talk with a group of seamen. 
He learned only that the town was with- 
out the usual supplies of food from the 
States; that the troops lived on fish, ba- 
nanas, and yams, and that General Es- 
barbe had ruthlessly put down the negro 
insurrection. Only one ship had come in 
of late. The outbreak of war between Eng- 
land and France had, in fact, for a time 
put an end to our valuable trade with the 
islands. Learning nothing of value, he 
paid his score and stood a moment in the 
doorway, the drunken revel of idle sailors 
behind him, and before him the helpless 
wretchedness of men and women to whom 
want had been hitherto unknown. He 
must seek elsewhere for what he wished 
to learn. As he hesitated, two men in 
white linen went by with a woman. They 
were laughing and talking loudly, appar- 
ently indifferent to the pitiable groups on 
door-steps or on the sidewalks. 

"Let us go to the Cocoanut," said the 
woman. One of the men said, "Yes." 
They went on, singing a light drinking- 
song. No one seemed to care for any one 
else : officials, sailors, soldiers, destitute 
planters seemed all to be in a state of de- 
tachment, every kindly human tie of man 
to man broken. In fact, for a year the 
island had been so gorged with tragedy 
that it no longer caused remark. 

De Courval followed the men and 
women, presuming that they were going 
to a cafe. If he learned nothing there, 
he would go back to the ship. 

Pushing carelessly by a group of refu- 
gees on the outside of the "Cocoanut," 
the party went in, and one, an official, as 
he seemed to be, sat down at a table with 
the woman. De Courval, following, took 
the nearest table, while the other com- 
panion of the woman went to the counter 
to give an order. The woman sat still, 
humming a coarse Creole love-song, and 
the vicomte looked about him. The room 
was dimly lighted, and quite half of it 
was occupied by the same kind of un- 



THE RED CITY 



39 



happy people who lay about on the streets, 
and may have paid for leave to sit in the 
cafe. The unrestrained, noisy grief of 
these well-dressed women amazed the 
young man, used to the courage and self- 
control of the women of his own class. 
The few tables near by were occupied by 
small parties of officers, in no way inter- 
ested in the wretchedness about them. A 
servant came to De Courval. What 
would he have? Fried fish there was, 
and baked yams, but no other dish. He 
asked for wine, paid for it, and began to 
be of a sudden curious about the party 
almost within touch. The woman was a 
handsome quadroon. Pinned in her high 
masses of black hair were a dozen of the 
large fireflies of the tropics, a common 
ornament of a certain class of women. 
From moment to moment their flashing 
lanterns strangely illuminated her hair 
and face. As he watched her in wonder, 
the man who had gone to the counter 
came back and sat down, facing De 
Courval. 

"Those sacres en j ants" he said, "they 
should be turned out ; one can hardly 
hear a word for the bawling. I shall be 
glad to leave — " 

"When do you go, Commissioner?" 
said the woman. 

"In a day or two. I am to return to 
France as soon as possible and make our 
report." 

De Courval was startled by the voice, 
and stared at the speaker. The face was 
no longer clean-shaven, and now wore the 
mustache, a recent Jacobin fashion. The 
high-arched eyebrows of the man of the 
Midi, the sharp voice, decided him. It 
was Carteaux. For a moment Rene had 
the slight vertigo of a man to whose in- 
tense passion is forbidden the relief of 
physical action. The scene at Avignon 
was before him, and instantly, too, the 
sense of need to be careful of himself, 
and to think solely of his errand. He 
swallowed his wine in haste, and sat still, 
losing no word of the talk, as the other 
man said : 

"They will unload the American ship 
to-morrow, I suppose." 

"Yes," said Carteaux; "and pay in 
good republican assignats and promises. 
Then I shall sail on her to Philadelphia, 
and go thence to France. Our work here 
is over." 



De Courval had heard enough. If the 
ship went to the States, there he would 
find his enemy. To let him go, thus un- 
punished, when so near, was obviously ail- 
that he could do. He rose and went out. 
In a few minutes he had left the town 
behind him and was running along the 
beach, relieved by rapid action. He hailed 
the boat, lying in wait off the shore, and 
had, as he stood, the thought that with 
his father's murderer within reach, duty 
had denied him the privilege of retribu- 
tive justice. It was like the dreams with 
which at times he was troubled — when 
he saw Carteaux smiling and was himself 
unable to move. Looking back, as the 
boat ran on to the beach, he saw a red 
glow far away, and over it the pall of 
smoke where hundreds of plantations 
were burning, with everywhere, as he had 
heard, ruin, massacre, and ruthless exe- 
cutions of the revolted slaves set free. 
Such of the upper class as could leave 
had departed, and long since Blanche- 
lande, ex-governor, had been sent to 
France, to be remembered only as the 
first victim of the guillotine. 

The captain, uneasy, hurried De Cour- 
val into the boat, for he had been gone 
two hours. There was a light, but in- 
creasing, wind off shore to help them and 
before them a mile's pull. As they rowed 
to the ship, the captain heard De Cour- 
val's news. "We must make sure it is our 
ship," said the captain. "I could row in 
and see. I should know that old tub a 
hundred yards away — yes, sir, even in the 
night." 

"The town, Captain, is in confusion — 
full of planters, men, women, and chil- 
dren lying about the streets. There is 
pretty surely a guard on board that ship. 
Why not beat in closer without lights, 
and then, with all the men you can spare, 
find the ship, and if it is ours, take her 
out?" 

" If we can. A good idea. It might 
be done." 

"It is the only way. It must be done. 
Give me the mate and ten men." 

"What! Give you my men, and sit 
down and wait for you? No, sir. I shall 
go with you." He was of a breed which 
has served the country well on sea and 
land, and whose burial-places are battle- 
fields and oceans. 

It was soon decided to wait to attack 



40 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



until the town was asleep. In the inter- 
val De Courval, in case of accident, 
wrote to his mother and to Schmidt, but 
with no word of Carteaux. Then for a 
while he sat still, reflecting with very 
mingled feelings that success in carrying 
the ship would again cut him off from all 
chance of meeting Carteaux. It did seem 
to him a malignant fate; but at last dis- 
missing it, he buckled on his sword, took 
up his pistols, and went on deck. 

At midnight the three boats set out 
with muffled oars, and after a hard pull 
against an off-shore wind, through the 
warm tropic night, they approached the 
town. 

The captain whistled softly, and the 
boats came together. 

"Speak low," he said to De Courval. 
"It is the George Washington and no 
mistake. They are wide-awake, by ill 
luck, and singing." 

"Yes, I hear them." 

"But* they are not on deck. There are 
lights in the cabin." The "£a Ira" rang 
out in bits across the water. The young 
noble heard it with the anguish it always 
awakened; for unfailingly it gave back 
to memory the man he longed to meet, 
and the blood-dabbled mob which came 
out of the hall at Avignon shouting this 
Jacobin song. 

The captain said : " I will board her 
on this side; you on that. She is low in 
the water. Pull in with your boat and 
secure the watch forward, and I will shut 
the after hatches and companionway. 
Look out for the forecastle. If her own 
men are on board, they will be there." 

De Courval's heart alone told him of 
the excitement he felt ; but he was cool, 
tranquil, and of the temperament which 
rises to fullest competence in an hour of 
danger. A minute later he was on deck, 
and moving forward in the silence of the 
night, came upon the watch. "Hush!" 
he said; "no noise. Two to each man. 
They are asleep. There— choke hard and 
gag. Here, cut up this rope; a good 
gag." In a moment three scared sailors 
awoke from dreams of their Breton 
homes, and were trussed with sailor skill. 

"Now, then," he said in French, "a 
pistol-ball for the man who moves. Stay 
by them, you Jones, and come, the rest of 
you. Rouse the crew in the forecastle, 
Mate. Call to them. If the answer is in 



French, let no man up. Don't shoot, if 
you can help it." 

He turned quickly, and, followed by 
four men, ran aft, hearing wild cries and 
oaths. A man looking out of a port-hole 
had seen two boats and the glint of musk- 
ets. As the captain swung over the rail, 
half a dozen men ran up on deck shout- 
ing an alarm. The captain struck with 
the butt of his pistol. A man fell. De 
Courval grappled with a burly sailor, 
and falling, rose as the mate hit the 
guard on the head with a marline-spike. 
Then an officer fired, and a sailor went 
down wounded. It was savage enough, 
but brief, for the American crew and cap- 
tain, released, were now running aft from 
the forecastle, and the French were tum- 
bled into the companionway and the 
hatches battened down in haste, but no 
man killed. 

"Get up sail!" cried the captain. "An 
ax to the cable; she is moored to a buoy. 
Tumble into the boats, some of you ! Get 
a rope out ahead, and pull her bow round. 
Now, then, put out the lights, and hurry, 
too!" As he gave his orders, and men 
were away up the rigging, shot after shot 
from the cabin windows drew, as was 
meant, the attention of the town. Lights 
were seen moving on the pier, the sound 
of oars was heard. There was the red 
flare of signals on shore ; cries and oaths 
came from below and from the shore not 
far away. 

It was too late. The heavy ship, as 
the cable parted, swung round. The wind 
being off the land, sail after sail filled, 
and picking up his boats in haste, the 
captain stood by the helm, the ship slowly 
gathering way, while cannon-shots from 
the batteries fell harmless in her wake. 

"Darn the old sea-barrel!" the captain 
cried. Two boats were after them. 
"Down! All of you, down!" A dozen 
musket-balls rattled over them. "Give 
them a dose, boys !" 

"No, no!" cried De Courval. "Shoot 
over them ! Over ! Ah, good ! Well 
done !" For at the reply the boats ceased 
rowing, and, save for a few spent bullets, 
the affair was ended. The brig, moving 
more quickly, soon left their pursuers, 
and guided by lights on the Marie, they 
presently joined her. 

"Now, then," said the captain, "get 
out a boat!" When one by one the dis- 



THE RED CITY 



41 



gusted guard came on deck and in the 
darkness were put in the boat, their officer 
asked in French who were their cap- 
tors. 

De Courval, on hearing this, replied, 
"His Majesty's schooner St. .George, 
privateer of Bristol." 

"But, mon dieu," cried the bewildered 
man, "this ship is American. It is piracy." 

"No, monsieur; she was carrying pro- 
visions to a French port." The persis- 
tent claim of England, known as the 
"provision order," was well in force, and 
was to make trouble enough before it was 
abandoned. 

The officer, furious, said : "You speak 
too well our tongue. Ah, if I had you on 
shore!" 

De Courval laughed. "Adieu, Citi- 
zen." The boat put off for the port, and 
the two ships made all sail. 

By and by the captain called to De 
Courval to come to the cabin. "Well, 
Mr. Lewis, — if that is to be your name, 
— we are only at the beginning of our 
troubles. These seas will swarm with 
ships of war and English privateers, and 
we must stay by this old tub. If she is 
caught, they will go over the manifest 
and take all they want out of her, and 
men, too." 

. "I see," said De Courval. "Is there 
anything to do but take our chance on 
the sea?" 

"I shall run north and get away from 
the islands out of their cruising-grounds." 

"What if we run over to Martinique? 
How long would it take?" 

"Three days and a half as we sail, 
or as that old cask does. But what 
for?" 

"I heard that things are not so bad 
there. We might sell the old tub's cargo." 

"Sell it? They would take it." 

"Perhaps. But we might lie off the 
port if there is no blockade and — well, 
negotiate. Once rid of the cargo, she 
would sail better." 

"Yes; but Mr. Wynne has said noth- 
ing of this. It is only to risk what we 
have won. I won't risk it." 

"I am sorry," said De Courval, "but 
now I mean to try it. Kindly run your 
eye over these instructions. This is mat- 
ter of business only." 

The captain reddened angrily as he 
said, "And I am to obey a boy like you." 



"Yes, sir." 

The master knew Hugh Wynne well, 
and after a pause said grimly: "Very 
good. It is out of the frying-pan into 
the fire." He hated it, but there was the 
order, and obedience to those over him 
and from those under him was part of 
his sailor creed. 

In four days, about dawn, delayed by 
the slower ship, they were off the port of 
St. Pierre. The harbor was empty, and 
there was no blockade as yet. 

"And now," said the captain, "what 
to do? You are the master, it seems. 
Run in, I suppose?" 

"No, wait a little, Captain. If, when 
I say what I want done, it seems to you 
unreasonable, I shall give it up. Get a 
bit nearer ; beat about ; hoist our own 
flag. They will want to understand, and 
will send a boat out. Then we shall see." 

"I can do that, but every hour is full 
of risk." Still he obeyed, beginning to 
comprehend his supercargo and to like 
the audacity of the game. 

Near to six o'clock the bait was taken. 
A boat put out and drew near with cau- 
tion. The captain began to enjoy it. "A 
nibble," he said. 

"Give me a boat," said De Courval. 
"They will not come nearer. There are 
but five men. I must risk it. Let the 
men go armed." In ten minutes he was 
beside the Frenchmen, and seeing a young 
man in uniform at the tiller, he said in 
French: "I am from that brig. She is 
loaded with provisions for this port or 
San Domingo, late from the States." 

"Very well. You are welcome. Run 
in. The vicomte will take all, and pay 
well. Foi d'honneur, monsieur; it is all 
as I say. You are French?" 

"Yes ; an emigre." 

"We like not that, but I will go on 
board and talk it over." 

When on the Marie they went to the 
cabin with the captains of the two Amer- 
ican ships. "And now let us talk," said 
De Courval. "Who commands here for 
the republic?" 

"Citizen Rochambeau; a good Jaco- 
bin, too." 

De Courval was startled. "A cousin 
of my mother — the vicomte — a Jacobin!" 

"Is monsieur for our side?" asked the 
officer. 

"No; I am for the king." 



42 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



"King, monsieur! The king was guil- 
lotined on January 21." 

"Mon Dieu!" 

"May I ask your name, monsieur?" 

"I am the Vicomte de Courval, at your 
service." 

"By St. Denis! I know; you are of 
Normandy, of the religion, like ourselves. 
I am the Comte de Lourmel." 

"And with the Jacobins?" 

"Yes. I have an eminent affection for 
my head. When I can, my brother and 
I will get away." 

"Then we may talk plainly as two gen- 
tlemen." 

"Assuredly." 

"I do not trust that vicomte of yours 
— a far-away cousin of my mother, I re- 
gret to say." 

"Nor would I trust him. He wished 
the town illuminated on account of the 
king's death." 

"It seems incredible. Poor Louis! But 
now, to our business. Any hour may 
bring a British cruiser. This cargo is 
worth in peace twenty thousand dollars. 
Now it is worth thirty-two thousand, — 
salt beef, potatoes, pork, onions, salt fish, 
and some forty casks of Madeira. Ordi- 
narily we should take home coffee and 
sugar, but now it is to be paid for in 
louis d'or or in gold joes, here — here on 
board, monsieur." 

"But the cargo?" 

"The sea is quiet. When the money is 
on deck, we will run in nearer, and you 
must lighter the cargo out. I will give 
you one day, and only one. There is no 
other way. We are well armed, as you 
see, and will stand no Jacobin tricks. 
Tell the Vicomte Sans Culottes I am his 
cousin, De Courval. Stay, I shall write 
a note. It is to take on my terms, and at 
once, or to refuse." 

"He will take it. Money is plenty; 
but one cannot eat louis d'ors. How long 
do you give us?" 

"Two hours to go and return; and, 
monsieur, I am trusting you." 

"We will play no tricks." And so 
presently the boat pushed off and was 
away at speed. 

"And now what is all that infernal 
parley-vouing? It was too fast for me," 
said the captain ; but on hearing, he said 
it would work. He would hover round 
the George Washington with cannon 



loaded and men armed. Within the time 
set the officer came back with another 
boat. "I have the money," he said. 
"The vicomte swore well and long, and 
would much desire your company on 
shore." De Courval laughed. "I grieve 
to disappoint him." 

"The lighters are on the way," said 
De Lourmel — "a dozen; and upon my 
honor, there will be no attempt at cap- 
ture." 

The ship ran in nearer while the gold 
was counted, and then with all possible 
haste the cargo, partly a deck-load, was 
lightered away, the wind being scarcely 
more than a breeze. By seven at night 
the vessel was cleared, for half of the 
Marie's men had helped. A small barrel 
of wine was put in the count's boat, and 
a glad cheer rang out as all sail was set. 

Then at last the captain came over to 
where De Courval, leaning against the 
rail, allowed himself the first pipe of the 
busiest day of his life ; for no man of the 
crew had worked harder. 

"I want to say you were right, young 
man, and I shall be glad to say so at 
home. I came devilish near to not doing it." 

"Why, without you, sir," said De 
Courval, "I should have been helpless. 
The cutting out was yours, and this time 
we divide honors and hold our tongues." 

"Not I," said the master; nor did he, 
being as honest as any of his race of sea- 
dogs. 

The lumbering old brig did fairly well. 
After three stormy weeks, in mid-March 
off the Jersey coast they came in sight of 
a corvette flying the tricolor. The cap- 
tain said things not to be put on record, 
and signaled his clumsy consort far astern 
to put to sea. "An Englishman all over," 
said the captain. Then he sailed straight 
for the corvette with the flag he loved fly- 
ing. There was a smart gale from the 
east, and a heavy sea running. Of a sud- 
den, as if alarmed, the Stars and Stripe's 
came down, a tricolor went up, and the 
Marie turned tail for the Jersey coast. 
De Courval watched the game with inter- 
est. The captain enjoyed it, as men who 
gamble on sea chances enjoy their risks, 
and said, laughing : " I wonder does that 
man know the coast? He 's a morsel 
reckless." 

The corvette went about and followed. 
"Halloa! He 's going to talk!" A can- 



DECLARATION 



43 



non flash was followed by a ball, which 
struck the rail. 

"Not bad," said the captain, and turn- 
ing, saw De Courval on the deck. "Are 
you hit, man?" he cried. 

"Not badly." But the blood was run- 
ning freely down his stocking as he stag- 
gered to his feet. 

"Get him below!" 

"No, no!" cried De Courval. The 
mate ripped open his breeches. "A bad 
splinter wound, sir, and an ugly bruise." 
In spite of his protests, they carried him 
to the cabin and did some rude sea surg- 
ery. Another sharp fragment had cut 
open his cheek, but what Dr. Rush would 
have called "diachylon plaster" sufficed 
for this, and in great pain he lay and lis- 
tened, still for a time losing blood very 
freely. The corvette veered and let go a 
broadside while the captain looked up at 
the rigging anxiously. "Too much sea 
on," he said. "I will lay his damn ribs 
on Absecom bar, if he holds on." 

Apparently the corvette knew better, 
and manceuvered in hope to catch a too 
wary foe, now flying along the shallow 
coast in perilous waters. At nightfall the 
corvette gave up a dangerous chase, got 



about, and was off to sea. At morning 
the English war-ship caught the brig, 
being clever enough to lie off the capes. 
The captain of the George Washington 
wisely lacked knowledge of her consort 
the schooner, and the Englishman took 
out of his ship five men, declaring them 
Britons, although they spoke sound, nasal 
Cape Cod American. 

Using the darkness, Captain Biddle 
ran by Henlopen light; and at evening 
of the next day, the wind being fair, 
anchored off Chester and went to bed, 
happy and full of good rum punch, while 
De Courval, feeble from large loss of 
blood and in much pain lay in the cabin, 
feeling that he had justified the opinion 
Wynne had expressed of him. That he 
felt a. little uplifted was to be forgiven a 
young man who knew that he had done 
well a dangerous task. He had, too, the 
satisfaction of having made that test of 
the quality of his courage which peril 
alone permits. Then, at last, he fell 
asleep, and waking at the rattle of the 
chain, saw through a port-hole the red 
city in brilliant sunshine ; and this was 
on Sunday, the sixteenth of March, 1793, 
at ten in the morning. 



(To be continued) 



DECLARATION 

BY EDITH HOPE KINNEY 

OW shall I say to thee in words 
What would be better broached by birds 
Or spelled by buds in spring? 

Would I might trust the nightingale 

To phrase aright so rare a tale 
As this to thee I bring ! 

Of flowers, the rose alone might be 
Ambassador from me to thee, 

All messengers above ; 
But not the nightingale in tune, 
Nor rose, with eloquence of June, 

Can voice to thee my love. 

It flutters still, a speechless song, 
Within my heart, the whole day long, 

And strives, with thee anear, 
To find itself a silver tongue, 
To get its golden secret sung, 

That thou, oh, love, shalt hear. 



LXXVI— 6 



THE REMINISCENCES OF LADY 
RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 

BY MRS. GEORGE CORNWALLIS-WEST 

SIXTH PAPER: A VISIT TO RUSSIA -DOMESTIC LIFE AND 
RECREATIONS — AN AUDIENCE WITH THE CZAR- 
IMPRESSION OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY— MOSCOW- 
RUSSIAN CHARACTERISTICS 



DURING the winter of 1887 we went 
to Russia, where we spent a most in- 
teresting and delightful month. The 
Marquis de Breteuil, an old friend of 
ours, whose ancestor had been French 
ambassador to the court of the great 
Catharine, and Mr. Trafford made up 
our party. Everything was new and at- 
tractive to us. The people were charming 
and hospitable, and seemed full of bon- 
homie, and we saw no signs of that grind- 
ing despotism and tyranny which is sup- 
posed to be synonymous with Russian life. 
My first impression of the scenery was 
one of disappointment, the country be- 
tween Berlin and St. Petersburg, cr 
rather the part beyond the Russian fron- 
tier, being flat and uninteresting. The 
waste and dreary expanse, when covered 
with snow, inspires a feeling of deep 
melancholy. To live for months every 
year buried in that cold, monotonous si- 
lence is quite enough, I should imagine, 
to account for the vein of sadness which 
seems to be the basis of the Russian char- 
acter, and which betrays itself in all Rus- 
sian music and painting. As our snow- 
laden train crawled into the station in 
St. Petersburg, and we stepped out joy- 
fully and stretched our cramped and 
tired limbs, the broad streets, full of life 
and animation, and as bright as day with 
electricity, seemed a delightful contrast. 
I do not know what I expected to see, 
but the city disappointed me with its 
modern appearance. Looking at the 
houses of rather mean exterior, with their 
small double windows and tiny doors, lit- 



tle did I dream of the splendor within. 
Space, however, seemed to be immaterial, 
and this struck me the more forcibly, ac- 
customed as I was to London, with its 
narrow streets and considered inches. 

The French system of apartments is 
common in St. Petersburg, although not 
so general as in Paris ; but where it ex- 
ists, the entrance and staircases are much 
more decorated and cared for than is 
usual where several families live under 
the same roof, and this gives the appear- 
ance of a private dwelling. In the great 
houses I was struck by the very large 
number of servants, and was told that in 
the cases of some rich noblemen whole 
families of useless dependents — muzhik, 
with their wives and children — were in- 
stalled in the lower regions. If this was 
the case in town, what must it have been 
in the country? Such generosity, com- 
bined with the utter absence of real su- 
pervision in the financial management 
of the establishment, must have been a 
heavy burden on the largest fortune, and 
it is not surprising that the Russian no- 
bility of to-day, with the added burden 
of the late war and the internal dissen- 
sions of their unhappy country, are in an 
impoverished state. 

However, we saw nothing of this, and 
all the entertainments and functions to 
which we went, whether private or pub- 
lic, were extremely well done. Russians 
dearly love light, and on these occasions 
made their houses as bright as day with* 
a profusion of candles as well as electric 
light. Masses of flowers, notwithstand- 



44 




THE WINTER PALACE, ST. PETERSBURG 



ing their rarity in such a rigorous cli- 
mate, decorated every available place, and 
the staircases were lined with footmen 
in gorgeous liveries. Although many of 
the houses were very smartly furnished 
with all that money could buy and mod- 
ern art suggest, they struck me as lacking 
in the real refinement and true artistic, 
taste that one sees in Paris ; but the 
French are born connoisseurs, and think 
of little else than artistic comfort. 

In those days the average Russian 
drawing-room was superior to the ordi- 
nary English one. If there was a lack of 
imagination, there was also an absence of 
tawdriness, which contrasted favorably 
with the overcrowded London room, 
where, at that time, the esthetic and Jap- 
anese craze reigned supreme — where 
evenly balanced structures of paper fans, 
Liberty silks, and photographs were 
thought decorative, not to speak of laby- 
rinths of tiny tables, chairs, and screens. 
I was prepared to suffer a great deal from 
the cold, but found, as in most Northern 
countries, that the houses were heated to 
suffocation, and the windows were rarely- 



opened, a small ventilator being thought 
quite sufficient. Russians assert that all 
foreigners bring so much caloric with 
them that they do not feel the cold at 
first. This may be so, but there is no 
doubt that they feel the want of air and 
the stuffiness of the rooms, which dries 
up the skin and takes away the appe- 
tite. 

On the other hand, I thoroughly en- 
joyed the outdoor life of sleighing and 
skating. Comfortably seated in a sleigh, 
behind a good, fat coachman to keep the 
wind off, I never wearied of driving 
about. The rapidity with which one 
dashes noiselessly along is most exhila- 
rating, notwithstanding a biting wind or 
blinding snow. The ordinary Russian 
sleigh, smaller than the American cutter, 
barely holds two, but the thick fur rug, 
even in a common droshky, or cab, is so 
well fastened down that it helps to keep 
one from falling out, besides protecting 
from the cold. The troikas, wide sleighs 
with three horses, of which the middle 
one trots while the other two gallop, have 
become rather rare, and are used princi- 



45 



46 ■ THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 

pally for traveling or for expeditions in times the performance was entirely bal- 

the country. Nothing is prettier than a let, — no singing, — and one night I had 

really smart sleigh with two horses, one the opportunity of seeing the famous 

trotting and the other galloping, covered dancer Zucchi in "Esmeralda." She was 

with a large net of dark blue cord fast- then in her prime, and she certainly was 

ened to the front of the sleigh, to keep a marvelous dancer of the old school, 

the snow from being kicked into the face After the opera, enveloped in great fur 

of the occupant. The coachman, with his coats and caps, we drove in troikas to the 

fur-lined coat gathered in at the waist, islands in the Neva, where the Polov- 

and his bright red or blue octagonal cap, stows had a charming pavilion. We were 

with gold braid, drives with his arms ex- ushered into a large conservatory bril- 

tended in order to preserve his circula- liantly lighted and full of orchids and 

tion. I was much impressed with the rare flowers, a dazzling and wonderful 

fact that the coachmen hardly ever contrast to the snow-clad scenery outside, 

seemed to use their short, thick whips, on which "the cold, round moon shone 

which they kept carefully hidden. A deeply down," turning everything to sil- 

footman stood on a small step behind, his ver. Hidden by palms, a band of Tzi- 

tall hat and ordinary great coat looking ganies was playing inspiriting melodies, 

a little incongruous, I confess, and mar- while in the dining-room an excellent 

ring an otherwise picturesque sight. The supper was served on genuine Louis XV 

horses are so beautifully broken that a plate. We did not get back to our hotel 

word will stop them. The whole time I until the small hours of the morning, 

was in Russia I never saw a horse ill- Russians, I found to my cost, love late 

used. No need for a "Society for the hours and seem never to go to bed, the 

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals" there. evening generally beginning for them at 

The Isvoshnik who owns his cab-horse midnight. 

looks upon him as his friend, and very On one occasion I was taken for a spin 

often shares the animal's stall at night. on the Neva with a fast trotter, a ride 

Among the many acquaintances we which I did not greatly enjoy, owing to 

made were M. and Mine. Polovstow, who the end of my nose being nearly frozen, 

showed us a great deal of hospitality. When we returned, my host rushed up to 

He was President of the Council, a very me and rubbed my nose violently with 

important post, and was high in the fa- snow, as it looked ominously white. As 

vor of the Czar. His early history was long as your nose keeps a glorious red, 

rather romantic. As private secretary to you are safe. 

the millionaire Steiglitz, Polovstow won While in St. Petersburg I was able to 
the affections and the hand of his adopted indulge to my heart's content in my fa- 
daughter, to whom Steiglitz left the vorite pastime of skating, which I did on 
whole of his fortune. the lake of the Palais de la Tauride, a 

Many institutions were founded by royal palace where Russian society con- 

Madame Polovstow's adopted father, and gregated. But great was my disappoint- 

she took us to see the "Steiglitz School of ment to find that the Russians did not 

Art," which was kept up at her own ex- care for figure-skating, and, in fact, did 

pense. I was much interested to find in not skate well. I was told that had it not 

the museum a certain Italian cabinet been for the Czarina (Marie), who was 

which the late Duke of Marlborough had an adept in the art, people would not 

sold from Blenheim, and the destination have appreciated skating at all. As it 

of which had always been a mystery. was, they much preferred tobogganing 

One night we went to the opera with down the ice-hills, half a dozen or more 

them to hear "A Life for the Czar" by persons in a sleigh. It was in one of 

Glinka, charming music, stamped with all these that I had my first experience of 

the national characteristics of sadness and this sport, and was duly "blooded" (if 

wild, boisterous gaiety. The orchestration, one may call it so) by being placed in 

however, seemed rather feeble. All the the front seat of the sleigh and shot into 

ladies wore high dresses, which took awav a bank of snow. The ice-hills, which are 

from the brilliant appearance one is ac- built on the lake, are merely blocks of 

customed to in other opera-houses. Some- ice placed on a wooden path raised to a 



REMINISCENCES OF LADY RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 47 



platform at a steep angle, which you 
ascend by a staircase. To go down one 
of these hills on skates for the first time 
gives the same delightful feeling of sat- 
isfaction and pleasure which- in hunting 



Sir Robert Morier, the British Am- 
bassador, was away when we first ar- 
rived, but later he and his family showed 
us great kindness and hospitality. Mean- 
while we were bidden to Gatchina to 




GRAND DUKE ALEXANDER, AFTERWARD ALEXANDER III, AND THE 
PRINCESS DAGMAR, NOW DOWAGER EMPRESS OF RUSSIA 



is experienced in getting over a big fence, 
leaving the field a bit behind. It is not 
an easy matter, as the pace is terrific, and 
in coming to the level again at the foot 
of the hill it is very difficult to keep 
your feet ; but if you do, you shoot across 
the whole lake. Many were the acci- 
dents, and I saw one poor lady break her 
arm. 



have an audience with the Czar and the 
Czarina. Gatchina, about an hour by 
train from St. Petersburg, is the Windsor 
of Russia. It is a curious mixture of 
splendor and unpretensiousness, and is 
approached from the station through a 
series of small parks, which must be 
lovely in summer. I was surprised to see 
so few sentries : to all appearance the 



48 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



Czar was not more guarded than the even spied a swing. In that room their 

King at Windsor. The entrance to Majesties often dined, I was told, even 

Gatchina on the public road had only when they had guests, and after dinner 

one sentry. the table would be removed, and they 

The palace has no great architectural would spend the remainder of the evening 

merits, but its six hundred rooms and there. This seemed strange to me when 

endless corridors were filled with price- I thought of the many hundred rooms in 

less Oriental china, and the walls were the enormous building. But their tastes 

adorned with tapestries and treasures of were of the simplest, and the Czar partic- 

art. Coureurs in black-and-orange liver- ularly affected tiny rooms, though they 

ies, their caps embellished with tossing were much at variance with his towering 



black, white, and 
orange feathers, 
gave a slightly 
barbaric appear- 
ance to the scene, 
which was added 
to by the mass 
of bowing atten- 
dants, and by two 
Nubians dressed 
in white, with tur- 
bans and scimi- 
tars, standing out- 
side the Czarina's 
audience - cham- 
ber. 

While waiting 
to be received, 
we were shown 
into an apartment 
which savored of 
the e. irly Victorian 
style, with paint- 
ings of mediocre 
quality. Here 

a dejeuner was 
served, and after- 
ward we went 
to our respective 




GRAND DUKE SERGE ( BROTHER OF ALEXANDER 
III), ASSASSINATED AT MOSCOW IN 1905 



frame and majes- 
tic bearing. His 
manner impressed 
me with a convic- 
tion of sincerity 
and earnestness. 

Before leaving 
St. Petersburg, we 
were invited once 
more to Gatchina. 
This time it was 
in the evening ; a 
special train con- 
veyed about one 
hundred and fifty 
guests. On arriv- 
ing, we were met 
by a long stream 
of royal carriages, 
which took us to 
the palace, where 
we witnessed an 
entertainment con- 
sisting of three 
short plays in 
three languages, 
after which sup- 
per was served. 
I had been given 



audiences. Randolph stayed quite an hour a seat in the third row, but when the roy- 



with the Czar, who discussed all the po- 
litical questions of the day. The Czar- 
ina, whom I had had the honor of know- 
ing as Czarevna at Cowes some years be- 
fore, was most gracious and charming, 
reminding me of her sister, Queen Alex- 
andra, although not so beautiful. She 



alties came in, I was bidden to sit behind 
the Empress, who every now and then 
would turn round and make some pleas- 
ant remark. 

There are some curious customs at the 
Russian court which do not harmonize 
with one's idea of a despotic and auto- 



asked endless questions about England cratic sovereign. While we were sitting 

and all that was going on politically and at small tables, the Czar walked about, 

socially, and finally, having arrived " au talking to his guests, all of whom, in- 

bout de notre Latin," and Randolph not eluding officers, remained seated. It ap- 

appearing, I was taken to see the palace, pears that this was the habit of Peter the 

Among many rooms, I remember a Great, who disliked ceremony of any 

large hall worthy of an old English coun- kind ; and as tradition is everything in 

try-house, full of comfortable arm-chairs Russia, this custom was religiously kept, 

and writing-tables, games, and toys. I There is no doubt that the etiquette of 



REMINISCENCES OF LADY RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 49 



the Russian court is much less rigid than charge, the Colonel of the Preobejensky 

it is in England or Germany. For in- Guards, the smartest regiment in Russia, 

stance, it is not the custom to treat the who was responsible that night for the 

members of the imperial family with so safety of the Czar, was so drunk that he 

much deference as in other European fell heavily on my shoulder when pre- 

courts; I noticed that the ladies did not sented to me. Those near laughingly 

think of courtesying to a young grand propped him up, evidently thinking noth- 

duke, and would rise only when the ing of it. 

Czarina did, or at the entrance of the We lunched several times at the cele- 
Czar. The ladies, too, when making brated restaurant kept by Cubat, where 
their obeisance, bowed stiffly from the our plates were piled with enormous help- 
waist which was even more ungraceful ings fit for a regiment of soldiers. Cubat 



than the English 
bob, our apology 
for a courtesy. The 
men, on the other 
hand, were very 
deferential, partic- 
ularly to the ladies. 
At private dinners, 
when we were an- 
nounced, the host 
would rush for- 
ward, seize my 
hand, and kiss it, 
and then proceed to 
introduce all the 
men present. I 
then had to ask to 
be presented to ev- 
ery lady, and duly 
call on them per- 
sonally the next 
day. This I found 
very irksome and 
wearying, and it 
stood in the way of 
my sight-seeing. 
Most Russian la- 




THE GRAND DUCHESS SERGE (PRINCESS 

ELISABETH OF HESSE, SISTER OF 

THE CZARINA) 



was a most inter- 
esting person, late 
head chef to the 
Czar, whose service 
he had only just 
left. When asked 
the reason, he said 
that the supervision 
in the kitchen of 
the royal palace 
was so irksome and 
stringent, — dozens 
of detectives watch- 
ing his every ges- 
ture and pouncing 
on every pinch of 
salt, — that the sal- 
ary of $10,000 a 
year did not com- 
pensate him. He 
later bought the ho- 
tel Paiva (now an 
English club) in 
the Champs-Elysees 
and started the Cu- 
bat Restaurant ; but 
the prices were so 



dies smoke cigarettes, and at all the par- high that it soon came to an end. 
ties to which I went, one of the recep- , One night we dined with the Grand 
tion-rooms was set apart for the purpose, Duke and Duchess Serge at their beauti- 
which caused a continual movement to ful old palace called "Beloselski." It 
and fro, taking off the stiffness of a was built in the reign of the great Catha- 
formal dinner-party and enabling people rine, whose hand is found in everything 
to circulate more freely. This in itself of real taste in Russia. Decorated and 
would ensure a pleasant evening ; for furnished by the best French artists of 
who has not seen with despair the only the day, of whom the Empress was a gen- 
chair at hand triumphantly seized by a erous patron, with its lovely Bouchers 
bore, whom nothing but a final " Good and carved white panelings, I thought it 
night" will move? quite the finest house I saw while in 
Russians, as a rule, have enormous ap- Russia. We waited some time for a be- 

petites, and are very fond of good living, lated guest, Madame , who finally ap- 

eating — not to mention drinking — often peared, looking regal, with the most mag- 
to excess. In Russian society drinking is nificent jewels I had ever seen on any 
not considered a heinous offense. The private person ; but on her bare arm, as 
night we went to Gatchina, the officer in distinct as possible, was the black-and- 



50 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



blue imprint— fingers and thumb— of a 
brutal hand. No one could help noticing 
it, and the Grand Duchess pointed at it 

in dismay. "No, no, " cried Madame , 

laughingly, " is at Moscow." "Quel- 

quc jaloux!" said my neighbor. At din- 
ner I sat between the Grand Duke Serge 
and the Grand Duke Paul, quite the best- 
looking man I saw in Russia. I found 
an old friend there in Count Schouwalow, 
who had been Ambassador in London ; 
also M. de Giers and his wife, at whose 
house I afterward met the redoubtable 
Pobiedonostzeff, Head of the Synod, with 
whom I had a long talk — a tall, gaunt 
man, whose strange, yellow teeth, seem- 
ingly all in one, impressed me more than 
anything else. Other interesting people 
dining there that evening were Count and 
Countess Ignatiefl, Prince and Princess 
Soltykow, and Prince and Princess Wo- 
ronzow. 

Neither politics nor anything of that 
nature, whether internal or external, was 
discussed ; reticence as regards public af- 
fairs in Russia is equaled only by dis- 
cretion as regards the politics of other 
countries. 

One of the most interesting sights we 
were privileged to see was the New Year's 




^#tf^^^^^^^^^^^#tf 



CONSTANTINI PETROVITCH 
POBIEDONOSTZEFF 



reception at the Winter Palace. At 
eleven o'clock in the morning the whole 
court attended, and society paid its re- 
spects to the sovereign. The Czar, 
dressed on this particular occasion in the 
uniform of the Gardes du Corps, gave his 
arm to the Czarina, and was followed by 
the imperial family. The train of each 
Grand Duchess was carried by four 
young officers. I remember that that of 
the Grand Duchess Vladimir was of sil- 
ver brocade, with a sable border half a 
yard in depth. These were followed by 
long files of ladies-in-waiting, dressed in 
green and gold, and maids-of-honor in 
red and gold. The procession ended 
when all the court officials, resplendent 
in gorgeous uniforms and covered with 
decorations, walked with measured steps 
through the long suite of rooms, and 
lined up on each side with officers in the 
red, white, or blue of their regiments. To 
these the Czar spoke as he passed, say- 
ing, "Good morning, my children"; to 
which they replied in unison, "We are 
happy to salute you." In other rooms 
ladies were assembled, dressed in the na- 
tional costume of every hue, and covered 
with jewels, mostly cabochon sapphires 
and emeralds. All wore that most be- 
coming of head-dresses — the "kakosh- 
nik," made of various materials from dia- 
monds to plain velvet. The Czarina, with 
her graceful figure and small head, looked 
very stately in a magnificent tiara, blue 
velvet, and ermine train, as the cortege 
passed on to the chapel to hear mass. 
This lasted an hour, every one remaining 
standing — an art which royalty alone 
seems to have the gift of practising with- 
out breaking down and without apparent 
effort. 

I cannot adequately describe the scene 
in the chapel, which, if it had been less 
perfect in detail, might have appeared 
somewhat theatrical. On the right, the 
dresses of the women formed a sea of 
warm color, the soft red and green vel- 
vets of the ladies-in-waiting predomina- 
ting, their long, white tulle veils looking 
like aureoles around their heads, touched 
here and there by iridescent rays from 
the rich stained-glass windows. On the 
left, the men presented a scarcely less bril- 
liant group, the dark velvet cassock of a 
Lutheran pastor standing out in effective 
contrast to the vivid red of a cardinal 



REMINISCENCES OF LADY RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 51 



close by. The royal choir, which follows 
the Czar wherever he goes, is the finest 
I have ever heard. Composed of male 
voices alone, without the aid of any in- 
strument (none being allowed in the 
Greek Church), it was perfection. The 
character of the music I found rather 
monotonous, and I thought to myself how 
this choir would have rendered one of 
Mendelssohn's grand anthems. 

A story was told me of this celebrated 
choir. Clad originally in funereal black, 
they offended -the eyes of a certain maid- 
of-honor, a favorite with one of the Czars, 
who, remonstrating with her for not at- 
tending mass, asked the reason. The lady 
pleaded that she was suffering from mel- 
ancholy, and that the sight of the black 
choir would aggravate it. The next day 
her excuse was gone, for the choir ap- 
peared in crimson surplices braided with 
gold, and they have continued to do so 
ever since. 

Mass over in the chapel, the procession 
reformed, a pause being made in the 
room reserved for the ambassadors and 
diplomatic corps. His Majesty entered 
into conversation with a favored few, who 
improved the shining hour, since, with 
the exception of some court balls, this 
was the only occasion they had of speak- 
ing to him during the year. Finally the 
ladies passed before the Czar and kissed 
hands, holding on to each other's trains, 
a sight which was more quaint than im- 
posing. When all was over, we sat down 
to luncheon, reaching home about three 
o'clock. Not having any such sumptuous 
day gowns as I found were worn, I was 
reduced on this occasion to a blue-and- 
gold tea-gown, which did sufficiently well, 
although it seemed a strange garment in 
which to go to court. On our way out, I 
saw a sentry guarding a magnificent sa- 
ble cape, which I was told belonged to 
the Czarina. It was nearly black, and it 
had taken years to collect the skins at a 
cost of $60,000. 

Much to my chagrin, we did not stay 
in St. Petersburg for the court balls, but, 
time pressing, went on to Moscow. Be- 
fore leaving, however, we visited the 
Winter Palace, Prince Troubetskoy, the 
Lord Chamberlain, being deputed to take 
us over it. He had evidently been asked 
to "do the civil," but was dreadfully 
bored, and hustled us smartly through 




GRAND DUKE PAUL (BROTHER OF 
ALEXANDER III) 

the immense number of rooms and in- 
terminable corridors. Even then it took 
us two good hours to get round. 

We also visited the school for naval 
cadets, the admiral and his staff receiving 
us with much ceremony. The cadets 
looked pale and rather hunted. I felt 
so sorry for them, penned in small rooms, 
and with only a strip of yard, surrounded 
by tall brick walls, in which to exercise. 

Our friend the Marquis de Breteuil did 
not go to Moscow, as he was invited by 
the Grand Duke Vladimir to join an ex- 
pedition to shoot bears. It was signifi- 
cant that on the day they started, the 
Czar, who was setting out on some jour- 
ney at the same hour, had three trains 
kept in readiness, and not even the Grand 
Duke knew in which his brother was 
traveling ! 

For the tourist there is no comparison 
between St. Petersburg and Moscow, the 
latter is so much more striking and so full 
of local color. Everything was a source 
of interest, from the narrow streets filled 
with a motley crowd «of fur-clad people ; 
the markets with their frozen fish or 
blocks of milk, from which slabs would 
be chopped off, and carcasses of beasts 
propped up in rows against the stalls ; 



LXXVl- 




GRAND DUKE VLADIMIR (BROTHER 
OF ALEXANDER III) 



GRAND DUCHESS VLADIMIR (MARIE PAV- 
LOWNA, DUCHESS OF MECKLENBURG) 



to the Kremlin with its palaces and 
churches. "La ville des marchands," as 
it is called, is full of riches and rich peo- 
ple. We visited the Trichiakoff picture- 
gallery, belonging to a retired merchant, 
where I was amazed to see depicted all 
the grimmest and most gruesome histori- 
cal incidents of Russian tyranny and 
cruelty : Ivan the Terrible murdering his 
son, or receiving on the red staircase of 
the Kremlin a hapless envoy (whose foot 
he was transfixing to the floor with his 
walking-stick, which had a knife for a 
ferule, while he read some unwelcome 
message); Siberian prisoners; horrible 
deeds perpetrated in the fortress of Peter 
and Paul ; and many other atrocities. 

Shortly after our arrival we received a 
call from Prince Dolgorouki, the Gov- 
ernor General of Moscow. A charming 
old man of eighty, a grand seigneur of 
the old school, he looked very smart and 
upright in the uniform of the Chevalier 
Gardes. He told me that he had been 
twenty-two years Governor of Moscow, 
and had served fifty-six in the army, 
under three Czars. He showed us much 
civility during our stay, and did all he 
could to make it pleasant. His aide-de- 



camp, Prince Ourousow, went about with 
us, and as he spoke French, we found 
him most pleasant. Every morning he 
came to inquire what places of inter- 
est we should like to visit, and expedi- 
tions of all kinds were arranged for us. 
One day we drove to the Sparrow Hills, 
the spot where Napoleon stood when he 
first looked upon the city which pre- 
ferred destruction to his rule. The mar- 
ble statue of himself, crowned with 
laurels, which he brought with him, is 
carefully preserved in the Kremlin ; but, 
by the irony of fate, it is a trophy of war, 
instead of representing, as he had in- 
tended, the conqueror of all the Russias. 
There it stands as a reproof to the over- 
weening ambition and vanity of the great- 
est of men. 

With the Kremlin we naturally were 
enchanted. The old Organaya Palace, 
and the church, with its mosaics and By- 
zantine decorations, mellowed by cen- 
turies to a wonderful hue, had a myste- 
rious and haunting effect. Could those 
walls have spoken, I have no doubt I 
should have fled in terror. As it was, we 
were so interested and fascinated that we 
returned again, and this time without an 



52 



REMINISCENCES OF LADY RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 53 



escort. I was amazed to find the whole 
place full of beggars and cripples of 
every description, who pestered us for 
alms ; on our previous visit we had not 
seen one. We heard afterward that pre- 
viously the Governor had issued an order 
bidding them all to leave the precincts, 
that we might not be annoyed by them. 
During our stay in Russia, the authorities 
were everywhere anxious that Randolph 
should have a good impression, and while 
in St. Petersburg we were followed about 
by two detectives, not, as we at first imag- 
ined, to spy upon us, but to see that as 
distinguished strangers we were not mo- 
lested in any way. 

Prince Dolgorouki was an absolute 
autocrat in Moscow. Upon our express- 
ing a wish one night when we were din- 
ing with him to hear some Tziganies who 
were giving a performance some distance 
off, a messenger was despatched forth- 
with, and they were ordered to come to 
the Governor's house. They gave us a 
very good representation of wild national 
songs and dances.. What happened to 
the spectators from whom their perform- 
ers had been snatched we never heard. 

Before leaving, we attended the "Bal 
de la Noblesse" in the Assembly-Rooms. 
It was a fine sight, the floor excellent, 
and the music most inspiriting. There 
was a "Marshal of the Ceremonies," who 
reminded me of the descriptions of Beau 
Nash — strutting about, full of airs and 
graces, introducing people, and arrang- 
ing and ruling with great precision the 
intricacies of the various dances. Officers 
would be brought up to me, clicking their 
spurs together and saluting ; then they 
would seize me about the waist without a 
word, and whisk me round the enormous 
room at a furious pace, my feet scarcely 
touching the ground. Before I had re- 
covered, breathless and bewildered, I 
would b© handed over to the next, until 
I had to stop from sheer exhaustion. 

I believe when the court goes to Mos- 
cow, which it does every four or five 
years, it is the occasion for the appearance 
of families bearing the finest old names 
of the country, who generally live buried 
in the provinces — people who look upon 
society in St. Petersburg very much as 
the Faubourg St. Germain looked on the 
heterogeneous mass of which society in 
Paris was composed under the Empire, 



and who are so Russian that even the 
mazurka, since it is Polish, must not be 
danced too well. 

The day we left Moscow our friend 
the Governor came to see us off, and pre- 
sented to me a lovely bouquet of orchids, 
which was produced from a band-box at 
the last moment. But before I had had 
time to sit down, the poor flowers were 
shriveled as though they had been 
scorched, one minute of the twenty-two 
degrees below zero proving too much for 
them. I left Moscow with great regret, 
as, apart from the delights of the place, 
I met some charming women, whose so- 
ciety was most agreeable. I gathered 
from them that Russian ladies, not in- 
dulging in any sport and taking little or 
no exercise, stay a great deal indoors, 
and in consequence have much time to 
educate themselves, to read, and to culti- 
vate the fine arts. Speaking many lan- 
guages, and reading widely, they form a 
very attractive society. It is said that 
Russians are not given to intimacy, and 
foreigners never get to know them well. 
I think that this is so, but I see no reason 
to credit them with less warmth of heart 
and faculty for lasting friendship than 
other nations possess. It was, however, a 
matter of surprise to me that women so 
eminently fitted by nature and education 
to influence and help those struggling in 
the higher vocations of life, should have 
seemingly but one ambition — to efface 
themselves, to attract no attention, to 
arouse no jealousies. Yet I doubt not 
that their influence is felt, though it may 
not be open and fearless as in England 
or America. As a refutation of the sup- 
posed insincerity of Russian character, it 
is an undisputed fact that a succes d'es- 
time is unknown, and the stranger or dip- 
lomatist, however well recommended, or 
however good his position, is not by any 
means invited to the fetes as a matter of 
course. After the first introduction, he 
is asked only according to his host's ap- 
preciation of him.- I am not speaking of 
official circles, where policy is the master 
of ceremonies. The same may be said of 
the London society of to-day. Although 
formerly all foreigners and the personnel 
of the embassies were persona grata, 
nowadays English society has become too 
large, and a hostess has to pick and choose. 

While writing on the subject of Russia 



54 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



and the Russians I must not omit the 
one it has been my privilege to know 
best ; namely, the Dowager Duchess of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, formerly the Duch- 
ess of Edinburgh. We used to see her 
very often when she lived in England. 
A warm-hearted woman of rare intelli- 
gence and exceptional education, her 
early life as the only daughter of the 
Czar (Alexander II) was a most inter- 
esting one, as, quite apart from the ex- 
alted position she held, it was her duty 
to read to her father for two hours daily 
his correspondence and the secret news 
of the world, in itself a liberal education. 
An excellent musician, Rubinstein once 
said to her, so she told me, "Vous ne 
jouez pas si mal pour une Princcsse." 
We frequently played together duets on 
two pianos^ or quartettes in which Lady 
Mary Fitzwilliam, my sister Mrs. Leslie, 
and Signor Albanesi would join. A fine 
linguist, speaking fluently several lan- 
guages, she wrote them equally well. 

The letters which follow reflect the 
writer's amiable character and give 
glimpses of her life at Peterhof and else- 
where. 

FROM II. I. AND M. H. THE DUCHESS OF 

EDINBURGH, NOW MARIE, DUCHESS 

OF SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA 



Stuttgart, June 16, L 
Dear Lady Randolph : 

I had no time to thank you from Coburg 



for your kind, long letter from Hatfield. How 
triumphant you must be, and how pleased 
Lord Randolph is ! Please give him my heart- 
felt good wishes on this parliamentary success. 
And so the G. O. M. is done for, at least for 
the present moment, and you all think that 
you have saved England ! But when the new 
elections have to begin again, what hard work 
for you, though you are so full of energy ! 

I hope you did enjoy Ascot and that the 
hideous climate did not spoil, as usual, all the 
enjoyments. 

I have come to Stuttgart for a few days on 
a visit to my aunt, the Queen of Wurtemberg. 
She is a very charming and amiable old lady, 
a real grande dame of the past generation. 
The Queen lives in a most charming villa out- 
side the town, with lovely grounds, and such 
•roses as I have never seen before anywhere. 
The country around is very pretty, and a short 
stay here is most enjoyable. . . . 

We are dreadfully struck by the tragic death 
of the King of Bavaria. As a child, I used to 
know him well : he was a charming young man, 
so good-looking and so pleasant. I quite fell 
in love with him when I was ten years old. 
He had the finest eyes one could dream about, 
and which often haunt me now after more 
than twenty years. Can any novel or drama 
be more tragic than the life and death of this 
unfortunate mad King? I have never seen 
Munich, and want to go there from here ; also 
perhaps to Augsburg, where there is an inter- 
esting exhibition. 

I hope the Eastwell flowers are pretty 
good, but I wish I could send you some roses 
from here ; they are too magnificent. My 
aunt has created the place, and looks after it 
with " devoted attention." 







THE KREMLIN, MOSCOW 



REMINISCENCES OF LADY RANDOLPH CHURCHILL 55 



I wish you would come to Coburg in Sep- 
tember; it would be a great pleasure for me. 

Accept my best love and many wishes to 
hear often from you. 

Marie. 



Peierhof, August 2, 1886. 
Dear Lady Randolph : 

I was so pleased to receive your interesting 
letter only a few days after my arrival here, 
and I thank you for it a thousand times. 

What an interesting time you are having 
now, and how excited you must all be ! Now 
I hear the Cabinet is formed and Lord Ran- 
dolph is Minister so soon again. Please offer 
him my most sincere good wishes for his suc- 
cess in public life, and though I shed a tear or 
two over the fall of " my idol," I sincerely hope 
that the new Ministry will be more success- 
ful. I do not believe it, however, and slightly 
chuckle over the difficulties they will have to 
face. 

Here we do not think much of politics at 
present, and enjoy life more simply by having 
lovely weather, pleasant company, and being 
out-of-doors from morning till night. No- 
where does one enjoy the summer more than 
in Russia, and I must say that it is re'ally 
heavenly weather when the summer is fine, 
for we have the very long days and hardly 
any night. 

Here we live- in separate small villas in the 
park, and the big, fine, old rococo palace is 
only used for receptions or distinguished 
guests. I live with the children in one house, 
and the Majesties live in a cottage some five- 
minutes' walk from us. It is all very delight- 
ful in fine weather, but not so convenient dur- 
ing rainy days, as one keeps running from 
one house to the other. Nearly all my rela- 
tions live in the neighborhood — dozens of 
cousins of every description, masculine and 
feminine, uncles, aunts, nephews, and nieces. 
You never saw such a family party. The 
Queen of Greece is here with nearly all her 
children, grown-up young men and babies, 
she herself looking younger than me, and 
dancing away merrily whilst I look on. I 
cannot make up my mind to dance in the 
same place which witnessed my debut some 
sixteen years ago, a slim young lady then, a 
fat matron now. So I walk about, renew old 
acquaintances, have people presented, and 
try to make myself agreeable. All welcome 
me with joy and such cordiality that the task 
is an easy one. One dresses here immensely 
and is wonderfully smart and well got up ; 
it is a real pleasure for me to see all the 
lovely toilettes, bonnets and cloaks— quite a 
study. 

My uncles and cousins have beautiful 
country places all about Peterhof, and the 
other day one of them gave a very pleasant 



small dance. To-day there is a big ball at 
the palace, with ambassadors, etc., and we 
expect one or two more dances. On Monday 
was the Empress's namesday; also mine, and 
it is always a grand day for festivities and 
presents. We had in the evening a lovely 
ballet in the open air and grand illuminations 
in the park. There are beautiful fountains 
here, a copy of Versailles, which light up in a 
wonderful way. Every evening, bands play 
in the park and quantities of people walk, 
ride, and drive about. It is a very animated 
sight, and we go about in big char-a-bancs 
with postilions a ia frangaise. My lovely 
beiie-sce7ir, the Grand Duchess Serge, lives in 
the same house, while three of my brothers are 
at the camp, serving with various regiments. 
We have also to go there from time to time 
to witness various military performances. It 
is a grand sight, as there are always about 
30,000 troops assembled there. We are soon 
to spend a week there for the grand man- 
ceuvers. After my very quiet London life, 
I feel perfectly confused at this very animated 
existence ; but it does me a great deal of good. 

My children are very happy ; ride about, 
bathe in the sea, and run wild nearly the 
whole day long. 

We have an Austrian Archduke staying 
here with a very nice Archduchess, whom we 
try to amuse. 

I must now finish this very disjointed 
letter, written during several days. 

What will you do this autumn, dear Lady 
Randolph ? London must be detestable now. 
I quite pity you, and wish you were here. 

Au revoir, mats guana 7 ? 

Marie. 



Malta, January 13, 1888. 
Dear Lady Randolph : 

It is quite unpardonable of me not to have 
written to you before, but somehow, cruising 
about as we did the whole autumn and living 
on board ship, being very hot and lazy, all this 
did not predispose one to active correspon- 
dence. And now it is the slight boredom of the 
Malta life, its uninteresting ccurse, and mille 
attires excuses. I am sincerely glad that you 
have both gone to Russia and have such pleas- 
ant impressions : your nice letters, from Eng- 
land first and next from Petersburg, gave me 
much pleasure. Many sincere thanks, and I 
feel quite touched that you found a moment's 
time to write from my native country amidst 
all the excitement. 

I did very strongly recommend you to all 
my relations, but two of them you had already 
previously greatly impressed, the Grand Duch- 
ess Vladimir at Paris, and my brother Serge 
last summer in London. . . . 

My countrymen and women are very lively 
and demonstrative ; they have kind, warm 



ie 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



hearts and are really fond of one. I feel that 
more and more when I go back to Russia. 

Give many messages to Lord Randolph, 
and I also hope he will write me a few words. 
I am always thinking of his "escapade" last 
winter at Messina, and cannot help laughing 
at it very sincerely. How I should enjoy an- 
other good talk with him, because, you know, 
I have 2ifaible for him. . . . 

The Duke is hurrying me, as the post starts 
at once ; it is most irregular here. I am so 
sorry I cannot write a more interesting letter ; 
I have not half told my tale yet. Am revdir, 
dear Lady Randolph. Many more thanks, and 
do not forget a true friend. 

Marie. 

Before closing this chapter I must 
mention one more Russian friend I was 
fortunate enough to make in the late M. 
de Staal, for many years Russian Ambas- 
sador in London. His delightful person- 



ality, charm of conversation, and kind 
heart, made him extremely popular ; and 
his memory will live long in the thoughts 
of his many friends. I used to meet him 
at Eastwell, a fine place in Kent which 
the Duke of Edinburgh had for some 
years, and where M. de Staal was the life 
and soul of the party. He sent me his 
photograph some time before his death, 
with the following charming and charac- 
teristic note : 

Chesham House, Chesham Place, S. W. 

le 31 Oct. 1902. 
Chere Madame et amie: 

Voici la tres vieille face d'un tres vieux 
homme qu 'est a demi-mort, mais vous aime 
bien. 

Ne Paccueillez pas trop mal. 

Sincerement a vous, 

Staal. 



(To be continued) 




THE SCHOLAR'S RETURN 



R 



BY WILLIAM ELLERY LEONARD 

OBIN , give another chirp in the apple-tree! 
Robin, come and pull a worm and cock your head at me! 



After all the weary quest up and down the lands, — ■ 
Castles on the green hills, sphinxes in the sands, 
Cities by the river-lights, bridges far away, — 
Here again and home again, nevermore to roam again, 
Here again to-day ! 



After all the pedant zest in among the books, — 
Parchments old, and red and gold, in monastic nooks, 
Hie and hoc, and Languedoc, Caxtons, Elzevirs, — 
Here again and back again, nevermore to pack again, 
After years and years ! 

After playing connoisseur at a painted wall, — 
Pea-green damsel, purple ma'm'selle, king, and seneschal, 
Saintly soul and aureole, ruin and morass, — 
Here with eyes to see again the haycocks down the lea again, 
Lounging in the grass ! 

Robin, give another chirp in the apple-tree! 

Robin, come and pull a worm and cock your head at me! 



THE WICKEDNESS OF PHCEBE 

BY ROY ROLFE GILSON 

Author of " Miss Primrose," " In the Morning Glow," etc. 



IN the first place it should be under- 
stood that I am old enough to be Phoe- 
be's father. I dandled her upon my 
knee when she wore bits of blue bows, one 
on each temple, to keep the elf-locks out 
of her eyes. Once, indeed, I held her by 
the heels and shook a button from her 
throat, though, womanlike, even at two 
and a half or thereabout, she turned her 
offended little back upon me, her pre- 
server, as soon as I set her to rights again 
in her chair. Were I to rescue her now, 
grown up as she is, — were I to find her 
drowning, for example, and thereupon, 
as before, seize her incontinently by the 
heels and drag her back to the bank and 
life again, — would not the eternal wo- 
man in her rise, drenched, blurred, gasp- 
ing, pulling at her skirts, and cry : 
"Wretch! How dare you! Go away!" 

No ; on second thought I feel that 
Phoebe would do otherwise. I believe 
that she would throw herself into my 
arms, or into any man's arms that seemed 
near and strong enough, with an "Oh, 
oh, oh, Whatever-your-name-is !" I be- 
lieve this because I find that I must al- 
ways think twice at least, and usually 
three times, to guess what Phoebe would 
do in a given instance. 

Her eyes were blue when she wore the 
blue bows. They are gray now, and 
wide and brimming with such endless 
wonder that I rub my own, short-sighted 
as they are, to make out what in the 
world the dear child is looking at. You 
would think, to gaze at her, that some- 
thing marvelous was happening, perhaps 
behind you, or in the air ; whereas the 
vision, I fancy, is in her own fair soul. 
Or she sees, it may be, something in life 
that you and I used to see, once, but have 
forgotten. To Phoebe, this old, old earth 
is scarcely twenty. To have her glance 



fall and dwell upon you is to feel your- 
self part and parcel of her blessed spring- 
time, the roseate airs of which enable 
her to gaze smilingly upon the win- 
triest things. Her confidences are the 
sweetest flattery that I know of ; they 
seem to make you — poor, harmless, mar- 
ried, gray-growing fellow that she deems 
you — an elder brother to all manner of 
young, sunlit blossomings and dreams. 
She does not guess that in those eyes of 
hers I have read far more than she ever 
tells me. I have descried in their mists 
and shinings more, I swear, than her 
precious broker's clerk can find in them, 
with all his rapt gazing. He is only 
twenty-three. What, pray, do such cal- 
low youngsters know of their own love- 
stories? What kind of romance would 
he make of Phoebe? Some maudlin non- 
sense about violets or stars. 

I am not her Uncle Jimmy, but she 
calls me so. We are unrelated save by 
those early ties that I have mentioned, 
a kinship not of blood, but of our own 
sweet will, and of that propinquity which 
no mere garden-hedge like ours, however 
thorny, can divide. She lives next door. 
We all worship her — my wife, my chil- 
dren, and the stranger within our gates. 
I refer to that estimable young man, the 
broker's clerk, who boards with us — till 
June. 

She is not all eyes, their seeming pre- 
ferment among her charms being due to 
those little blue bows that I chanced to 
think of. She is, I confess, a little lower 
than the angels, and yet, were it not for 
these fair, fresh, flower-like girls, how 
would men ever have dreamed of such 
heavenly things? Phoebe, in summer, for 
example, in her sprigged muslins, or 
whatever the fluffy things are, gives one 
the impression of a being that might 



57 




Drawn by Thomas Fog-arty. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 

"COME ON, UNCLE JIMMY" 



THE WICKEDNESS OF PHGEBE 



59 



float away upon the rosy bosom of a 
cloud, with a harp in her fingers. Not 
that the child is n't solid, you under- 
stand. She is, in fact, inclined to — that 
is to say, she is as plump as a partridge, 
and eschews potatoes, milk, butter, 
sweets — -all foods, indeed, that are con- 
ducive to — whatever it is that she seems 
to fear. The poor broker's clerk is at his 
wit's end to find favors for her, for she 
"only just nibbles," as he says, at candy; 
and what is there left to lay at her feet 
but flowers, flowers, flowers from one 
year's end to the other? — flowers and 
theater-tickets, neither of which, fortu- 
nately, are considered fattening. She 
will dance till midnight, and she walks 
the pale youth, Sundays, to the fag-end of 
Jones's woods, though he assures her, I 
have reason to believe, at every breathing- 
spot, that she is not as forbidding — not 
half as forbidding, I suppose the cub 
puts it — as she seems to think. Person- 
ally, a little roundness is very attractive 
in my eyes, and speaking artistically, you 
never saw lovelier lines in your life than 
Phoebe's. 

It is not the present, I suppose, but the 
future that alarms her; for aside from 
her mincing at table, there is not in 
her demeanor the slightest suggestion of 
self-dissatisfaction or regret. It is bet- 
ter so. I am perfectly willing that she 
should be aware of the pink in her cheeks 
and the rich, red brown in her tresses, 
for I have observed that a woman is 
never so pretty as when she knows it. 
On Easter, in her new spring suit, we all 
remarked that she ate six caramels. 

"Oh, dear!" she said, "I never 
thought!" 

How could she, having so many other 
pleasanter things on her mind and back 
to remember? 

We live, you must know, in an old- 
fashioned town not far from the city. In 
earlier days, I infer, the young men went 
West, and the Phcebes whom they so 
thoughtlessly left behind them are still 
here, but have given up waiting for their 
return. On Barberry Lane there are 
five pairs of spinsters, and one single 
spinster, who all love Phcebe, and 
so gently, so wistfully, in fact, that I 
think it troubled her a little, musing 
of her own particular future, till the 

LXXVI— 8 



broker's clerk solemnly assured her that 
he would never under any circumstances 
— save one — go West. 

"Why, they look at me just as if they 
had once been like me themselves!" 
Phcebe informed me. 

"And is n't it," I said, "just possible, 
my dear, that they were like you once?" 

She smiled. 

"What, the Misses Caraway ever like 
me, Uncle Jimmy!" 

"And why not?" I asked. 

She laughed wickedly. 

"What nice, proper girls they must 
have been!" she said. 

"And are you not a nice, proper girl, 
Phcebe?" 

"Oh, of course," she assured me; "but 
— now don't you ever go and tell any- 
body that I said it, Uncle Jimmy — cross 
your heart — but I simply adore wicked- 
ness !" 

It is a rule of mine never, upon a 
charming occasion, to appear astounded. 
A little delicate surprise at the unexpec- 
ted is at times permissible; but if the 
confession is a woman's, astonishment is 
inhuman, monstrous. Besides, it fright- 
ens the dear bird away. 

"So you adore wickedness?" I re- 
peated gravely, after a long, tranquilizing 
pull at my cigar. 

"In other people, Uncle Jimmy." 

"Oh, of course. Other people, of 
course. Surely. Still, you do. adore it?" 

"Well—" She hesitated. "Of course, 
Uncle Jimmy, that is not a statement 
which one — one would want to get out" 

"Oh, no, of course not." 

"It 's a little too- — don't you know? — 
too general, Uncle Jimmy." 

"Oh, far too general," I admitted. 

"I should not have made it," she went 
on, "if I had not known, of course, that 
you would understand. You always 
do." 

"That 's very kind of you, Phcebe," I 
replied; "very trustful of you, I 'm 
sure." 

"It is not all men that I would trust 
so," she assured me. 

"Heavens, no! I should hope not," I 
replied. "Now, you seem to think," I 
went on speculatively, "that the Misses 
Caraway, for example, did not adore 
wickedness at an 'early period in their 
careers." 



60 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



"Well, what do you think about it, 
Uncle Jimmy?" There was real wicked- 
ness in her eyes now. 

"Oh, I 'm asking you, Phcebe." 

"Well," she answered, and with great 
deliberation, "I have every — confidence 
— in the* Misses Caraway," and giggled 
delightedly, but would say no more. 

Now, it may appear from this conver- 
sation of ours that there was no good rea- 
son in the world why I should ever be as- 
tonished by Phoebe Dix again. It should 
have prepared me, you may think; I 
should have been ready for anything. 
Ah, but you don't know Phcebe ! 

"I tell you," said the broker's clerk, 
speaking to me privately as man to man, 
"we are n't half good enough for these 
dear innocents of ours. I would do any- 
thing in the world for Phcebe. I offered 
to give up smoking, but she would n't let 
me." 

He said this ruefully, as if he could 
imagine no greater proof of a man's de- 
votion than dashing amber and brier- 
wood into a thousand pieces at his lady's 
feet. 

"She says she likes it," he went on 
rather less mournfully, I thought, as his 
pipe drew better. "She says that if she 
were a man, or some women even, she 
would smoke herself." 

"Little devil, eh?" I murmured, for 
the cub amuses me. / draw at him, some- 
times, as he draws his brier. 

"Oh," he assured me in some anxiety, 
"she did n't mean anything by that, you 
know. Oh, no." 

I laughed. He is a nice, clean, gentle- 
manly fellow, Armistead is, and a col- 
lege man. He is so impeccable — the 
very word ! I have been waiting moons 
for it. Impeccable : there is not a vulgar 
or a hasty syllable in the four. It is a 
word that Armistead himself would dote 
upon : impeccable — impeccable in the way 
he holds and fondles his brown pipe; 
impeccable in his way of speaking only 
when he is quite confident that no indis- 
cretion — no split infinitive, for example 
— will creep in unawares ; no undue 
emotion, either, but just a little sly-dog 
epigrammatic observation now and then. 
To be impeccable in speech, or to say 
nothing, is Armistead's rule; to be im- 
peccable in conduct, or to do nothing, is, 
I believe, another axiom of his, and 



might lead one almost to infer that to be 
impeccable in thought, or not think at all 
— but let us not be hasty. Phoebe as- 
sured me almost tearfully the other day 
that he was "all — all, Uncle Jimmy, that 
you could wish for," and I take her word 
for it. If I am not apprehensive against 
June, it is because I know Phcebe. She 
will make a man of him yet. 

But do I know Phoebe? 

Well, at least I know her sex the bet- 
ter for knowing as much, or as little, as I 
do of her. She has taught me a thing or 
two. The Misses Caraway may call her, 
if they like, a new-fashioned girl, shaking 
their heads over her wilfulness; but she 
is new-fashioned in an old, old fashion, 
let me tell you. Girls, I am inclined to 
think, have been pretty much the same 
since Eve was a mere saucy ribling. Nay, 
I will not except the Misses Caraway. 
Why, those dear, shocked ladies do not 
know themselves! All fashions — I do 
not refer to outer raiment — may be traced 
to Eden. 

Phcebe was in town, shopping I believe, 
and met me at the station where, six days 
out of every seven, I take the 5 :45 ex- 
press. We missed it, and by the exasper- 
ating tail-end of a minute, a thing which 
had not happened to me in months before. 

"Missed it, confound it!" I exclaimed. 

"Goody!" said Phoebe. 

"Goody!" I repeated. "There won't 
be another for an hour, young lady!" 

She clapped her hands. 

"All the better," she said. "Now, 
Uncle Jimmy" — her eyes danced — "now, 
Uncle Jimmy, we can see life!" 

Well as I had known the girl, I al- 
most broke that rule of mine. You re- 
member : never, upon a charming occa- 
sion — 

"See w-what?" I demanded. 

" 'Sh!" whispered Phoebe. "Come on, 
Uncle Jimmy; let 's be real gay! Come 
on!" — her cheeks were flushed with — no! 
— anticipation ! — " Come on, Uncle Jimmy. 
Stop laughing, and come on. You take 
me to dinner somewhere. Take me to din- 
ner in one of those nice, sporty little 
French restaurants — you know — where 
you used to go before you were married. 
Come on." 

"Look here," said I, "it strikes me that 
you are assuming a good deal, Phoebe." 



THE WICKEDNESS OF PHCEBE 



61 



"Why," she replied, "I '11 pay for the 
dinner, Uncle Jimmy, if that 's what you 
mean." 

"That 's not what I mean," I retorted. 
" You'vebeen casting aspersions on mypre- 
marital existence, and I won't stand for it." 

"Nonsense!" was her answer. "Do 
hurry, please, Uncle Jimmy, or we may not 
get a table, you know. Such places are 
apt to be crowded at the dinner-hour." 

"Such places," I repeated vaguely — 
"well — er — what — which — have you any 
special one in mind?" 

"I! Oh, mercy, no ! What do / know 
about such dreadful places?" 

"You seem to think that / do," I re- 
torted as indignantly as possible. 

"Well," was her calm, even scornful 
answer, " I assume that you are a man, 
Uncle Jimmy." 

"True," I replied meekly; "I am, 
Phoebe. But it has been so many years, 
you know, since — " 

"Nonsense!" she interposed. "You 
talk like Methuselah." 

"Really," I assured her, "I 'm trying 
to think." 

"You '11 have to hurry," she said, tap- 
ping her foot, "or the fun will be over." 

"There used to be a place, "T began re- 
flectively. 

"What was the name of it?" 

"That 's what I 'm trying to think, 
Phoebe." 

"Oh, you old slow-poke!" she ex- 
claimed, half-laughing, half-frowning at 
me. "Was it the Blue Rabbit?" 

"No, it was n't the Blue Rabbit." 

She caught my arm. 

"Do be careful where you take me, 
won't you? I only wanted to see a little 
— but you will be careful, won't you? — 
won't you, Uncle Jimmy?" 

" Of course," I said. " I wouldn't like to be 
the means of getting you arrested, Phoebe." 

"Oh, don't, Uncle Jimmy! Why, 
you '11 scare the life out of me, if you go 
on using such dreadful language." 

"Well," I said, mollified by the appar- 
ent success of my rebuke, and by what I 
was inclined to consider a rather skilfully 
virtuous conduct of a — a delicate situa- 
tion, "I do know a place, Phoebe." 

"Oh, do you, Uncle Jimmy?" 

She seemed rather astonished, I thought, 
and relieved. 

"Yes," I assured her; "and it is called 



— or used to be — is still, I think — that is, 
if I remember correctly — " 

"Called what, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"The— the Gay Paree, I believe." 

"Don't you know, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"Yes, I — I believe that I know it is 
called the Gay Paree." 

"It sounds promising, does n't it?" she 
replied. "Let 's go. Come on. How 
do we get there?" 

"This car," I explained, helping her 
into it, "will take us to the very door." 

"Side door?" she whispered. 

"No, front," I replied. 

"Front, did you say, Uncle Jimmy?" 
There was, I fancied, a shade of disap- 
pointment in her tone. 

"Front," I assured her. "Oh, it 's all 
quite open and aboveboard at the Gay 
Paree. You may rest easy." 

"And do they have little stalls with 
curtains, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"Gracious, no!" I said, my rule, as I 
have remarked before, being shattered ut- 
terly. "What in the world would they 
want curtains for in a public cafe?" 

"That 's so," she replied. "It never 
occurred to me. But they serve wine 
there?" 

"Wine? Oh, yes — wine. Lots of wine. 
Two colors. And soup — beautiful soup 
■ — very nourishing — natural-history soup." 

"Natural-history soup!" 

"Yes. Contains specimens of all the 
flora and fauna of the Eastern States." 

"It does!" 

"You '11 see." 

"And does it — does it taste nice, Uncle 
Jimmy?" 

"De-licious! It 's a bowlful of educa- 
tion." 

"And do they have music, too?" 

" Music ? Oh, yes — music : three fid- 
dles and a jigamaree." 

"A w-what, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"Why, a piano-thingamabob that you 
play with drumsticks." 

"How interesting!" she cried. "And 
everybody sits around little tables — " 

"Yes; oh, yes*. Everybody sits, close 
up, around little tables, you know — " 

"Is n't that jolly!" murmured Phoebe. 
"And watches — " 

"Exactly!" I assured her. "Every- 
body watches everybody else, you know, 
and thinks how awfully wicked every- 
body else must be." 



62 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



"They do!" said Phoebe. 

"Why, of course. That 's what they 
go there for." 

"And will they think me wicked, Un- 
cle Jimmy!" 

"Sure," I replied. "They '11 look over 
at you and me, laughing and drinking 
wine, and some nice, respectable person 
out seeing life, you know, will say, 'Now 
just look over there.' And if the nice 
person is a man, he '11 say, 'Just look at 
that old fellow over there running away 
with that pretty, young, innocent thing !' 
But if the nice person is a woman, she '11 
say, 'Just look at that shameless little 
hussy !' " 

"Uncle Jimmy!" 

"Eh?" 

"Uncle Jimmy, I want you to stop this 
car." 

"What?" 

"I want you to stop this dreadful car. 
Now!" 

"But what for?" 

"I want to get out. I want to get out 
right here." 

"But, my dear Phoebe — " 

" 'Sh! Not so loud. Somebody '11 
hear you. Conductor ! the next corner, 
please. Uncle Jimmy, we 're going 
straight home." 

"But, my dear Phoebe — " 

"Don't be silly. I 'm not your dear 
Phoebe. Come. There 's a car going 
back. We '11 catch it if we hurry." 

"But, Phoebe—" 

It was not, however, until we were 
seated again in the other car that I could 
induce her to listen to my remonstrance. 

"But why," I asked, "this sudden al- 
teration of our plans, Phoebe?" 

"I 'm astonished, Uncle Jimmy." 

"Astonished!" I repeated. "Aston- 
ished! Astonished at what? Astonished 
at whom?" 

"At you, Uncle Jimmy." 

"At me!" 

"At you! To think—" 

Her lip quivered. It did, positively. 

"To think that you would dare even to 
offer to take me to such a place !" 

"But, my dear child, I understood — " 

"You understood nothing — nothing." 

"But the place is perfectly respecta- 
ble," I protested, "only, as I explained to 
you, the joke — " 

"There is no joke, I assure you, Uncle 



Jimmy. This may be humorous to you, 
but—" 

"Well, then, the truth of it, Phoebe—" 

"You should not have told me the 
truth of it. You should not have dared 
to tell me the truth of it " 

"But," said I, "Phoebe, for the life of 
me, I don't see — " 

"Of course you don't see. Of course 
you don't see. When does a man ever un- 
derstand a woman?" 

"Well, I guess you 're right there," I 
replied gloomily. 

"You were perfectly willing," Phoebe 
went on, speaking low but tensely, and 
looking straight before her that the few 
other passengers might not observe her 
emotion — "perfectly willing to expose a 
young girl — " 

She swallowed hard. 

"It was your own proposition, Phoebe." 

"Why, it was n't either! I told you 
that I wanted to see life. I did n't 
say — " She swallowed hard again, and 
tears, actually tears, glistened in her eyes 
— "And you might have known how sick 
and tired I was of sewing-circles and — 
and lunch parties — and the — the Misses 
Caraway." 

" I did know, Phoebe ; but you can't 
see life, my dear, without seeming to 
be a part of it, you know — to other 
people." 

"Can't you?" 

It was a meek little "Can't you?" 
"I 'm afraid — oh, I 'm afraid I 've been 
cross, Uncle Jimmy." 

"Not a bit of it," I assured her. 
"You 're hungry, that 's all. We '11 get 
a bite down here opposite the station, at 
the Pelham, before the train goes. Oh, 
it 's perfectly respectable — perfectly, I 
assure you. There is no life there — none 
whatever, my dear Phoebe." 

"Sure, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"Sure pop." 

And seated in the Pelham, her fam- 
ished spirits revived most charmingly. 

"You 're sure you don't think any the 
less of me, Uncle Jimmy?" 

"Oh, my dear!" 

"Or that I 'm foolish?" 

"My dear child!" 

"Promise me," she said — "promise me, 
Uncle Jimmy, faithfully — cross your 
heart and hope to die — that you '11 never, 
never mention our — escapade!" 



THE ELEPHANTS BRIDE 

(ADVENTURES ON THE RAGGED EDGE) 
BY JOHN CORBIN 

WITH PICTURES BY MAY WILSON PRESTON 



EVEN in the height of shame and 
mortification at what Jaffray had 
done, Mary was too just to forget that he 
had had provocation. 

All through his first long and wearing 
year at his office desk they had looked 
forward to his vacation. As a bachelor 
he had gone every spring in the trout sea- 
son to visit friends who had a luxurious 
camp far up in the woods of Maine. 
This year, the owner, being abroad, had 
offered the two young people the hospi- 
tality of the camp all alone, with its 
abundance of stores and corps of guides. 
The expense, to be sure,- would still be 
considerable, for in addition to the jour- 
ney, they would have to be liberal in fees ; 
but they both so loved the forest and the 
streams ! On his last vacation as a bach- 
elor he had had a three-days' contest 
with a huge trout in a certain pool in the 
Allagash which had baffled all his lures 
— Grandfather Squaretail, they dubbed 
him. Time and again he planned how 
they would tackle the wily old codger — 
how Mary would strike and land him, 
and with what rod and fly. 

Uncle Sturtevant, it is true, had re- 
fused to give him more than the usual 
two weeks of vacation — two weeks to 
penetrate to the heart of Maine, recu- 
perate from a whole year's work, and 
return for another year ! Then, at the 
last moment, stepson Augustus had fixed 
upon the day of their departure for his 
wedding, and Aunt Augusta had made it 
a test of family loyalty that J affray wait 
over to be best man. Aunt Augusta 
loved dearly to pin upon her undistin- 
guished head the halo of her husband's 
name. The final blow came when Uncle 



Sturtevant refused to extend J affray's va- 
cation so as to make up for waiting over, 
his only reason being that to do so would 
break up the office vacation schedule. 
Two whole days from their precious four- 
teen ! It had reduced Mary to tears. 

Jaffray had very nobly comforted her. 
There was no crisis in life, he said, which 
could not be met with dignity and a sense 
of humor. He always said this when 
they were up against it. It was the 
chief article in his creed. And so they 
had ended by laughing at Aunt Augusta's 
snobbishness and Uncle Sturtevant's 
meanness as if they had really been 
funny. 

None, the less, when they got home 
from the wedding she was angry with 
Jaffray. "And now" she said, as he 
opened the door, "what have you to say 
for yourself !" 

The apartment was dismantled, . and 
while she fixed him with her eyes, she 
sat severely on a trunk in the middle of 
the floor. 

•'Before you give me a run-in," Jaffray 
expostulated, "I want to ask you two 
questions — two." He held up a pair of 
forking fingers. His manner was airy, 
inconsequent, audaciously confident. 

The fact did not lessen her severity. 
"Ask me twenty questions, play any old 
game you choose; but in the end — " 

"Was that party a wedding or was it a 
funeral?" 

"It was, I own, a very solemn func- 
tion — until you kissed the bride." 

"And after that — question two, — did I 
act like a monkey?" 

The question startled her, and knowing 
his present mood, she scented danger. 



63 



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THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



But she ventured to say, "From the time 
you kissed her, the shines you cut up 
would have done credit to the monkey in 
the happy family in the zoo." 

" Right ! " he exclaimed, breathing more 
freely. "And therefore I have no kick 
coming from you, Mary." 

"That is mere nonsense." She threw 
aside her theater cloak. 

"Before I kissed the bride," he ar- 
gued, "that party was a dead rabbit." 

Mary was unmoved. "It was the wed- 
ding of your cousin Augustus." 

"That explains the dead rabbit. It 
does n't excuse it. And he 's only my 
step-cousin. Augustus is no kin of mine." 

"I should be glad if you could even 
explain the monkey-shines. You behaved 
disgracefully — and you know why!" 

His demeanor became excessively so- 
ber, and he did not answer. 

On their return from the woods they 
were to go into another apartment, and 
their belongings had already been moved 
there — except beds for the night, a trunk 
in which to pack away their evening 
clothes, and traveling-suits for the mor- 
row, which were laid out on the bed. As 
they undressed, they folded each garment 
and packed it away in the trunk. Duffle 
bags were corded, rods and tackle put in 
neat order for the journey. In Maine 
Sunday trains are few, and in order to 
avoid the loss of two more precious days, 
they had to clear out for the woods at 
eight in the morning by the Mayflower 
Limited. 

Mary forced the issue. "You drank a 
great deal of champagne!" 

His answer was to walk the length of 
the room on a crack in the rugless floor. 
He was exuberant, delighted ; but a 
mathematician could not have drawn a 
straighter line. "Me pussy-footed!" he 
triumphed. "Look at that!" 

"If I understood your deplorable lan- 
guage," Mary ventured, "I should say 
that it perfectly describes your condition. 
In another moment I expect to find you 
rampaging the back-yard fence ! In fact, 
that 's precisely what you 've been doing 
all evening. Why did you kiss Augus- 
tus's bride?" 

"Now you 've got me," he said, but 
least of all in the manner of contrition. 
"Before kissing Augustus's bride, I ad- 
mit, a man would have to be — " 



"Roger!" she interrupted him with 
stern rebuke. "She 's a very nice girl." 
The rebuke was merited, and J affray so- 
bered perceptibly beneath it. 

Only the autumn before, Augustus had 
fallen in love with the daughter of an old 
but impoverished family, and his mother, 
firm in her belief in her millions, and de- 
lighted with the prospective alliance, had 
carried on a campaign for him of osten- 
tatious confidence. The result had been 
disaster. Augustus was the kind of man 
to whom such things come hard. One 
consequence of this had been that he had 
taken to his bed in a nervous breakdown, 
and another that he got up from it to 
marry his pretty trained nurse, Miss 
Kathleen Quinlan. It had been to re- 
deem the occasion socially that Aunt Au- 
gusta had insisted on Jaffray's waiting 
over to be best man 

"I humbly beg my new cousin's par- 
don," said Jaffray. "Kathleen is a peach, 
and a corker — much too good for Au- 
gustus." 

Mary pursued her advantage. "Be- 
fore the dinner was over, you had kissed 
every one of those pretty Irish brides- 
maids. At the theater you squeezed every 
hand in reach." 

"Did any one kick?" he demanded. 

"They appeared to be having the time 
of their lives." 

"Well, then!" 

"It is I who am kicking." She quoted 
the word with fine scorn. 

He had put the last garment in the 
trunk, and was sitting on the lid with an 
air of great vigor. Finally he forced the 
hasp into the socket and turned the key. 

"I don't see what all this row is about. 
Did / ask to be Gus's best man? No. I 
said I had a previous engagement with a 
most aristocratic and punctilious old 
trout on the Allagash. If they did n't 
want me to buck up their dead rabbit 
party, I should like to know, why did 
they ask me to break it!" His manner 
was of one deeply aggrieved. 

"You had words with your cousin Au- 
gustus. You regularly set out to make 
trouble!" 

"In your opinion, just because a man 
is taking on a better half, does he have to 
act like a stuffed shirt?" 

"No, but they mostly do. Your cousin 
Augustus always acts like that." 




Drawn by May Wilson Preston 
"FOUR STRONG ARMS OF THE LAW LAID HOLD OF HIM" 



Jaffray's head emerged from his paja- 
mas. "Whoo-oop!" he cried. "Now 
you 're guessing warm ! When I tried to 
make that wedding look less like a fu- 
neral, he chucked out his chest and said 
there are some functions in life that are 
sacred. I humbly begged his pardon, and 
said, 'Sacred, Augustus, but not sol- 
emn.' " As he rehearsed the conversa- 
tion, he illustrated it with fluent gestures. 
"I said I was only symbolizing the joy 
of the whole family in welcoming his 
bride. Dignity was all right, I said, but 
there was something also in good-fel- 
lowship. Life is real, I said, life is 
earnest; but there is no fix you can't 
come well out of if you have dignity 
and a sense of humor — a little dignity, 
Augustus, and a good deal of the sense 
of humor." 

"That is a very excellent sentiment," 
Mary said severely. 

"It is the sum of all philosophy. But 
what do you think Gus said?" Jaffray 
paused portentously. 

"What did Augustus say?" 

"No," said Jaffray, firmly; "never 



mind what Gus said. I 'm happy now, 
and happy I 'm going to sleep. 'Close 
thine eyes in thoughts of joyance,' " he 
quoted, " 'and thou wilt wake to a morn 
of happiness.' " In her unfashionable 
days, Aunt Augusta had been a psychic 
soul, and even now, to Jaffray's delight, 
these words were framed and hung up in 
her splendid guest-chambers. He thumped 
his head into the pillow and closed his 
eyes. 

"You might at least put out the light," 
Mary prompted him. 

He sat up, blinking. 

"Roger," she said firmly, "nothing 
could excuse such conduct. All the 
bridesmaids knew what was the matter. 
The people in the seat behind us were 
grinning at you. You were squiffy, spif- 
flicated, pie-eyed : I know now what those 
words mean. When I think of it, it gives 
me the shame shivers down my spine. 
You 've got to take your scolding, either 
now or in the morning. That other time, 
you remember, you said I was no sports- 
man because I held off at night, when 
you were en train, and then slammed you 



65 



66 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



in the cold, gray dawn. Still, if you 
want me to wait till morning — " 

"Hold on!" Jaffray cried. "I 'II take 
it now ! But before you let loose on me, 
wait till you hear what Gus said. 'A lit- 
tle dignity !' he said. ' An elephant would 
have more. When an elephant is going 
to get married, he kills every monkey 
in the forest for a mile around, and I 
wish / could !' You hear that ! Me a 
monkey in the forest ! Me of the bander- 
log ! When they made me break my ap- 
pointment with Grandfather Squaretail ! 
That was why I got busy. Give a dog 
a bad name! I played # the whole bag of 
monkey-tricks ! I got Gus on the run so 
he would n't even let me check his bag- 
gage, for fear I 'd put placards on it; 
would n't even tell me where he was go- 
ing, for fear I 'd bombard his address 
with hymeneal picture-cards. And all I 
tried to do was what any best man should. 
But we got even, the bridesmaids and I. 
I 'm sorry, sister, if you had the shame 
shivers, but it really was up to me to 
buck up that dead rabbit wedding. Now, 
what have you got to say?" 

Mary said nothing. 

"If you say 'monkey' in the morning," 
Jaffray concluded, "you 're a paper sport, 
a tin-horn tooter." He pounded his head 
again into his pillow, and slept the sleep 
of the just. 

Mary got up and turned out the light. 

In the morning they were awakened by 
the expressman knocking on the door. It 
was late, but they had just time to check 
their luggage. Breakfast they could get 
on the train. Mary gathered up her be- 
longings and fled to the bath-room. Jaf- 
fray instructed the man to take bags and 
tackle to the station and then the beds 
and the trunk to the new apartment. 
After he was shaved and bathed, he 
packed their toilet-articles in a traveling 
hand-kit. 

When Mary was not looking, he drank 
a long draft of water from the tap ; then 
he plucked up spirit to hum and whistle 
a fairly good imitation of his usual matu- 
tinal blitheness. Not a word from Mary, 
not an accent alluded to the evening be- 
fore. Mary was not a paper sport. 

All of a sudden the morning face of 
Jaffray clouded to a dull gray dawn. He 
scanned every corner of the bare apart- 
ment, made a dash from closet to closet, 



and then to the bath-room. Dum- 
founded, he stood in the middle of the 
floor, holding his coat in one hand, his 
waistcoat in the other, and swore. It is 
said of some men that they swear deli- 
cately, artistically. But the most ven- 
turesome has never put down in black and 
white an example of the art profane. It 
does not exist. The vocabulary of objur- 
gation is pitifully small, hopelessly mono- 
syllabic, eternally offensive. 

Mary was aghast. "What has hap- 
pened?" she cried. "Roger! Stop!" 

"Matter!" cried Jaffray. "Trousers!" 

His traveling-suit was dark blue, and 
in the stress of the night before he had 
mistaken it for black. Both pairs of 
trousers were on the way to the station ! 
Long before the expressman could be re- 
called, the Mayflower Limited would be 
gone, they would be held up in civiliza- 
tion over Sunday, and two more days of 
their precious holiday would have been 
sacrificed to the wedding. 

"Only ten days!" Jaffray lamented, 
"It 's all up ! Before we got to the Alla- 
gash it would be time to come back!" 
He became aware of dull pains in his 
head, and recited again the small vocabu- 
lary of words of one syllable. 

"Stop!" Mary cried. 

For a moment their two minds held a 
single thought — that except for his mis- 
conduct yesterday they would not be in 
their present plight. In that moment 
Mary proved forever that she was a 
sportsman down to the ground. 

"There must be some way," she said. 
"Think! We must both of us think." 

"Think!" Jaffray echoed. "Can you 
think up a pair of trousers !" 

"We can drive to the station in a han- 
som. It is so early no one will see you 
get in. When we are there, I can open 
the trunk, and you can put them on in 
the cab." 

Jaffray looked at his watch and groaned. 
There was not time to summon a cab. 
The whole world had turned to a dark- 
brown abomination. 

But Mary would not despair. "There 
must be some way ! You know what you 
always say : there is no crisis in life so 
terrible that you can't come out of it with 
dignity and a sense of humor— a little 
dignity and a great deal of humor." 

"A little dignity— without pants! A 



THE ELEPHANT'S BRIDE 



67 



sense of humor— without pants!" He 
sank down on the bare floor, still holding 
his coat and waistcoat. 

Mary's face brightened with inspira- 
tion. "I have it!" she cried. 

" Have it, your grandmother ! Have 
you got a pair of pants?" 

"I have my squirrel cloak!" She pro- 
duced the garment in triumph — an old, 
tan-colored affair that in the woods was 
to be at once blanket and dressing-gown. 

J affray said a word of one syllable. 

But she was not to be cast down. When 
he was in college, she argued, had he not 
often appeared before the multitude in 
athletic panties — even before her, when 
she was a young girl? Well, that was 
what he had on now, and a coat and 
waistcoat, too. Besides, her cloak would 
cover him almost to the knees. If he 
took the Subway, he could overhaul the 
express-wagon and get into the trunk be- 
fore the man had left the station. The 
streets at this hour would be empty. As 
for the station, she would go with him, 
and stand in front of him so that no one 
could see. 

Her plan was plausible and her cour- 
age heroic. "You are the gamest girl 
in Gotham," he said with rare admira- 
tion. "But if I go trouserless, I. go trou- 
serless alone." 

By this time she had him on his -feet 
and the squirrel cloak about his shoul- 
ders. Beneath the skirt of it showed two 
rims of white, and below that his athletic 
calves in gaudy socks and garters. 

"It 's not half so bad as those adver- 
tisements in the magazines," she encour- 
aged him. "And think of your appoint- 
ment with Grandfather Squaretail — of 
your whole year's vacation!" 

Gathering the cloak together in front, 
he snatched up the traveling-kit and was 
gone. 

When J affray strode out into Stuyve- 
sant Square, it was half-past seven by 
St. George's clock. The streets, instead 
of being empty, were thronged with girls 
going from their East-Side homes to work 
in the shops of Broadway. 

" Himmel!" said a Yiddish maiden, 
"Iss it a man oder vooman?" 

J affray blushed till his scalp-lock tin- 
gled, but he only hit up the pace. 

"Oh, Mamie," cried an Irish voice, 
"get on to the guy all dressed in his gar- 



ters!" Then the two sang out in shrill 
unison: "Dicky-dicky-dout, your shirt- 
tail 's out!" until he was beyond earshot. 

There was a troubled dream that all his 
life had haunted him of talking in one 
half of his pajamas to a party of ladies 
in evening gowns, and in it he had al- 
ways been able to maintain the aspect of 
unconscious dignity — until he awoke all 
bathed in perspiration. He had no such 
fortitude now, and no blessed awakening 
was possible. Shame burned in his cheeks 
like a fever. Thank Heaven ! there 
was n't a policeman in sight ! 

From time to time he met wayfarers of 
his own sex who looked ' at him and 
grinned. His heart was fired with a de- 
sire to sandbag and then rob each of them 
who possessed the inestimable treasure of 
trousers. And all of them did, confound 
them ! 

As he dashed down the Subway steps 
to the platform, fortune favored him. 
The express was standing ready, and the 
last few passengers were filing into it. 
The platform master spied him and came 
toward him shouting, but Jaffray dodged 
into the car just in time to escape" the 
sliding-door, and the train drew out. 

He had often complained of the crowd- 
ing of the cars ; but now, he had prom- 
ised himself, it would cover his shame : 
no one ever saw a strap-hanger's legs. 
As it happened, however, his present 
journey was against the stream of traffic. 
The seats were barely filled, and most 
of the passengers were type-writers on 
their way from Brooklyn to up-town of- 
fices. The corners of the area at the 
end of the car were already occupied. 
Jaffray stood forth in full view. His 
feminine fur cloak alone was enough to 
attract attention, and presently, as the 
train thundered along, every eye within 
range was centered on him. 

"What the you doing here like 

that!" snapped the guard. 

Jaffray was mute, with the sense of 
being a public offense. 

"You get off next station, see!" 

"All right," Jaffray assented, though 
the thought was despair. Hope rose, 
however, when he realized that the next 
station was the Grand Central. 

One by one the white illumined tiles of 
the local stations flashed by, Eighteenth 
Street, Twenty-third, Twenty-eighth, an- 




Drawn by May Wilson Preston 
"THERE ON THE TOP OF THE TRAY WAS THE CAUSE OF SO MUCH WOE" 



nihilating the handicap of the express- 
wagon. As the train dipped below the 
level at Thirty-third Street, J affray no- 
ticed a motherly-looking woman, holding 
a hand-net full of parcels from the mar- 
ket, who was eying him with special in- 
terest. As their glances met, she put 
down her net, lurched toward him across 
the swaying car, took the cloak from his 
shoulders and caught it about his waist. 

"There, sonny!" she said. 

His legs were covered, but by the same 
token the neat modishness of the superior 
man was revealed. There was a general 
titter, rising here and there to a laugh 
outright. 

"Thank you, Madam," said JafTray, 
and the modest inclination of his head, 
the soft good breeding of his voice, con- 
vulsed even those who had hitherto re- 
membered their manners. 

As he gathered up his grip on ap- 
proaching Forty-second Street, the entire 
carload shifted to the station side of the 
train to watch his debut on the platform. 

There was the usual throng jostling 
about the doors, but J affray went through 



it like a half-back, and leaped up the 
stairs with the cloak flying behind him, 
careless now of exposure. 

On the sidewalk beside the exit stood 
a policeman, his arms idly suspended 
from thumbs in his belt. 

J affray shot past him at a sprinter's 
speed. Half a block in front was the 
baggage-room. He was a public nui- 
sance, but he had the legs on the law. 

The first object that caught his eye 
was the expressman with mattresses and 
bedsteads driving away from the door. 
Jaffray called out to him. The only re- 
sponse was from the policeman, lumber- 
ing behind. His cries to the expressman 
became a shout. It was answered by the 
policeman's whistle. His* only hope now, 
he realized, was to overtake the express- 
man, get his trousers, and slip into them 
before the policeman caught up with him. 
At that moment he saw in front of him 
another policeman, responding to the call 
of the whistle. The two converged on 
him. It was all up with Jaffray, and 
he dodged for cover into the baggage- 
room. 



68 



THE ELEPHANT'S BRIDE 



69 



There a momentous sight confronted 
him. The baggage-man, all of a grin, 
was laying out on the counter the trunks 
of Augustus and his bride, still bedecked 
with the white ribbons which J affray him- 
self, with the aid of the bridesmaids, had 
tied on them in neat profusion as they 
left the house the night before. And 
there was the bridal elephant, too, eying 
the ribbons with weary disgust* 

Also the bride was there. Her face 
was averted from the grins of the bag- 
gage-men, so that she was the first to see 
J affray sans culottes. A startled cry es- 
caped her. 

Augustus turned with a glance of in- 
quiry that was soon transformed into an 
infuriated glare. 

But the moment he saw our hero, our 
hero saw something that made his heart 
leap with joy. Beside the bridal baggage 
on the counter stood his own trunk. By 
the most fortunate of blunders, the ex- 
pressman had deposited it, together with 
canoe bags and tackle. 

"Thank Heaven!" cried Jaffray, and 
made a dash for it past the portentous 
form of Augustus. 

Augustus caught him in two powerful 
arms, and gripped him with the strength 
of rage. "What do you mean by this in- 
sult?" he snarled between set teeth. 
"You infernal monkey!" 

Gripping his cousin by the neck, Jaf- 
fray braced himself firmly and threw him 
off. In the entire English language there 
was only one word that would have di- 
verted his thoughts from his long-lost, 
his priceless trousers. But Augustus had 
spokenit. "Idiot !" Jaffray said. "You've 
made enough trouble with your chesty 
poses. Let me get my trousers!" 

"I '11 have you arrested for a public 
nuisance," shouted Augustus. 

Already the door had been darkened by 
the bulking forms of the two policemen, 
and before Jaffray could put his key in 
the lock, four strong arms of the law laid 
hold of him. 

"What is he, clean dotty?" asked the 
one who had responded to the whistle. 

"Hold fast," the other cautioned. 
"He 's got pipes to his garret all right, 
all right — crazy as a loon!" 

Jaffray expostulated, explained; but 
together they haled him forth to the 
street. "It 's the ding-dong wagon for 



yours," said one of them, conclusively, 
"and a through ticket for the bug-house." 

And now entered the real heroine of 
this tale. Miss Kathleen Quinlan that 
had been, and Mrs. Augustus Rarrish that 
was, had looked with pity on the plight 
of our hero. With a swish of her skirts 
she overtook the policemen and was 
pleading his cause. The gentleman, she 
explained, was Mr. Roger Jaffray, her 
husband's cousin and best man, but other- 
wise quite sane. 

"Then what does he want here like 
that?" the policeman demanded. 

"I want my trousers," said Jaffray. 

"It is only a wedding-party joke," said 
Mrs. Augustus Rarrish. 

"Joke nothing!" Jaffray cried, "I want 
my trousers." 

"Sure, that ye do," the policeman as- 
sented. "Take my advice, and go home 
and get them." 

"But they 're there, in the trunk," he 
said ; " I tell you, they 're there in the 
trunk!" 

Then was exemplified once and for all 
time the superlative value of discipline, 
of training. Nurse Quinlan that had 
been, spoke her mind to the guardians of 
the law as if they had been hospital or- 
derlies, and they stood aside. 

He who should have been her lord and 
master took her forcibly by the arm, and 
between clenched teeth commanded her 
to remember that she was his wife. 

"Augustus," she. cried, "don't make 
yourself a worse idiot than you are!" 

Instinctively he stepped back from her. 

J affray's fingers were fumbling excit- 
edly with the lock of his trunk. She took 
the key from him, calmly inserted it, 
turned it, and raised the lid. 

There on the top of the tray was the 
cause of so much woe. The sight of a sail 
to a shipwrecked mariner is no more wel- 
come than was the feel of the blue serge 
as Jaffray clutched it. . But on him also 
Mrs. Augustus Rarrish exerted her sway. 
She took the trousers in her own bridal 
hands, shook them out, and commanding 
Jaffray to sit on the baggage-counter, 
held them wide open by the suspender 
buttons. 

"This is an outrage!" thundered Au- 
gustus. 

Mrs. Augustus held out each leg of the 
trousers for Jaffray in the precise manner 



70 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



prescribed by the Presbyterian Hospital. 
Jaffray fairly leaped forward as he slid 
into them. 

A crowd had gathered in the baggage- 
room, and as the tale of what had hap- 
pened passed from lip to lip, a series of 
guffaws smote the ceiling. 

Jaffray paid no heed to it, or to the 
muttered curses and fierce imprecations 
of his step-cousin. "Quick, baggage- 
master!" he said, "I 've got to check my 
luggage." 

"And what about my luggage?" clam- 
ored Augustus. "I 've got to catch that 
Mayflower Limited." 

When Jaffray had appeared on the 
scene, it transpired, Augustus had been 
in dispute with the officials. His berib- 
boned baggage was overweight, and it 
was necessary to put it on the scales and 
calculate the precise amount to be charged 
for the excess. Now there was not time 
for this. 

"But unless I catch the Limited," Au- 
gustus thundered, "I shall be held up at 
Portland two days. I can't get a train on 
Sunday." 

For Jaffray it was a moment of bitter 
temptation. Except for Augustus's idi- 
ocy, he would himself have attended to 
the baggage yesterday afternoon. What 
was his duty now? After all, he was his 
cousin's best man, and had kissed the red 
lips of the bride — and that was now the 
least of her claims upon intimacy and 
consideration. "Will four tickets cover 
the lot?" he asked. 

"Sure will they," said the baggage- 
master. 

Jaffray held out his tickets, and they 
were duly punched. 

"Oh, thank you!" said Mrs. Rarrish. 

"Thank you, Kathleen!" said Jaffray. 
"You are an eternal corker." 



Augustus glared. If he had had the 
proboscis which by nature belonged to 
him, he would have snapped J affray's 
head from his shoulders. But, submit- 
ting to his deformity, he grasped his 
bride by the arm and hurried her to the 
train. 

It was then that Mary appeared. 

At the sight of her Jaffray's heart fell. 
"I don't suppose you could check 
my traps on these tickets now?" he in- 
quired. 

"Lose my job," the man answered la- 
conically. "But when the superintendent 
comes, I '11 explain the matter of the 
pants, and he '11 do it all right." 

"Unfortunately," said Jaffray, "I 'm 
off for the Maine woods, too — only, it 
seems, I 'm not." 

Across the street in the hotel tears min- 
gled with Mary's breakfast. Jaffray 
pleaded and comforted in vain. She 
could only remember that the labors of 
midsummer were before him, worn out as 
he was; that their dream of woods and 
streams and hemlock beds were again 
twelve months in the future. There was 
a catch in her voice as she spoke, of 
Grandfather Squaretail. 

"But everything can be borne," he pro- 
tested, "with dig — " He paused a mo- 
ment, and then concluded — "with dig- 
nity, humor, and trousers." 

The dimples began burrowing up into 
Mary's cheeks, and even the sad look in 
her eyes gave way to a smile. 

He saw his advantage, and leaped to 
his feet. "Trousers," he said. "Do you 
see them? The most precious thing in 
the world ! You can live without parents, 
or cousins, or aunts ; but a civilized man 
cannot live without — trousers ! And I 
put these on with the help of the ele- 
phant's bride!" 





NEGRO HOME 

BY BOOKER. T.WASHINGTON 



THE first Negro home that I remem- 
ber was a log-cabin about fourteen 
by sixteen feet square. It had a small, 
narrow door, which hung on rusty, worn- 
out hinges. The windows were mere 
openings in the wall, protected by a rick- 
ety shutter, which sometimes was closed 
in winter, but which usually hung de- 
jectedly on uncertain hinges against the 
walls of the house. 

Such a thing as a glass window was 
unknown to this house. There was no 
floor, or, rather, there was a floor, but it 
was nothing more than the naked earth. 
There was only one room, which served 
as kitchen, parlor, and bedroom for a 
family of five, which consisted of my 
mother, my elder brother, my sister, my- 
self, and the cat. In this cabin we all ate 
and slept, my mother being the cook on 
the place. My own bed was a heap of 
rags on the floor in the corner of the room 
next to the fireplace. It was not until 
after the emancipation that I enjoyed for 
the first time in my life the luxury of 
sleeping in a bed. It was at times, I sup- 
pose, somewhat crowded in those narrow 
quarters, though I do not now remember 
having suffered on that account, especi- 
ally as the cabin was always pretty thor- 
oughly ventilated, particularly in winter, 
through the wide openings between the 
logs in the walls. 

I mention these facts here because the 
little slaves' cabin in which I lived as a 
child, and which is associated with all my 
earliest memories, is typical of the places 
in which the great mass of the Negro peo- 



ple lived a little more than forty years 
ago ; and there are thousands of Negro 
men and women living to-day in com- 
fortable and well-kept homes who will 
recognize what I have written as a good 
description of the homes in which they 
were born and reared. 

Probably there is no single object that 
so accurately represents and typifies the 
mental and moral condition of the larger 
proportion of the members of my race 
fifty years ago as this same little slave 
cabin. For the same reason it may be 
said that the best evidence of the prog- 
ress which the race has made since eman- 
cipation is the character and quality of 
the homes which they are building for 
themselves to-day. 

In spite of difficulties and discour- 
agements, this progress has been consid- 
erable. Starting at the close of the war 
with almost nothing in the way of prop- 
erty, and with no traditions and with little 
training to fit them for freedom, Negro 
farmers alone had acquired by 1890 
nearly as much land as is contained in 
the European states of Holland and Bel- 
gium combined. Meanwhile there has 
been a marked improvement in the char- 
acter of the Negro farmer's home. The 
old, one-roomed log-cabins are slowly but 
steadily disappearing. Year by year the 
number of neat and comfortable farmers' 
cottages has increased. From my home 
in Tuskegee I can drive in some direc- 
tions for a distance of five or six miles 
and not see a single one-roomed cabin, 
though I can see thousands of acres of 



71 



72 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



land that are owned by our people. A 
few miles northwest of Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, in a district that used to be known 
as the "Big Hungry," the Southern Im- 
provement Association has settled some- 
thing like over fifty Negro families, for 
whom they have built neat and attractive 
little cottages. During the first six years 
nearly all of these settlers have paid for 
their houses and land from the earnings 
of their farms. 

The success of this experiment has 
helped to improve conditions throughout 
the county. Similar results have obtained 
at Calhoun, Alabama, where a somewhat 
like experiment has been tried. 

What I have said in regard to the con- 
dition of the people in the neighborhood 
of Tuskegee is equally true of Gloucester 
County, Virginia, where the influence of 
Hampton has been much felt. My friend 
Major R. R. Moton of the Hampton In- 
stitute writes : 

In traveling over some fifty miles of Glou- 
cester County last May, visiting schools and 
farms of the colored people, I did not see a 
single one-room house occupied by colored 
people. Not only that, but the houses of the 
colored people, I might add, were for the most 
part either painted or whitewashed, as were 
the fences and outbuildings. While, on the 
other hand, in a travel of about eight miles in 
York County, which is separated from Glou- 
cester County by the York River only, I 
counted as many as a dozen dilapidated 
one-room dwellings of colored people. The 
reason of this is due largely to the influence of 
the fifty or more graduates and former students 
who have settled in Gloucester County, while 
York County has not been touched by the 
former students and graduates of Hampton 
Institute. 

At Mound Bayou, Mississippi, in the 
center of the Mississippi- Yazoo delta, 
where the Negroes outnumber the whites 
sometimes as high as ten to one, a Negro 
colony, founded by Negroes, has come 
into possession of thirty thousand acres 
of land, and has built a Negro town in 
which, during the twenty years of its ex- 
istence, no white man has ever lived. An- 
other and large Negro town has grown 
up at Boley, Indian Territory, within the 
last five years, where all business, schools, 
and town- government are in the hands of 
Negroes, most of them from the farms 
and country towns of northern Texas, 
Arkansas, and Mississippi. 



With regard to the progress made by 
Negroes in the cities we have less com- 
plete and definite information. But the 
number of those who possess homes, par- 
ticularly in the Southern cities, is, I am 
convinced, much larger than most people, 
even those who are best informed, are 
aware. And this progress has been made 
for the most part in recent years, for after 
emancipation the freedmen did not at 
once understand the importance of ac- 
quiring property and building homes. 
They have had to learn that, as they have 
had to learn, in the first forty years of 
freedom, so many other simple and ele- 
mentary principles of civilization. 

I remember that the Reverend W. R. 
Pettiford, President of the Alabama 
Penny Savings Bank at Birmingham, 
Alabama, told us in one of his reports at 
the National Negro Business League that 
when he began his campaign among the 
miners and laborers of that region, before 
he could induce them to save money he 
had first to convince some of them of the 
necessity of giving up the loose connec- 
tions in which they had been accustomed 
to live in slavery, and to establish per- 
manent family relations for the benefit 
of their children. Many of these peo- 
ple who had been living together for 
years were ashamed ■ to go through the 
legal form of marriage : it was a sort of 
acknowledgment that they had been in 
the wrong. It was only after their re- 
sponsibility to their children was ex- 
plained to them that they could be in- 
duced to do so. Others were led to 
take the step through the influence of the 
church, or were drawn to it by the grow- 
ing strictness in such matters of the com- 
munity in which they lived. 

So an increasing number of Negro 
homes has gone along with an increasing 
sense of the importance of the safeguards 
which the home throws about the family, 
and of the household virtues which it en- 
courages and makes possible. 

In every Southern city there is a Negro 
quarter. It is often merely a clutter of 
wrecked hovels, situated in the most dis- 
mal and unhealthy part of the city. A 
few years ago there might be two or three 
of these quarters, but there was very lit- 
tle choice between them. They all had 
the same dingy, dirty, and God-forsaken 
appearance. These are the places that 



NEGRO HOMES 



73 



are still usually pointed out as the Negro 
homes. But in recent years there have 
grown up, usually in the neighborhood 
of a school, small Negro settlements of 
an entirely different character. Most of 
the houses in these settlements are still 
modest cottages, but they are clean and 
neat. There are curtains in the windows, 
flowers in the gardens, the doorways are 
swept, there is a little vine growing over 
the porch, and altogether they have a 
wholesome air of comfort and thrift. 

If you should enter these homes, you 
would find pictures on the walls, a few 
books on the table, and an atmosphere of 
self-respect and decency which is conspic- 
uously absent in the other quarters to 
which I have referred. These are the 
homes of a thrifty laboring class, usually 
of the second generation of freedmen. 
You would find, if you should inquire, 
that the owners had all had some educa- 
tion. Many of them have gone through 
colleges or an industrial school, or at 
least are sending their children there; 
and if you should inquire at the places 
where they are employed, you would 
learn that they were steady, thrifty work- 
men, who had won the entire respect of 
their employers. Many of them were 
perhaps born and reared in the dingy 
hovels to which I have referred. Many 
of them had come originally from farms, 
and, after leaving school, have settled 
permanently in the city. 

In these same communities, however, 
you will frequently find other homes, 
larger and more comfortable, many of 
them handsome modern buildings, with 
all the evidences of taste and culture that 
you might expect to find in any other 
home of the same size and appearance. If 
you should inquire here, you would learn 
that the people living in these homes were 
successful merchants, lawyers, doctors, 
and teachers. There is nothing pictur- 
esque about these dwellings, and nothing 
to distinguish them from any other houses 
of the same class near-by; they are not 
usually recognized as Negro homes. 

Now, the fact is, that white men know 
almost nothing about the better class of 
Negro homes. They know the criminals 
and the loafers, because they have dealt 
with them in the courts, or because they 
have to collect the rents. from the places 
in which they congregate and live. They 



know to a certain extent the laboring 
classes whom they employ, and they know 
something, too, of the Negro business men 
with whom they have dealings ; but they 
know almost nothing about the doctors, 
lawyers, teachers, and preachers, who are 
usually the leaders of the Negro people, 
the men whose opinions, teaching, and in- 
fluence are, to a very large extent, direct- 
ing and shaping the healthful, hopeful 
constructive forces in these communities. 

In the course of my travels about the 
country I have had the opportunity to 
visit the homes of many of the people 
of this influential class. I have talked 
with them, by their firesides, of their own 
personal struggles. I have had oppor- 
tunity to learn of their difficulties, temp- 
tations, aspirations, and mistakes, as well 
as to counsel and advise with them in 
some of the common undertakings in 
which we were engaged. 

If it were possible, I should like to de- 
scribe in detail some of the homes that I 
have visited, and to tell some of the histo- 
ries that I have heard, because most that 
has been written about the Negro race in 
recent years has been written by those 
who have looked upon them from the out- 
side, so to speak, and have seen them 
merely through the dull, gray light of so- 
cial statistics. It is my experience that a 
house is like a face : it is not difficult to 
perceive and feel the subtle influences 
that find expression there, but it is hard 
to describe them. But I can make here 
only a few random notes upon my own 
impressions; I must leave to a poet like 
the late Paul Laurence Dunbar, and to a 
novelist like Charles W. Chestnutt, the 
task of telling the new thoughts that are 
now stirring in plantation cabins, or the 
ambitions and struggles of the men and 
women who have gone out from them to 
win success in the bigger world outside. 

One of the most beautiful and interest- 
ing homes with which I am acquainted is 
that of W. H. Lewis, Special Assistant 
to the United States District Attorney at 
Boston. Mr. Lewis lives in Cambridge. 
His home is on Upton Road, one of the 
many pleasant avenues of that beautiful 
university city. The house itself was de- 
signed especially for Mr. Lewis, who has 
chosen to put the entrance rather near 
the street, in order to give more room and 
privacy for the fine lawn at the back. On 



74 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



crjvXMw. 



the rear porch, looking out across the 
lawn, the family sometimes have their 
meals in summer. The interior is de- 
signed with all the ingenuity and taste 
that have made modern houses models of 
comfort and convenience, and is at once 
large enough to be airy, and snug enough 
to be warm. Mr. Lewis is extremely fond 
of old furniture, and he has many tro- 
phies to show for his prowls among the 
antiquaries. I might mention also that 
in the library and study, which is the 
place which he regards as particularly 
his own, Mr. Lewis has a good collection 
of the books which concern the history of 
his race, and other races, and the walls 
are hung with the portraits of the men, 
both black and white, who have distin- 
guished themselves by service to the Ne- 
gro race. Mr. Lewis was born in Vir- 
ginia thirty-nine years ago. Both his 
father and mother had been slaves, and 
he got his early education in the Virginia 
Normal and Collegiate Institute, a school 
for colored youth. As a boy he peddled 
matches along the wharves at Portsmouth, 
Virginia, and in one way or another he 
made his way until he was able to enter 
Amherst College. While he was in Am- 
herst he was captain of the foot-ball 
team. He won the Hardy Prize Debate 
and the Hardy Prize Oration, and at his 
graduation, in 1892, was chosen class or- 
ator. He was graduated from the Har- 
vard Law School in 1895. During all 
this time he made his own way, working 
at various occupations which chance of- 
fered. He worked for a time, during this 
period, as a waiter in Young's Hotel, 
Boston. After his graduation he began 
the practice of law. He was three times 
chosen representative from Cambridge 
to the legislature, and was finally ap- 
pointed, in 1903, to the position of United 
States District Attorney. Such, in brief, 
is the history of one of the more suc- 
cessful of those who are sometimes 
referred to in the South as the "new 
issue." 

The limits of this article will not per- 
mit me to describe at the same length 
the homes of Dr. Samuel G. Elbert of 
Wilmington, Delaware; of Professor 
William S. Scarborough of Wilberforce, 
Ohio; nor that of A. D. Langston of St. 
Louis, Missouri, all of whom are, like 
Mr. Lewis, men of scholarly attainments, 



whose homes reflect the best influence of 
modern America^ life. 

Dr. Elberiy/who was graduated from 
the H ffJVgJ rMedical School in 1891, and 
after several years' experience, first as 
interne, and then as assistant resident 
physician, at the Freedman's Hospital in 
Washington, completed his medical edu- 
cation by a three years' graduate course 
at the Medical School at the University 
of Pennsylvania, is still a zealous stu- 
dent, and has collected a private library 
of some 5000 volumes. Professor W. S. 
Scarborough, who is the head of the de- 
partment of Greek at the Wilberforce 
University, is author of a Greek text- 
book and a member of a number of 
learned societies to whose proceedings he 
is a valuable contributor. Mr. A. D. 
Langston, who is the son of the Hon. 
John Mercer Langston, the only colored 
man ever chosen from the State of Vir- 
ginia as United States representative, is, 
as his father was before him, a graduate 
of Oberlin College. He has been for the 
larger part of his life a teacher, and is at 
present the head of the Dumas School at 
St. Louis, Missouri, where he is doing 
valuable work for the education of his 
race. 

A Negro home very different from any 
of these is that of Paul Chretien, who 
owns a large plantation of 360 acres two 
miles from St. Martinsville, in St. Mar- 
tin's Parish, Louisiana. Mr. Chretien's 
father was a Creole Negro who made a 
fortune before the war raising cattle on 
the low and swampy prairies of south- 
western Louisiana. When he died, he 
left each of his children, three boys and 
two girls, 360 acres of land, and to Paul 
he gave the quaint and beautiful country 
place in which he lived. It was a vast, 
roomy structure of brick and wood, with 
a wide gallery across the front, and a 
•porch set into the building at the back. 
The house stands in the midst of a large 
garden in which flowers and fruits blos- 
som and bear in tropical profusion. Side 
by side with such fruits as Northern peo- 
ple are familiar with, grow oranges and 
figs, which lend an air of luxuriance to 
eyes accustomed to soberer Northern 
landscapes. 

Among the other Negro homes that I 
have visited, which have preserved either 
in their exterior or interior something of 




HOME OF BISHOP ELIAS COTTRELL, HOLLY SPRINGS, MISS 



LXXVI-9 



Ra/£>.%.WZ 




WILBERFORCE, OHIO 



b^Aj^x^'iA 



TUSKEGEE, ALA. 



NEGRO HOMES 



77 



the quality of the old Southern mansion, 
I might mention those of Bishop Elias 
Cottrell at Holly Springs, Mississippi; 
A. J. Wilborn of Tuskegee, Alabama; 
John Sunday of Pensacola, Florida ; G. 
E. Davis of Charlotte, North Carolina; 
and that of Nicholas Chiles of Topeka, 
Kansas. 

Bishop Cottrell, who will be remem- 
bered among the Negroes of Mississippi 
for the useful and courageous work he 
has done and is doing for Negro educa- 
tion in that State, has served the Colored 
Methodist fhurch of ^Mississippi in one 
capacity or another since 1875, and has 
been a bishop since 1894. A. J. Wilborn, 
a graduate of the Tuskegee Institute, is a 
merchant in Tuskegee, where he was born 
a year before the breaking out of the war. 
He was one of the first students of the 
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute. At the present time he owns one of 
the best business blocks in the town, and 
does a large and profitable business, par- 
ticularly among the farmers in the sur- 
rounding country. 

Professor G. E. Davis has been for 
twenty-one years a teacher in Biddle 
University at Charlotte, North Carolina. 
I quote the following passage from a let- 
ter from Mr. Davis because it illustrates 
one. of the curious family traditions— 
where there were family traditions — that 
have been handed down to the new gen- 
eration from the days of slavery. 

My mother's father was born free. His 
father, a native Scotchman, was a man of 
means, and left my maternal grandfather con- 
siderable wealth, entirely in gold coins, in strong 
iron chests. My maternal grandfather's wife, 
and consequently his children, were slaves, 
with a kind master. The father and husband 
hired the entire time of his wife and all his 
children, ten in number, and gave his eons the 
trade which he followed — mason and plas- 
terer—and the girls the refining influence of a 
Christian home. 

I might add that the struggle for free- 
dom which his ancestors began, Mr. Da- 
vis has faithfully and honorably con- 
tinued, adding to the hard-won freedom 
his father gained that other freedom that 
comes of economic independence, know- 
ledge, and discipline. 

John Sunday was a wheelwright be- 
fore the war ; then he became a soldier, 



and was afterward a member of the Flor- 
ida legislature. Since then he has been 
in business. He tells me that in 1906 
his total taxes amounted to $1079.45. 
He has eight sons and two daughters, 
all of whom he educated at his own 
expense. Three of them went to Fisk 
University, and two of his sons are phy- 
sicians. 

Nicholas Chiles conducts a newspaper 
in Topeka, Kansas. He made his money, 
however, in real estate. Turned adrift, 
like many Negro boys after the war, to 
shift for himself, after years of aimless 
wanderings and adventure he attracted 
attention some years ago by buying a 
house in the same block with the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, and making of it a beau- 
tiful home. 

An interesting fact with regard to the 
home of W. H. Goler of Salisbury, 
North Carolina, is that he built it al- 
most wholly with his own hands. Mr. 
Goler learned the trade of mason at Hal- 
ifax, Nova Scotia, where he was born. 
He recalls that he worked at a later pe- 
riod on the old Adelphi Theater Build- 
ing in Boston, — afterward the store of 
Jordan & Marsh, — and that when the 
men employed there refused to work with 
a Negro, he organized a gang of Negro 
bricklayers to take the place of the men 
who struck on that account. It was from 
the money he earned as a bricklayer in 
Boston that he was able to pay his way 
through Lincoln University, Pennsyl- 
vania, which he entered in 1873 at the 
mature age of twenty-seven. He com- 
pleted his collegiate course therein 1878, 
and three years later was graduated from 
the theological department. . After two. 
years as pastor of a church at Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, he became a 
teacher at Livingston College, where, in 
addition to his other work, he superin- 
tended the industries of the college and, 
with the help of the students, made the 
brick and laid the walls of most of the 
college buildings. * He is now president 
of that college. 

J. H. Phillips was born on the "Car- 
ter Place," a few miles from Tuskegee. 
He studied at Hampton Institute, and 
went from there to the Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Massachusetts. He has a beau- 
tiful home in Montgomery, which, he in- 
forms me, is insured for $7500. 




BISHOP G. W. CLINTON 






CHARLESTON, WEST VA. 



NEGRO HOMES 



79 



Mr. Phillips once said to me : 

In building and furnishing our home, we 
may have been a little extravagant; but the 
homes in which we were born and reared were 
neither ceiled nor plastered, the walls were 
without pictures, our beds without springs, 
and the kitchen was without a stove. On the 
floor there was no matting, or carpet, except 
a burlap sack I used to stand upon on cold 
mornings. We are trying to make up, my 
wife and I, for all we missed in our childhood. 

I have room to say but little of the 
wonderful career of Bishop Abraham 
Grant, who was born in an ox-cart while 
his mother was being carried home from 
the slave-market ; was himself sold for 
$6000, Confederate currency, during the 
war ; and has since traveled over a large 
part of the world — through Europe, Af- 
rica, and the West Indies — largely in the 
interests of his church. Bishop Grant's 
present residence is in Kansas City, Kan- 
sas, although his home, as he says, is in 
Indianapolis. 

I can only mention the names of Bishop 
R. S. Williams of the Colored Methodist 
Church, whose home is in Augusta, 
Georgia; and Bishop G. W. Clinton of 
the Zion African Methodist, who lives at 
Charlotte, North Carolina; C. W; Had- 
nott, a contractor and builder of Bir- 
mingham, Alabama; and Andrew M. 
Monroe, who has been for many years 
collector for the Merchants' National 
Bank at Savannah, Georgia, — men whose 
homes, if less pretentious than some 
others I have named, still have about 
them, in a more than usual degree, the 
cheerful, wholesome atmosphere of a 
home. 

One of the most imposing Negro resi- 
dences of which I know is that of Dr. 
Seth Hills of Jacksonville, Florida. Dr. 
Hills is still a young man, and has been 
singularly favored by fortune and unusu- 
ally successful in his profession. His 
father, a very practical man, who was at 
the same time preacher and carpenter, set 
him at an early age to learning the cigar 
trade. It was with this trade that he 
supported himself for the most part dur- 
ing the years he studied at Walden Uni- 
versity, and afterward at the Long Island 
Medical College of Brooklyn, New York. 
While there he was fortunate enough to 
make friends who helped him to com- 
plete his education there and abroad. 



His home is one of the many handsome 
Negro residences of Jacksonville. 

There are other Negro physicians whose 
homes attracted me ; among them are Dr. 
C. S. Swan of Columbus, Georgia, and 
Dr. Richard Carey of Macon, Georgia. 
Dr. Carey was graduated from Howard 
University, studied afterward in New 
York, and in Vienna, Austria. Since his 
return from Europe he has confined his 
practice almost wholly to diseases of the 
eye, ear, nose, and throat. I might men- 
tion also the names of J. M. Hazelwood, 
S. W. Starks of Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia, whose residences are as handsome 
and complete as any that I know, and 
Dr. Ulysses Grant Mason of Birming- 
ham, Alabama, who, after completing his 
course at Meharry Medical College, 
Nashville, went abroad in order to take 
a special course in surgery at the Royal 
Hospital of Edinburgh. In 1895 Dr. 
Mason was elected to the position of as- 
sistant city physician, a post not held be- 
fore that time by a colored man. 

There are other Negro homes that are 
quite as deserving of notice as any that I 
have mentioned. I have written of those 
that have come in my way, and they have 
served the purpose of this article, which 
has been to throw some new light on the 
deep and silent influences that are work- 
ing for the upbuilding of the Negro peo- 
ple in this country. 

The average person who does not live 
in the South has the impression that the 
Southern white people do not like to see 
Negroes live in good homes. Of course 
there are narrow-minded white people 
living in the South, as well as in the 
North and elsewhere ; but as I have gone 
through the South, and constantly come 
into contact with the members of my 
race, I am surprised at the large num- 
bers who have been helped and encour- 
aged to buy beautiful homes by the best 
element of white people in their com- 
munities. I think I am safe in saying 
that the sight of a well-kept, attractive 
home belonging to a Negro does not call 
for as much adverse comment in the 
South as it does in Northern States. 

The fact is that human nature is pretty 
much the same the world over, and econ- 
omy, industry, and good character always 
bring their rewards, whether the person con- 
cerned lives in the North or in the South. 




Drawn by Leon Guipon. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 
"'BE A GOOD BOY AND TAKE THESE THINGS TO MY ROOM" 1 



HOW THE WIDOW TAMED 
THE WILD 

BY BARTON WOOD CURRIE 

Author of " Under the Joshua-Tree" 
WITH PICTURES BY LEON GUIPON 



A DUSTY gray car, long and slim- 
bodied, coasted noiselessly down the 
trail into Main Street and swung past the 
Dizzy Ghost with a warning flutter of the 
exhaust. At the driving-wheel sat a slen- 
der figure, graceful, notwithstanding a 
loose linen cloak smirched with patches 
of the impalpable alkaline powder that 
every squall of the desert wind raised 
from the ground in thinly nebulous sheets. 
Nor did the masking leather goggles, 
caked with the soft, clinging mold, erase 
the impression of loveliness concealed. 
Beside the wraith-like figure, enshrined in 
dusty mystery, perched an uncommonly 
ugly bulldog, made grotesquely hideous 
by protruding eye-shields fastened above 
his flat snout. Secured by two flat-linked 
nickel chains, the dog, grimly confident 
of the external evidences of his ferocity, 
sat as tight as sculptured stone, his fore- 
legs curving in a perpetually belligerent 
bow. The tonneau of the automobile was 
cluttered with bulging ore sacks and torn 
tire-shoes. 

Along the uneven thoroughfare of 
Bullfrog straggled idle motors, worn and 
scratched and shabby from their tours 
into the alkali-flats, over flint-ribbed trails 
and through washes of spongy, clogging 
sand. Smudgy, walnut-tanned chauffeurs 
sat at the levers of some of them, ready, 
with engines drumming, to dash out again 
on the ceaseless quest for treasure. They, 
as well as the slouching miners loafing on 
the board sidewalks beneath the shop and 
saloon awnings, doffed their hats to the 
girl who rolled by them, the torn ends of 
her dusty brown veil wisping out behind 
and revealing a tangled mass of light 
chestnut hair crowned with a little red 
cap. 



"Who 's the fair one, Jonesy?" . asked 
a sallow-cheeked young man who stood 
framed in the doorway of the Dizzy 
Ghost, smugly aware that his speckless 
flannels freshened the dingy surround- 
ings. He turned with a drowsy look of 
inquiry to the white-haired little man 
with the ruddy complexion, sitting a few 
feet from him at the end of the long, pol- 
ished counter. 

Jonesy stepped to the door and shaded 
his eyes from the sun's glare. He was 
barely in time to see the graceful automo- 
bile twist into a narrow lane, making a 
sharp turn about a huddled group of lit- 
tle shacks. 

"That 's Betty, the Widow's daugh- 
ter," he said softly, dropping his hand, 
and backing into the shade. "That 's her 
new bubble, the Silver Fox, one of those 
six-cylinder, fifty horse-power distance- 
eaters. She makes the trip about every 
other week to the Red Hawk, just beyond 
Funeral Range — Bashful Bob Robley's 
little mint, you know." 

"No, I don't know," said the young 
man, peevishly. "Bashful Bob Robley? 
The Widow? "Betty? That 's all Piute to 
me. You oracles of the desert take it for 
granted that a tenderfoot should know 
the history of every tank-tender, miner, 
and millionaire from Buffalo Meadows to 
Skidoo." 

"That 's so," mused the boyish little 
veteran of a thousand booms, lighting his 
skull-bowled pipe with the crystal eyes 
that he detested to smoke, but delighted 
to display. "It 's becoming mighty diffi- 
cult to keep track of you downy youths in 
these benzine-buggy days, with clouds of 
prospectors flitting over the Nevada 
wastes in goggles and dusters, looking 



81 




Drawn by Leon Guipon. Half-tone plate engraved by H. C. Merrill 

"SHE WAS IN COMMAND OF THE SITUATION" 



HOW THE WIDOW TAMED THE WILD 



83 



more like the dismal goblins we see in 
dreams than men. Still, I don't under- 
stand how you missed hearing about 
Bashful Bob Robley and the Red Hawk 
on your journey down from Reno. Why, 
he 's Betty's husband, and Betty is the 
Widow's daughter." 

"Oh," muttered the tenderfoot, with 
an unconscious sigh; "she 's married, 
then. That sort of quashes the thrill. 
I '11 say this much, though," he added 
with some animation: "from the moving- 
picture glimpse I had, she seemed a rare 
bloom for this arid wilderness. This 
Robley person has more than a bonanza , 
to congratulate himself on." 

Jonesy regarded his fantastic little 
pipe with dreamy admiration for a mo- 
ment, pushed back his panama so as to re- 
veal a scanty thatch of white above a 
broad, crinkled forehead, and fixed the 
attention of the blase young man with the 
remark : 

" Usually, when I reveal that she is kin 
of the Widow Buckley, the reply is, 
1 'Nough said.' It does not require any 
supplementary discourse to cause Nevada 
folk to sit up and take notice. The 
Widow would have made Barnum's petri- 
fied giant rise up on his toes and salute, 
had the whim developed." 
' "But you must make allowances for 
the colossal ignorance of a tenderfoot, a 
totally new tenderfoot," smiled the young 
man. "But let the oracle relate." 

Surreptitiously exchanging the skull- 
bowled pipe for a more satisfying dudeen, 
Jonesy began: 

" From 'way back in my dim school-boy 
days I recall a remark anent Caesar, some- 
thing like ' wine^ widy, wichy!' Well, you 
can lay it all on the case ace that the 
Widow did pretty much .all that. Like- 
wise there were no Mrs. Brutuses sit- 
ting around at their knitting, waiting to 
trim her laurels. 

"She arrived about the time Goldfield 
had obtained the dignity of a few shacks, 
creating a more or less irregular thor- 
oughfare. Wooden edifices were succeed- 
ing tents, for the ore had begun to pan 
so rich and yellow that there were a few 
magnates among us who could afford the 
precious Truckee pine for humble con- 
struction work. Yes, and there was quite 
a bit of building going on or planned. 

"Next door to the Hush-a-by saloon 



Paul Wilcox was putting up quite an im- 
posing structure, forty feet front with 
gingerbread work on the eaves. Paul was 
fresh from Nome, where he 'd promoted 
his fortunes some by the deft manipula- 
tion of the little ivory ball. 

"He was standing outside his shack, 
sizing up the rich effects of red lead on 
the facade, and directing the artist who 
was painting the big sign over the door, 
when the stage rattled down over the 
hummocks on its daily run from Tona- 
pah, drawing up before Comfort Inn, 
across the way, in a whirling spray of 
dust. The loungers in the hotel dawdled 
out to get a focus of the strangers and to 
slip the glad hand to friends. The two 
camp dogs scuttled down out of an alley 
of tents with their feebte alkali coughs 
that they still imagined were terrible 
warnings of prowess. Our population 
then was about three hundred and two, 
counting the said dogs. 

"Now, it came to pass that this arrival 
of the Tonapah stage was the greatest 
event in the history of the camp since Lit- 
tle Sammy struck the lead of a golden 
lode under a Joshua-tree. It was as big 
an event with us as the arrival of Eve in 
the Garden of Eden, though the Lord 
knows the scenery was more like the pit 
than Paradise. You see, the Widow was 
aboard that stage; likewise, Betty. The 
Widow came out of the rickety rig in one 
jump, firmly and solidly, as was her way. 
Betty followed in her way — demure as a 
coy kitten; and when the boys got one 
look at her pretty face, every man- jack of 
them realized for the first time in some 
months that there were such things as 
starched collars and neckties. So there 
were sudden, burning regrets over the re- 
cent demise of Joe the barber, who had 
unwisely attached himself to the staff of 
an inefficient sheriff. 

"The Widow stopped short of the inn 
door, swung round on the boys with one 
of her rare smiles, and then exploded 
gustily : 

" ' My ! but you 'r*e a tough-looking lot ! 
But I knew you would be, and that 's why 
I. came. Wait till you try some of my 
buckwheats. They '11 bring you back to 
grace, for they 're better than the kind 
mother used to make.' She waved to 
Betty, who was a little flustered at the 
stage door by seven pairs of hands offer- 



LXXVI— 10 



84 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



ing to assist her down and carry her lug- 
gage. 

" 'Come on, daughter/ laughed the 
Widow, and swept into the hotel, illumin- 
ating its narrow dinginess by her large, 
beaming smile. The desk was in an un- 
even bulge of the hallway, if you could 
call the slit between the bed-stalls a hall. 
Yours respectfully was proprietor, clerk, 
bartender, and bell-hop. 

" 'Son,' said the Widow to me, piling 
her boxes and bags and canary-cage so 
they made a wall between us, 'be a good 
boy and take these things to my room. 
I '11 want one for a day or two before I 
engage a shack and get down to business.' 

"That 'son' and 'good boy' sounded 
good, though I knew I had some few 
burning summers and bitter winters the 
best of her, and I was gathering up her 
parcels and telescopes, when a serious 
thought gave me pause. The Comfort 
Inn was full, jammed tighter 'n a her- 
ring-can. The remark was on my lips 
that my guests were compelled to arrange 
themselves in layers to fit, when my 
glance was drawn to the doorway. It was 
full of faces whose features were twisting 
in pantomime, and wherever I looked, 
hand- waves and fingers jabbed mysterious 
signals, each jab followed by confused 
mumbling. But the Boniface of the inn 
saw a light, turned to the Widow, and 
bowed : 

" ' Madam, the entire hostelry from 
Little Sammy's front parlor to Waldorf 
Pete's hammock in the open-faced exten- 
sion is at your disposal.' Then there was 
a stampede down the aisle, a crashing 
open of doors, and the hauling out of 
grips, ditty-bags, chunks of sample ore, 
tools, and all the junk a prospector 
treasures more than heirlooms. 

"In less than three minutes the Com- 
fort Inn did n't have a guest who had n't 
pulled stakes and offered his furnished 
closet to Mrs. Maud Buckley and daugh- 
ter. The laugh she released at this dem- 
onstration of gallantry was sure worth 
the price of admission. And Betty's 
blushes ! Well, if she had said, ' Gentle- 
men, will you kindly give me one of your 
mines,' there 'd have been a wholesale as- 
signment of claims as fast as the notary 
could splice on the seals. 

" 'Knew you were a good lot, spite of 
your looks,' said the Widow in her big, 



ringing voice, as Little Sammy ushered 
her into his sumptuous apartment, beg- 
ging her pardon with his best Boston ac- 
cent as he hauled out the one chair of the 
suite to make room for her entrance. But 
she had a woman's eye for making things 
fit, and where he had felt like a hippo- 
potamus in a pill-box, the Widow and 
Betty were able to move about freely and 
breathe without bursting the walls. 

"The Widow was not long stowing 
away her kits and canaries, and washing 
the alkali out of her eyes. The sun was 
just dipping on its toboggan down the 
slants of Funeral Range when she burst 
from the state-room and announced with 
that finality she gave to every utterance : 

" ' Jonesy,' — just as if she 'd known me 
for years, — 'I am going out to hire a 
shack; but I '11 be back in time to look 
after the pig-tailed heathen I see fussing 
in the back kitchen.' 

"I chuckled to myself as she flung 
through the door, thinking there was an 
equal opportunity of her hiring a three- 
piece hutch and building a church out of 
sage-brush roots. You see, I did n't know 
the Widow then. 

"She marched the length of Main 
vStreet and back. A dozen of the boys 
were trailing along with her, fairly hang- 
ing on her every word. The procession 
halted in front of Paul Wilcox's place 
opposite the inn. The painter had just 
finished the sign, and Paul was still ad- 
miring the masterpiece through one 
cocked eye. 

" 'Nice bit o' shanty you 've got there,' 
said the Widow, tapping him on the 
shoulder so he spun round and reached 
for his gun. When he saw who it was, 
his jaw slipped down, and he turned three 
colors under his mahogany skin. 

" ' Look here,' she ran on, squaring her 
shoulders and taking a deep breath, ' I am 
going to hire half your shack. The situ- 
ation appeals to me, and I guess the town 
will back me up in shaving down your 
gambling hell. I know there 's got to be 
gambling here. I learned at Nome that 
men who dig gold out of the ground are 
more like moths than proper human be- 
ings. They no sooner get their pretty 
wings than they rush madly to the first 
flame that '11 singe them. But I imagine 
we '11 be good neighbors so long as you 
keep order and cut out the gun-play.' 



HOW THE WIDOW TAMED THE WILD 



85 



All this in one breath, striking Paul Wil- 
cox cold and making his red little eyes 
blink like a bat in a sun-glow. When he 
got his voice, his cheeks were lime green. 

" 'Madam,' he said hard and gritty, 
'I don't talk your language. There is as 
large a chance for you to rent half my 
shack as there is of your raising sheep on 
Casket Mountain. I would n't let out a 
caboose in the left wing for one thousand 
hard men a month. Ain't got room 
enough for all my tables as it is. 
Why—' 

"But there his tongue halted. The 
Widow stepped up to him in two short 
strides and caught his arm. She said a 
few words to him soft and low, drawing 
back to watch him as he turned verdigris 
yellow and quaked in his boots. Finally 
he choked, gripping his Adam's apple, 
that seemed bulging through his skin. 

" 'Yes, yes,' he said huskily, 'you can 
have it, and I '11 put in the partition and 
tables for the restaurant; but for God's 
sake — ' 

"Her hard, dry laugh stopped him 
again, and she swung round on us with : 
'Mr. Flet— , oh, I beg pardon,— Wilcox, 
has consented to rent me half of his 
mansion, boys. He — well, never mind.' 
Then she turned to him again and went 
on: 

" 'You see that the carpenter builds 
the tables and cash-desk. I '11 attend to 
the stove and fixings. And that sign — ' 
She paused and allowed her features to 
relax into a smile, — 'did it not strike 
you, Mr. — er, Wilcox,' she said, holding 
her sides and shaking, 'that Moose Skin 
does not scan well in your line of busi- 
ness? For instance, that last word, 
though gorgeously painted, is a trifle too 
insinuating, if not a dangerous allusion 
to your gentle profession. I advise you 
to cut the board right in half there. "The 
Moose" will do for your shingle. Mine 
will be plain and simple — "The Home 
Grub." Now don't look so sad about 
losing the pelt of your antlered pet, for I 
suppose you can look after the skin part 
of your profession inside.' Her laugh 
rolled out on the evening stillness and 
echoed away in a dip of the hills, dying 
in a crackling chuckle in Red Horse 
Gulch. 

"There was no doubt about the des- 
tined popularity of The Home Grub. 



The Widow was a keen business woman, 
and before she got her stove up and hired 
her Piute dish-washers she had sold fifty- 
trip meal-tickets to the entire community. 
There was no need of canvassing for pa- 
tronage. She simply invited the boys to 
a flap- jack orgy on the morning after her 
arrival, standing over the galley in the 
Comfort Inn and turning the buckwheats 
until her arm was tired. We all sat out- 
side on long benches while Betty passed 
round the steaming pancakes on platters 
and bits of shingle. Every time she is- 
sued from the kitchen with a new relay 
the camp rose and cheered. 

" Preceding this festival occasion it had 
been mostly a case of every man his own 
chef. As a consequence, the general diet 
had been canned tack and bleary coffee. 
The coffee the Widow made was clear as 
the Tahoe Spring, and she 'd freighted 
down on the hurricane-deck of the Tona- 
pah stage a case of condensed cream. 

"That was sure a pancake barbecue the 
pioneer lads of Goldfield will remember 
after they 've forgotten their first wives. 
Whenever I feel the blues coming on, I 
close my eyes and summon up the picture 
of Her Gracious Majesty Queen Bess, as 
some of the younger chaps called Betty, 
tripping out the side door of the Comfort 
Inn with a tin plate heaped high with 
glistening brown buckwheat cakes gripped 
daintily in little pink-and-white fingers, 
her sleeves rolled up over plump, dimpled 
arms. 

"Now, I might insert right here before 
I forget it that those dimples in Betty's 
arms mighty near caused a tragedy. Red 
Kenny, who was fresh from the Cceur 
d'Alenes, with some reputation as a two- 
handed shooter, was sneaking glances at 
Betty every time she passed; and so was 
Molly Vanoff, — Christian name Molokai, 
if I remember rightly, — the tow-whis- 
kered Russian engineer, a wild little cuss 
who must have had some rare Tatar an- 
cestors. 

"I heard Red, his mouth full of cakes, 
whisper to Molly : '"See those dimples — 
eight to each arm ! D'jever see anything 
so pretty? Makes me feel good all over, 
and forget my past, just to look at that 
sweet little lady. I 'm going to put on 
some more guns, Molly, an' ther first man 
that cusses or chews terbaccer in that 
girl's vicinity is going to acquire an infu- 



86 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



sion of lead that '11 give him the aspect 
of a matrix.' 

" 'Those are honorable sentiments, 
Red, and I second them thorough,' said 
Vanoff, talking out from his throat as 
most Russians do; 'but,' he added, 
slowly turning over a flapjack and admir- 
ing it out of one screwed-up little eye, 
'you over-reckoned the dimples,, There 
are only six dimples to each arm — three 
at the elbows and three at the wrists.' 

"Red choked down the cake and whis- 
pered short and raspy : ' I said eight dim- 
ples, you tallow- whiskered mudjik; which 
means four and four, two times four, and 
one times eight. There never was a 
Kenny in my branch, Mr. Vanoff, who 
ever ascertained the flavor of his own 
words, and Redding Emmett Kenny is n't 
going to learn now.' 

" 'Six dimples is my estimate,' came 
back Molly, soft and purry. 'Six, I 
think, is half a dozen, and the figure 
stands.' 

" 'You 're a liar,' snapped Red, 'which 
also stands.' 

" 'For which ill-omened remark,' 
said Vanoff, closing his eyes in that 
dreamy way he had when he was raving 
mad, 'I will let a little light dawn on 
your intellect by blowing off the top of 
your head. If you will favor me with 
your company over to that Joshua-tree, 
back of the bank, we will measure off 
eight paces and decide this difference of 
opinion according to the frontier code, 
which, I believe, still obtains in this un- 
tamed wilderness.' 

"They got up and moved slowly across 
the trail, examining their hardware as 
they went. Sheriff Baldwin called after 
them, but ducked into the tank shed when 
Red waved the blue nose of a .44 his 
way. 

" 'Where are those two boys wander- 
ing to?' suddenly cried out the Widow, 
who had followed Betty from the kitchen 
with the last pyramid of cakes. Then 
she glimpsed the flash of their guns, 
spilled the buckwheats on the bald head 
of Sternberg, the banker, and went after 
Red and Molly in short, flying jumps 
that shook the ground. I 'd seen men 
disarmed before, and with some celerity, 
but I never witnessed any of Mr. Colt's 
blue-nozzled barkers gathered with less 
hesitation. 



"She got to Red Kenny first, gripped 
his gun arm in that big, square hand of 
hers, and gave it a twist that made him 
drop the cannon with a squeal of pain. She 
caught it with her free hand as it fell, 
and then loped for Molly. He saw the 
big shooter waving at his breast, the 
Widow, red-faced and puffing behind it, 
and his hands went up high and empty, 
as if worked by a snap spring. There- 
upon she marched the pair, droop-eyed 
and shambling, down to the inn. 

" ' Look here,' she said, lining them up 
before the bench, 'what were you two 
babies quarreling over?' 

"Molly got his tongue first and stam- 
mered: 'It was a trifling difference of 
opinion, madam. Mr. Kenny, who is a 
little too rashly observing, stated that 
there were eight dimples in each of Miss 
Buckley's arms. I confess that I also 
have an eye for the beautiful, but was un- 
able to see more than six dimples. There- 
fore — ' 

" 'Therefore,' switched in the Widow, 
'you were both wrong. There are only 
five. I 've counted them since she was a 
baby, and I ought to know. But of all 
living things that are not equipped with 
long ears and double-knuckled hind legs 
you two are the prize babies !' She 
laughed shortly, and then fell serious. 

" 'But this sort of thing' — she whirled 
them both around, so as to face her — 
'stops right here. Shake hands. Now 
pass over the remainder of that ordnance. 
I am going to keep this wicked machinery 
for one month, and if I see either of you 
boys toting guns, or any other kind or 
condition of hardware, your meal-tickets 
will be canceled, and you will not be 
permitted to so much as put your noses 
inside The Home Grub. Furthermore, I 
will forbid Betty to notice you. Do you 
promise?' 

" 'We promise,' they said in solemn 
duet, hanging their heads and looking 
very foolish. And, what 's more remarka- 
ble, they kept it. 

"One day before the end of their 
probation Red Kenny rushed into The 
Home Grub and said breathless and pant- 
ing to the Widow, who was behind her 
desk: 

" ' Mrs. Buckley, give me my gun quick. 
There 's a couple of claim-jumpers 
camped on my shaft while I was up in To- 



HOW THE WIDOW TAMED THE WILD 



87 






napah looking after Molly, who 's down 
with mountain fever. They laughed at 
me when I ordered them off, and said: 
"Run away, little carrot-top, your mother 
says you must^ n't fight with bad boys." 
This to me,' he wailed— 'to Red Kenny! 
I could have wept when I felt my empty 
belt, and then they trained their artillery 
on me and peppered the trail as I came 
down to camp. 

-■" f I had to run from them like a lily- 
livered coyote,' he blubbered. 'I — Mike 
Kenny's son, who never turned his back 
before to man or varmint.' 

" 'Your month is n't up yet,' cut in 
the Widow, setting her lips tight. ' More- 
over, I 'm not going to see any unnec- 
essary gun-fighting in this camp if I 
can butt in and prevent it. Mrs. Maud 
Buckley will attend to those claim-jump- 
ers. Where is that claim of yours ? Back 
of the Diamondfield property?' 

"Red looked at her blankly, and again 
begged for his gun. Completely ignoring 
him, she called out to Wong, her China- 
boy, to hitch up Jim to the buckboard. 
Facing Kenny again, she snapped at 
him: 

" 'Young man, you sit in here behind 
the counter and punch tickets while I 'm 
gone. I '11 settle the hash of those, claim- 
jumpers good and proper, and more civil- 
ized than burying.' 

"Turning to Betty, who was prettying 
up the tables with a bunch of faded 
daisies Bashful Bob Robley had brought 
down from Reno, the Widow requested 
her to see that Red Kenny did not leave 
the premises until she returned. Betty 
looked up from under her long lashes at 
the fire-eater, shook her finger at him, 
and smiled till every one of her pearly 
little teeth gleamed. Red surrendered, 
blushing and confused, and sat down 
limply behind the desk. The power and 
persuasiveness of those two women was 
past belief. 

"But of course the Widow knew the 
country — the gold country — from Daw- 
son to Tombstone. And she knew the 
people, understood their humors and the 
self-willed, little-boy impulses at the bot- 
tom of them. She managed a camp like 
a vigorous Mother Hubbard in a boot-leg 
community. I actually believe if she had 
ordered the whole kit and caboodle of 
Goldfield's pioneers to go supperless to 



bed they 'd have slunk away to their cots 
without bleating for a nibble. 

"Wong drove round with the buck- 
board, and the Widow climbed in. She 
sat that vehicle like a heroic Amazon 
chieftess setting out to certain conquest. 
Her will just seemed to envelop her body 
and sweep it along with a force and po- 
tency that was irresistible. Yet she was a 
woman with it all, loved canary birds, and 
felt weepy when they did n't perk up and 
sing. 

"Stray ends of the Widow's conversa- 
tion with Red Kenny had percolated be- 
yond the thin walls of The Home Grub, 
and when she headed Jim up the trail for 
the Diamondfield district, the shacks and 
tents on the main and only thoroughfare 
emptied, and all down the buttons of 
your waistcoat — rich man, poor man, beg- 
gar-man, et cetera — bustled out and rub- 
bered. And they waited out to watch 
developments when the word passed 
round that the Widow had ridden forth 
to corral a pair of claim-jumpers. Guns 
were cleaned, the undertaker notified, and 
a solemn procession arranged for in case 
the claim-jumpers became fussy. Then 
we crossed our legs, propped ourselves 
back, and began to estimate a proper time 
for the Widow to make the journey, bar- 
ring untoward delays. We had a pro- 
digious amount of confidence in her, but 
had she overstayed a reasonable period, 
there would have been a deserted mining 
village and a double-quick dash up Dia- 
mondfield Hill. Had anything happened, 
we would have combed the desert until 
the undesirable population of Nevada was 
two shy. 

"The minutes dragged with clanging 
tick, and five-score pairs of heavy boots 
were rustling nervously on the alkali when 
Bert Collins, the reformed sailor who 
bought my Hush-a-by saloon, emitted a 
whoop, and cried : 

" 'Thar she blows !' 

"We hoisted ourselves on to roofs and 
into the rigging of tents to scan the 
humpy eastern horizon. Sure enough, a 
cloud of dust fluttered on the north shoul- 
der of Diamondfield Hill, out of which 
gradually emerged a horse and the shad- 
owy length of a buckboard. Sandstorm 
Smith marshaled the boys in line, and four 
abreast we slowly and silently pounded 
up the trail. We moved slowly because 



88 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



we could see the full figure of the Widow. 
That was sufficient. She was in command 
of the situation. 

"Presently, as the horse jogged down 
to us, it became manifest that the Widow 
was n't driving. She sat on the off seat 
from the whip-socket, towering over a 
short, stocky man, whose features were 
blurred in a bushy black beard. Jim 
trotted at his usual mechanical pace, wag- 
ging his head from side to side. Soon we 
were able to discern that the driver's 
hands shook. Likewise, it is probable, 
his knees smote together. You see, the 
Widow's arms were crossed high on her 
bosom, and from one hand slanted a long- 
barreled weapon. Now and then when 
the buckboard lurched the muzzle tickled 
the driver's ear. It occasionally hap- 
pened that the sight caught in his tangled 
whiskers. The Widow's right hand 
rested lightly on her left shoulder and 
leveled another gun astern of the vehicle. 

"Our ranks divided to allow the buck- 
board gangway before we discovered the 
plight of the second claim-jumper. He 
was quite as nervous and uncomfortable 
as the driver, being attached to the wagon 
like a tender to a yacht. Jim's halter 
served as painter, being noosed around 
his neck. He was a lank, slouching gi- 
ant, appallingly unhandsome, with six- 
weeks' stubble of beard sticking out like 
the needles of a yucca palm. Though it 
made my funny-bone itch and burn just 
to look at him, I 'm not so hardened that 
there was n't a glow of pity underneath. 
His wrists were bound behind him, and 
at every jolt of the buckboard he floun- 
dered in a chop of boulders and sand. 
He allowed his feet to take care of them- 
selves, as his entire attention was centered 
on the shiny stub of gun-barrel that 
peeked at him over the Widow's shoulder. 
So intent was he in dodging that hollow 
metal eye that he paid no more heed to 
our swarming round than if we were un- 
interesting details in the general scenery. 

"Sandstorm Smith, who led the proces- 
sion with Paul Graves, the camp under- 
taker, and his two assistants, was for 
immediately relieving Mrs. Bradley of 
her two prisoners. He ventured that he 
had never doubted her ability to take 'em, 
but that it was hardly a lady's function 
to deal with them proper and according 
to the custom of the Nevada gold-fields. 



" 'This is my little party, Sandstorm 
Smith,' she fired up at him. 'When I 
require your services, I will announce it 
in a loud voice.' There was a snappy 
blaze in her eyes, and Sandstorm fell 
meek; that is, as meek as it is possible 
for Sandstorm Smith to become. 

"It can't be said that superfluous con- 
versation disturbed the welkin as we con- 
voyed the Widow and her prizes to the 
entrance of The Home Grub. At inter- 
vals some of the boys sat down and rolled 
about a little as if gripped in the throes 
of some curious disease. Eventually 
Sandstorm Smith's garrulousness broke 
loose again. He fell out of line and 
insinuated himself alongside the buck- 
board, now and then scrutinizing the 
driver as if he were some strange and 
wonderful exhibit. 

" ' I can see behind that artistic drapery 
of Spanish moss on your chin, Mr. Claim- 
jumper,' he whispered hoarsely, when he 
could bear the restraint no longer, 'that 
your color is n't good to-day. A half- 
hour each morning with a home-exerciser 
will benefit your circulation. Also, Mr. 
Beard, your hands shake as if indicating 
high tension and over-wrought nerves, or 
perhaps it is an early manifestation of 
creeping palsy. Stick out your tongue, 
pal, and show the doctor if it is coated. 
Mayhap you are bilious, in which case I 
recommend hot mustard foot-baths and a 
simple diet. Lead taken in small, fre- 
quent doses will assure a complete dis- 
missal of such* disorders. Do my eyes 
deceive me, or is it not a fact that you are 
suffering a decided tremulousness at the 
knees?. But cheer up, my slightly hirsute 
friend, for when you learn to dance the 
moonbeam two-step, you '11 forget all 
about such trifling ailments, and — ' 

" ' Muffle that, Sandstorm !' snapped 
the Widow, dropping the guns in her lap, 
and taking the reins from the claim- 
jumper. 'There '11 be no moonbeam two- 
step in this,' she added sharply, as she 
drew up the horse in front of The Home 
Grub, 'or any other measure of the high 
brangle.' She sprang down from the 
buckboard just in time to bar Red Kenny 
from leaping upon and attacking his re- 
cent tormentors. He fell back before 
her, and when she commanded him to re- 
turn to his perch in the restaurant, he 
meekly slunk away. Then she gave the 



HOW THE WIDOW TAMED THE WILD 



89 



lapful of revolvers to Betty, who trembled 
in the doorway, and bade her drop them 
into Casey's dead shaft. Shaking herself 
and bowing out her arms above her hips, 
she stepped back to the buckboard and 
stood beside the cowering figure in the 
seat. She waited for a stillness in which 
every man's breathing could be heard 
separate and distinct. Waving her hand 
at the bushy black beard of the claim- 
jumper and, raising her voice until it 
rang out into sharp echo against the en- 
compassing hills, she made the astound- 
ing announcement : 

" ' Gentlemen — my husband !' 

"She paused to allow the sensation to 
induce complete paralysis, then continued 
slowly in a lower tone : ' Yes, this is Mr. 
Percy Buckley. After a lapse of fifteen 
years he has decided to assist in the sup- 
port of his family. He is a first-class 
carpenter and builder when in the mood 
to pursue his craft. He has been attacked 
for many years by a failure of mood, but 
I feel confident that he is now cured — 
that he will seize the opportunity offered 
in this booming camp for continued, lu- 
crative employment. Is that not so, 
Percy?' She turned and smiled reassur- 
ingly on the trembling, sullen claim- 
jumper. He gasped and choked, but 
could n't mumble a word. 

" 'He says yes, 1 ran on the Widow, 
breezily, 'and I am confident that I can 
depend on him this time. I have im- 
pressed upon Mr. Buckley that there is 
something in a marriage contract, after 
all. Likewise he appreciates the fact 
that it will add greatly to his comfort 
and health, in fact make both possible, 
to become a hard-working, law-abiding 
citizen, and a providing husband. He is 
disinclined at present to test the unwrit- 
ten law against claim-jumping. 

" 'As for that overgrown grasshopper 
hitched to the tail of the buckboard, I 
beg you to consider his youth. He may 
have aged some in the past few hours, 
but he is still young. He was appren- 
ticed to my lord and master when a small 
boy, and I grieve to say the influence was 
not good. 

" 'However,' — she grasped Mr. Buck- 



ley's shoulder and shook him out of his 
limpness, — 'Roger will reform also. Will 
he not, Percy?' She shook him again, 
until I listened to hear his bones rattle. 
All she got from him was a groan and a 
desperate nod of the head. 

"Sandstorm Smith had cut Roger loose, 
and led him around to the little family 
group. If ever a man looked like an os- 
trich maddened by the single desire to 
stick his head in the sand and hide from 
a curious, attentive world, Roger McMul- 
len bore that aspect. His head drooped 
forlorn and heavy with shame ; glistening 
tears rose to his eyelashes, and fell into 
the jungle that hid his features. 

"Sandstorm was about to orate again. 
As he took a long breath, the Widow 
realized that in anther moment uproar 
and riotous levity would succeed the 
breathless, stupefied calm. Half-lifting 
her shrinking, dodging, long-lamented 
mate to the ground, she delivered this 
parting shot : 

" 'Thank you, boys, for your promise 
to see that Percy and Roger live up to 
their promises.' She held open the door 
of The Home Grub and jerked her 
thumb. I have n't figured out yet which 
of the claim-jumpers passed through the 
aperture with the more celerity. They 
vanished in a blur of agile movement. 

"Deep into the night, and long after 
the vermilion dawn had painted the bar- 
ren landscape with golden shadows, there 
now and then burst in the desert silences 
echoing reports of hysteric sound. My 
young friend, that sound was not wailing 
or weeping." 

Jonesy tapped the ashes from his pipe 
and ceremoniously restored it to his pistol 
pocket. The tenderfoot fidgeted for a 
moment. 

"But what about bashful Bob Robley 
and the Red Hawk bonanza?" he asked. 

The white-haired little oracle of the 
Dizzy Ghost sniffed. In a tone of une- 
quivocal disgust he drawled: "A mine is 
only a mine, a man only a man; but a 
woman— well, "what is the answer?" 

The tenderfoot' immediately became ab- 
sorbed in the contemplation of a string of 
burros winding down the Rhyolite Trail. 



UNCLE CARTER OF THE PEG-LEG 



A SKETCH FROM LIFE 



BY LUCINE FINCH 

Author of " The Slaves Who Stayed' 



UNCLE CARTER was Aunt 'Liza's 
husband ; and, I may say, very much 
her husband, for she ruled him with the 
proverbial "rod of iron," and cared for 
him as she would for a child, with a cer- 
tain harsh tenderness that was deliciously 
inconsistent. The old man w r as what 
Aunt 'Liza called "feeblous-minded," 
and he did, for the most part, go about 
in a more or less dazed condition, with a 
far-away look in his faded old eyes, and 
the smile of a child on his face. 

The only time he ever became loqua- 
cious was over his peg-leg, of which he 
was very proud, and which gave him a 
quaint distinction among the children of 
the neighborhood. 

"I los' her endurin' uv de wah," he 
would say, patting his peg-leg fondly. 
Why he persisted in calling the lost mem- 
ber "her" was part of the wonderful 
mystery to all the children, who followed 
him awed and wide-eyed when he grew 
communicative. There was something 
weirdly significant about it. 

"Yas, suh," Uncle Carter would say, 
with his foolish old head waggling, "she 
was tooken off me endurin' uv de wah." 

"What did they do with— her?" we 
asked eagerly. 

"Do wid her!" Uncle Carter would 
shout, his eyes shining. " Bury her, man ! 
Bury her in de groun', and de preacher 
preach a ceretony over her lak she was 
folks." 

It was one of the mysteries of my 
childhood, Uncle Carter's peg-leg. 

"Show us how she is hitched on," we 
would say. We always hesitated over the 
personal pronoun; but it seemed in some 
vague way more respectful to the myste- 



rious departed to refer to it as "her," 
and Uncle Carter's peg-leg was a thing to 
reverence. Did not the boys owe much 
of their popularity to the fact that they 
"owned" an old negro with a wooden 
leg, which he would show with great unc- 
tion to his small admirers? I say "owned 
an old negro" because we never quite lost 
the feeling of possession that was so ten- 
der a thing in our relation to the five old 
slaves who stayed with us after the war 
closed. "Show us how she is hitched on." 

"Hotch on!" Uncle Carter would al- 
most dance with excitement. "I reckon 
she is hotch on. 'Liza Carter she des 
nacherly have to pull and pull to distach 
her f'om me. Look heah !" and he would, 
with eager and trembling old fingers, un- 
tie the string that bound the cut-off leg of 
his trouser about the top of the wooden 
stump, displaying to the earnest gaze of 
those who were brave enough to look sev- 
eral straps and buckles and a brass-bound 
stump of wood tapering to a point at the 
foot end. I confess I was never brave 
enough even to glance at it, but I would 
pay the boys to tell me exactly how it 
looked. 

"Do you take her off at night?" we 
asked him once. 

"I does," said the old man, solemnly; 
"I does, honey chile." 

"But, Uncle Carter," I remember pro- 
testing at this, "if the cabin should burn 
down, or if — a flood should come, or the 
end of the world, you could n't get 
around, because she would n't be hitched 
on to you." 

Then the smile grew foolish again, and 
the silly old head waggled. Uncle Carter 
could not follow reasoning or argument. 



90 



UNCLE CARTER OF THE PEG-LEG 



91 



" 'Liza Carter she take keer me, den," 
he said with sweeping and conclusive as- 
surance. Then he would begin to mum- 
ble and talk to himself, and we knew that 
the audience was at an end. 

Uncle Carter was notoriously lazy — 
"clever enough to be lazy," my father 
would say, laughing. I remember won- 
dering just what he meant by that. 

"You is de laziest creeter on dis place," 
Aunt 'Liza would say, shaking her fat 
fist at him. And Uncle Carter, quailing 
before the blow that never fell, would 
respond humbly : 

"Dat so, honey; dat so, chile, I is. I 
suttenly is." 

One time a small garden patch was 
given to him to take care of. He was 
to weed it, and keep the earth soft and 
the paths in order. Strange to say, noth- 
ing would grow in Uncle Carter's garden. 

"What 's the matter with your garden, 
Uncle Carter?" my father asked him. 
My father always seemed to take Uncle 
Carter as a joke. 

"She 's mangy," Uncle Carter re- 
sponded drearily, leaning on his hoe. 
"She 's des nachel bawn mangy, Marse 
Eddie." 

And later we found out why. When 
the weeds came up, instead of removing 
them, the old man would laboriously re- 
move the vegetables ! 

"Wegetables and weeds dey won't mix, 
en dey ain't no use axing 'em to," he said, 
when remonstrated with. "Hit would 
take me a moughty long time to move all 
dese weeds, but hit don't take me long 
des ter snatch up de cabbage." 

There seemed nothing more to say, so 
some other work was given him. "What 
do you think you can do, you old black 
rascal?" my father asked. 

"Who?" Uncle Carter responded. 
"Who? Me? Law, chile, I kin do 'mos' 
anything, but I ain't much on de work, 
Marse Eddie, chile. I ain't much on de 
work." 

When he was put to sawing wood, it 
seemed that his vocation was found. It 
required no particular amount of intel- 
ligence, and he could take as long as ever 
he liked about it. There was always wood 
to be sawed, and no apparent reason why 
the task should ever be finished. 

"A little at a time," the old negro 
would say, after working a very short 



while. "Work little, live long." Uncle 
Carter was full of terse and unaccount- 
ably sane bits of philosophy. 

I remember once when he was sawing 
away, surrounded, as he always was, by a 
group of small children who seemed fas- 
cinated by him, that he said, rolling up 
his eyes solemnly : 

"Disher 's de way dey sawed her off." 

We shuddered and drew nearer him. 

"Who did it, Uncle Carter? Who 
sawed her off?" 

"De doctors an' de sturgeons," the old 
man replied. "En de saw dey use hit was 
a heap bigger 'n disher one. Hit look like 
to me hit were a mile long. Hit suttenly 
do." There was nothing impossible in 
this suggestion. Our imagination met his 
as kind to kind. 

"When I saws wood," he continued, 
mopping his wrinkled old brow with a 
gay red handkerchief — "When I saws 
wood, I kin heah my own bones scrunch." 
We shuddered again, thrilling deliciously. 

"Did it hurt you very much, Uncle 
Carter?" we quavered. We* had asked 
him these questions many times, but he 
seemed to forget that we had, and we 
never tired of hearing his replies. 

"No," said the old man, swelling 
proudly; "No, suh, chile. Hit feel good. 
Only," he added, bending over his work 
and smiling to himself knowingly — "only 
hit do tickle. Hit tickle me mighty much. 
Hit suttenly tickle." He chuckled to 
himself and began to saw again. 

We waited for a few breathless mo- 
ments, then : 

"How long did it take them to saw her 
off?" some one asked him. 

"Hit mought 'a' been a mont' an' hit 
mought 'a' been a yeah. I ain't sayin' 
which 't is, an' I ain't sayin' which 't 
ain't. Dey des sawed an' sawed an' 
sawed," he said slowly, accenting each 
word with a vigorous thrust of his saw 
into the wood. 

"Uncle Carter," I remember asking 
him one time — "Uncle Carter, when the 
last trump blows, how will you find her?" 

" Fin' her ?" the old man replied. " Fin' 
her? I ain't gwine fin' her; she gwine 
fin' me. Ain't she a laig, en ain't laigs 
meant ter walk. She ain't got nothin' else 
to do but fin' me. Fin' her!" he repeated 
indignantly. "Dey ain't no two ways 
about hit," he continued presently, tap- 



92 . 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



ping his peg-leg with his walking-cane 
(which was an umbrella without the um- 
brella part)— "Dey ain't no two • ways 
about hit. Disher laig is a moughty good 
laig. I 'm monstrous proud uv her," he 
smiled. "Ole Marster he gin me disher 
laig, an' I ain't keerin' much if she don't 
fin' me," he added wickedly. 

His peculiar use of language was an- 
other of his quaint characteristics. 

"Dat 's a moughty fine word," he 
would say, screwing up his eyes know- 
ingly when he heard one that he liked. 

"How you call hit? Say hit ag'in, 
Miss Julia. 'Incoggible.' Ain't she fine? 
I mus' use her sometime." 

"You don't know what it means, you 
dear old goose," somebody would say to 
him. 

"Means!" the old man would reply 
contemptuously. "Means, chile! Dat 
ain't got nothin' to do wid hit. I 'm a 
getherin' words, honey. I 'm a getherin' 
words. De meanin' ain't nothin'. Hit 's 
de word dat counts." 

All negroes like to use big words, and 
the peculiar unction and assurance with 
which they use them almost make the 
word turn itself and acquire their mean- 
ing rather than the more tame and lim- 
ited one designated to it by the learned. 

I remember how disgusted I was when 
I found out what "transmigrated" really 
meant. Mammy always used it so im- 
pressively in telling us stories. 

"An' what you reckon transmigrated, 
honey?" then was sure to follow great 
and untoward events that seemed worthy 
of the great word. How tame the real 
meaning seemed to me! And "scattera- 
tioned," what a good old generous word 
that was as Mammy used it! "De good 
Lawd scatterationed de stars all over de 
sky." It makes more vast the sky and 
more countless the stars. How meager 
mere "scattered" makes you feel! 

Aunt 'Liza and Uncle Carter were very 
happy together in a curious childlike 
fashion. He depended on her more vig- 
orous mind and decisive personality for 
everything, and she, who needs must lead, 
found real satisfaction in ruling the gen- 
tle and foolish old man. 

My father asked her once how she 



came to marry Uncle Carter, and her re- 
ply was terse and couched in that de- 
licious illusiveness that may mean every- 
thing or nothing and that negroes so love 
to use. 

"Marse Eddie," she said mysteriously, 
"Brer Carter los' a laig and I los' a' eye; 
an' dar you is got de answer." And 
"Marse Eddie" had either ignominiously 
to confess himself unequal to her power 
of logic or, with the true assurance of real 
ignorance, pretend to understand. 

Their code of honor was quite differ- 
ent from Mammy's or Phil's Tom's. They 
did not really steal, but they took what 
they needed or wanted just as simply 
as a child takes a piece of forbidden 
cake from his mother's table. Uncle Car- 
ter would often take the money given him 
to use when he was sent upon errands. 

"I des nacherly need dat money, Miss 
Julia, honey," he would say when he re- 
turned penniless. 

"Then why did n't you ask for it?" 

"Maybe you mought 'fuse me, Miss 
Julia." 

"That is stealing, Uncle Carter," my 
grandmother would say in a troubled 
voice; for she could not forget that she 
was not responsible for the souls of her 
old negroes. "That is stealing, Uncle 
Carter." 

"No 'm, Miss Alice, hit ain't, axing 
you to 'scuse de disputation uv yo' word. 
Hit ain't zactly stealin'. I ain't sayin' 
hit ain't got de semblage uv stealin', but 
hit ain't des raw stealin'." 

"What is it, then, Uncle Carter?" 

"Hit 's takin', Miss Alice, chile; hit 's 
des takin'. Moughty heap sight diffunce 
twixt stealin' an' takin'." 

"And what is the difference, Uncle 
Carter," said "Miss Alice," shaking her 
slender finger at him and weakening per- 
ceptibly before the eloquence of his ar- 
gument, "What is the difference between 
stealing and taking?" 

"Stealin' is des loose takin' '^thout no 
perticulous need fer de tooken thing, en 
wid a pack o' lies inside de stealin', 
yas 'm." 

"And taking?" 

"Now, honey, how you kin ax me dat? 
Takin' is — takin'." 




^-FLORENTINE ROOF 



IplBPniP!^^ 






IN the Middle Ages the houses of Ital- 
ian towns were miniature fortresses, 
for the nobles who inhabited them were 
constantly at war with one another or 
with the populace. Hence the oider and 
junior members of a family lived close 
together, and sections of a city would be 
called the case (houses) of such and 
such a clan, and the street, as a rule, 
would also bear the name. This pro- 
pinquity rendered it easy to throw planks 
across from one house to another, fast- 
ened into those holes that yet show on 
some old palace fronts and towers. On 
these rude bridges stood the family re- 
tainers, ready to shoot arrows, to pour 
boiling water or oil, or to pitch stones, on 
the foes of the family passing below. No 
doubt they often hit some^ peaceful citi- 
zen, a jerkined workman attending to his 
craft, a pacific red lucco-clad burgher; 
but life had scant value in those times, 
and especially the life of a villain. The 
cities, too, were inclosed within stout 
walls raised for defense against the ene- 
mies that were ever ready to assail the 
inhabitants from without. These walls 
hindered expansion, and forced the popu- 
lation to live thus densely packed, and to 
run their buildings high up into the sky. 



And over the houses, again, reared bris- 
tling watch-towers, so that ever and ever 
there was a greater striving toward light 
and air. 

And they found it, too. No Italian 
fortress-mansion but had its open loggia, 
sometimes free to the winds, sometimes 
half-covered from the sky, and supported 
on elegant columns, such .as Mignon 
yearned after in her Northern exile. 

Kennst du das Haus? 

Auf Saulen ruht sein Dach. 

# 

Here it was that the women and children 
lived ; hither they came to seek sunshine 
and fresh air. In those turbulent times, 
when the streets were filthy and unsafe 
for high-born dames to go abroad, they 
were restricted in their outings to some 
such roof garden. Here they plied their 
distaffs, here they spun and broidered, 
here they gossiped with their serving 
wenches, and here they prepared their 
simples and household stores. 

And as it was then, so it is now. There 
still exists in Italian cities a life of the 
roofs that is distinct and characteristic, 
and of which the mere foreigner and 
tourist is entirely unaware. Particularly 



93 



94 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



is this the case in Florence. Mount to 
the top floor of one of these grim, big 
palaces standing in^ some gloomy, sun- 
less street, often approached by a stern, 
forbidding doorway and dark, steep 
stairs, and you will hold your breath with 
wonder at the surprise that awaits you. 
For here before your eyes stretches an un- 
familiar city, a red-and-green city of 
wide expanse and varying altitudes, a 
city no less architecturally beautiful than 
the one you have left below, and enliv- 
ened, too, most unexpectedly by verdure. 

In the very heart of the city, on its 
topmost apex, there is no trace of grime ; 
the air is pure and wholesome. Indeed, 
its breezes are charged with no small sug- 
gestion of sea and mountain breath. As 
for the smoke one would expect to find 
hanging above the roofs of a densely pop- 
ulated city, it is conspicuous by its ab- 
sence, and only at the hour of meals does 
some faint blue column rise for the brief- 
est space into the atmosphere. What be- 
comes of it all? we ask ourselves, especi- 
ally those of us who are accustomed to 
London and the volumes of filthy, sul- 
phurous muck that " English chimneys 
belch forth, defiling the air as well as the 
architecture. 

Then the chimney-pots — who that does 
not know Italy could imagine for a mo- 
ment that they could be things of such 
real loveliness? Range your eye around 
a roof-top in Florence, and you will sim- 
ply marvel, at their architectural beauty 
and variety. 

Nor is this peculiar to Florence. It is 
the same all through the peninsula, and 
sometimes the smaller the place, the love- 
lier, the* quainter are the chimney-pots. 
For example, I know a little district, Sas- 
suolo, not far from Modena, so insignifi- 
cant one can scarcely find it on the map, 
where every chimney-pot has the form of 
a miniature Greek temple. The Floren- 
tine chimney-pots present different and 
most varied forms, which are no less 
charming in their geometrical outlines 
and elegant proportions. Every now and 
again from a few there projects from 
the plaster a piece of broken plate. How 
in the world did it get there? many a vis- 
itor asks. The reason is characteristic of 
the land. It is part of the old belief in 
the evil eye, which even now is yielding 
but slowly to the spread of education. 



Few are the Italians who, as a concession 
to this superstition, do not wear upon 
their watch-chains a horn of crooked 
coral, or do not direct their first and little 
fingers earthward at mention of some dire 
disease or even at the mention of death. 
The cab horse carries a plume of pheas- 
ant feathers ; every country-cart steed is 
adorned with red tape, brass, bells, bits 
of glass, or embroidery. All this is done 
for the purpose of deflecting the evil eye, 
thereby inviting it to rest first upon these 
prominent features, and thus draw down 
upon them the curse inherent in the 
glance. For the same reason the broken 
plate is inserted in the chimney-pot. 

The weeds and flowers on these roofs 
are interesting. Between the pretty ribbed 
tiles of irregularly massed housetops all 
manner of stonecrops find nourishment. 
There is the green, rose-shaped species, 
the familiar creeping, yellow-and-white 
starred blossom. There is also a kind 
which seems to be peculiar to Italian 
roofs ; it lifts up tall purple spikes, and 
blooms freely all through the warmer 
months. The tiles, too, on the old roofs 
amid which these sedums find food (and 
how they find any is a marvel), are beau- 
tiful objects. They are kept in place 
only by their own weight, without ce- 
ment. In consequence, each householder 
is apt to be his own bricklayer. When 
the rain comes through, — and the heavy 
tropical rains of Italy will filter through 
these old roofs, — I never send for the 
mason. My cook just steps out and re- 
arranges the tiles, shifting broken ones, 
and replacing them with whole ones from 
more sheltered corners. It is all very 
simple. And if we cannot find whole 
tiles to replace the broken ones on our 
own roof, we have only to go to the 
greengrocer-woman who lives down be- 
low, Maria Ortolana, who sells crockery 
and pots and pans, besides green stuff, 
and who lets me have an arched tile for 
one soldo and a flat one for five (one 
cent). These flat ones also serve as wash- 
ing-boards, and are largely used in the 
kitchen as well. The color of these tiles, 
particularly the older ones, is noteworthy. 
They play into every shade of crimson, 
from bright scarlet and orange to deepest 
umber and burnt sienna. 

I do not know if the pigeons that 
haunt these roofs in splendid, . darting 



A FLORENTINE ROOF GARDEN 



95 



masses of color find food among the stone- 
crop ; but I know that they and I have 
secrets in common. For only we know, 
we who live thus perched on high, that 
atop of some of the tallest buildings, 
above all, atop of the tympanum of Santa 
Trinita, pink and purple snapdragon 
thrives in rich luxuriance, waving feath- 
ery fingers against the green and lemon 



and nasturtiums of every hue, Virginia 
creeper, and kindred vines, covering up 
the evidences of decay and ruin. 

Even wash-day produces no false note 
in Italy, where everything animate and 
inanimate has an instinctive tendency to 
range itself artistically. Nay, it often 
produces some splendid blotches of color 
in the garish garments here hung out to 



evening sky, or projected against the dry, or to be subjected to the cleansing ef- 
deep blue canopy of some cloudless day fects of the glorious, all-penetrating sun- 
of spring. Wall-flowers, too, thrust them- shine. For the sun is the great disinf ec- 



selves from nooks and cran 
nies and projecting cornices 
in rich golden bronze and 
cinnamon. 

And man has been busy no 
less than nature. On every 
available space — truncated 
tower, projecting battlement, 
flattened roof, and old-time 




tant of Italy, that which 
keeps it sane and sweet. 

Many a pretty little 
peep into Italian family 
life is obtained in these 
gardens. How closely 



^ 
*$£& 




Drawn by Harry Fenn 

FLORENTINE CHIMNEY-POTS 



loggia, even on boards stretched in front 
of windows — these city-dwellers have 
created gardens. Here in rich luxuri- 
ance trail roses of every hue and scent, 
especially the climbing Banksia, with 
their tufts of white-and-yellow blossom, 
and the hardy Rambler. Here blaze 
geraniums of fiercest scarlet, as well as 
the pink and purple creeping varieties, 
which seem to love these ancient roofs, 
which they thus gently cover with a ten- 
der mantle of bloom and verdure. Olean- 
ders, white, red, and pink, also prosper 
in this high, sun-soaked atmosphere, as 
do golden oranges and yellow lemons, 
azaleas, deep purple iris-flowers, the pro- 
totype of the lily in the arms of the 
city, carnations of every shade, pansies, 



knit are family ties in Italy, how en- 
tirely self-centered is each domestic 
group, only those who have lived among 
them fully know. I have one family 
in mind in particular. We are near 
neighbors, and our common love of al- 
fresco life has brought us into bowing 
acquaintance. I know neither their name 
nor station, though I surmise the latter is 
humble, for the wife does nearly all the 
household chores and the little "help" is 
treated as an equal and sits down with 
them at table. When the father of this 
family comes home, he always runs out at 
once upon the terrace, embraces all his 
family, including the black dog, and then 
quickly rips off his black cloth coat (he 
must be a clerk, I think), his collar and 



96 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



cuffs, and dons a loose, old garment of 
even remains in his shirt-sleeves. The 
women wear the lightest of white robes 
— we all do this in the summer, when 
visitors are rare; for the foolish tourist 
runs away at the first warm days, and so 
never sees Italy when she is at her love- 
liest; namely, in the hot summer days. 
The children wear, when at home, only 
what decency demands, and of course are 
all bare-legged and bare-armed. As soon as 
the sun has sunk a bit, they, like myself, 
bring out their watering-pots to refresh 
the thirsty plants. And afterward they 
will all help to carry out their vesper 
meal, for the wise Italian dines late, when 
the great heat is a 
little abated. Then, 
after the meal, when 
it is cooler, the 
children will pro- 
duce their books 
and toil at their 
tasks (and pretty 
heavy tasks they 
are), the father 
meanwhile helping 
the mother clear 
the table or doing 
some household job ; 
for all • Italian men 
are neat-fingered 
and expert, and can 

ply many trades. It is this that makes 
the Italian man such a treasure as a 
household servant. 

When night falls, as it does with ra- 
pidity, all manner of lights are carried 
out to the roofs, and twinkle with richly 
colored diversity. Few have, like my- 
self, risen to bright electric lights. That 
is too lordly, perhaps, for my poorer 
neighbors, though I see that the family I 
have described, instigated by my example, 
perhaps, are just having wires run across 
from my poles. Not a few employ the 
charming, three-branched copper Roman 
lamp, with its old-fashioned points of wick 
and its olive oil ; but kerosene prevails, of 
course. The whole produces a series of 
exquisite effects of a truly Rembrandt- 
esque character, while over it all arches 
the sky, wherein the stars do not appear 
like little dots of light pricked out in pa- 
per, as in the North, but hang free in the 
heavens like the globes of effulgence that 
they truly are. And when the moon is 




Drawn by Harry Fenn 

FLORENTINE CHIMNEY-POTS 



up, — a moon by the splendor of which it 
is possible to read, — the entire outlook is 
transfigured, and the fair, strange, fan- 
tastic roof scape (if I may coin such a 
word) waxes yet more fairylike and un- 
real. 

It is on these nights of palpitating, 
fragrant semi-darkness rather than in the 
golden sunshine that brings out every de- 
tail and every scrap of color, that my 
imagination is set in motion and I recall 
all that this sight meant in the past. I 
remember how Florence was ever a city 
of watch-towers ; how, in the twelfth cen- 
tury, associations were formed by the no- 
bles called "Societies of the Towers," in- 
tended as a counter- 
poise to the guilds, 
Florence by instinct 
having always been 
a commercial de- 
mocracy, kept un- 
der only by armed 
force. Still, at first 
the guilds and the 
towers were friends, 
not foes, and the 
various members of 
such associations 
lived in adjoining 
houses, above which 
rose the common 
tower of defense, to 
the expense of which both parties contrib- 
uted. So they began as societies for mu- 
tual help. Then, in later times, the no- 
bles strove for the upper hand, and often 
gained it. But as they grew too powerful 
and overbearing, they were forced at last 
partly to raze and dismantle their vast 
forests of towers, happily for us later 
born; for it is on these mutilated erec- 
tions that the roof gardens of to-day are 
planted. Now Flora reigns where once 
Mars lorded it. 

In what is the oldest portion of the 
city, rising above a number of cramped 
streets on both sides of the Arno, there 
survive the greatest number of these tow- 
ers. The nouses, too, retain many of 
their medieval characteristics. The old- 
est street of all is the Borgo Santi Apos- 
toli, which also harbors the most ancient 
Florentine church, said to have been 
founded by Charlemagne. Its front bears 
a pompous inscription, telling of the Em- 
peror's reception in Florence and how the 



A FLORENTINE ROOF GARDEN 



97 



building was consecrated by Archbishop 
Turpin in the presence of the two famous 
Paladins, Oliver and Roland. It was in 
this quarter of Florence that the Buon- 
delmonti took up their abode, making the 
streets and adjacent spaces the headquar- 
ters of their clan. 

And still more quiet would the Borgo be 
If with new neighbors it remained unfed, 

writes Dante. The ancient Borgo lies be- 
low my feet, perhaps lit- 
tle changed. My terrace, 
some thirty feet square of 
flattened roof, skirts it on 
two sides, and I am liv- 
ing in the Buondelmonti 
Palace itself, "the house 
from whence your wail- 
ing sprang," as Dante 
tells his fellow-citizens, 
now a national monument, 



flowers, shone conspicuous, in the heat of 
toasting, he quarreled with the Amidei 
concerning a dish of roasted larks. At 
last a churchman made peace between the 
combatants, and proposed that, to heal 
the feud, Buondelmonti should wed a 
maiden of the Amidei clan. But be- 
tween the time of betrothal and the wed- 
ding-day Buondelmonti secretly deserted 
his betrothed, and pledged himself to a 
fairer girl. On Easter Day a merry 
bridal procession crossed the Old Bridge, 
on its way to the Buon- 
delmonti Palace in the 
Piazza Santa Trinita. At 
its head, mounted on a 
white palfrey, rode Buon- 
delmonti, dressed in rich 
white jerkin and silver- 
embroidered mantle, a 
garland of white flowers 
on his thick locks, and 
beside him his bride, who 




Drawn by Harry Fenn 
FLORENTINE CHIMNEY-POTS 



with its loggia converted into a dwelling- 
house, and the lower portion given over 
to offices and warerooms. 

What a gaping interval between then 
and now ! The Buondelmonti, or Good 
Men of the Mountain, as flattering trav- 
elers who feared their highway aggres- 
sions called the clan, had already mi- 
grated to the city in 1218. The owner of 
the name at that time was a winsome 
young knight, gay and gallant. It seems 
a pity that on the day when he had won 
his golden spurs he should have drunk 
too deep. At the table, where his bright, 
undinted shield, adorned with wreaths of 



also rode a white steed and was clothed 
in white, and garlanded with flowers. 
But as they reached the head of the 
bridge, a knot of Amidei rushed upon 
them, and the leader plunged his dag- 
ger into the heart of the bridegroom. It 
was a deed whereby for years Florence 
was plunged into the wars of the Guelphs 
and Ghibelline, and thus, as Dante wrote, 
ended the joyous life of her citizens. No 
wonder the poet wished that the first 
Buondelmonti had been drowned in the 
little stream of Ema before he came to 
the city. 

How they must have gathered in 



98 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



crowds in the Borgo and in the Piazza 
Santa Trinita just beneath me, fighting 
fiercely and uttering their war-cries,- "A 
Buondelmonti!" "AAmidei!" On this 
warm summer's night, while I am work- 
ing, the cabmen who now hold the piazza 
are shouting gay jokes, spiced with hot 
Florentine oaths. I could fancy instead 
that they were these fifteenth-century re- 
tainers ; for the past is never so wholly 
past in Italy but that with a slight effort 
of fancy one can resuscitate it. 

How truly is old Florence adumbrated 
here ! Her entire story can be read with- 
out moving from my roof, from which no 
portion of the modern city shows. The 
Arno is hidden by the massive battle- 
mented heights of the Palazzo Ferroni, 
once the Palazzo Spini, built in the four- 
teenth century by the rich papal banker 
Geri Spini. You can read the amusing 
history of his friendship with Cisti the 
baker in Boccaccio. What a typical Flor- 
entine building it is, with its Guelph par- 
apets, its machicolations, where the pig- 
eons love to poise, bestowing a strong, 
proud touch of color. Across the way 
rises the seventeenth-century fagade of 
Santa Trinita, a splendid specimen of 
Italian Gothic, a church linked with the 
city's story, and called by Michelangelo 
his "sweetheart." I see its upper section, 
with its circular, stained-glass, cherub- 
overshadowed window, the bishop's miter 
and monkish crest in its tympanum. I see, 
too, what you cannot see from below — its 
campanile ; and I also see beyond and 
above it, and, outlined at sunset, the pro- 
files of the distant marble-bearing Carrara 
mountains, glowing violet and vaporous 
dark blue. Here, too, I see the solemn 
dignity of the porphry statue of Justice. 

As I turn away from the view, and step 
aside under the rose- and wistaria-shaded 
pergola, where my dinner is spread on 
summer evenings, and my luncheon all 
spring and autumn (it is too hot at mid- 
day in summer), my eye ranges over a 
wealth of medieval 'towers. First those 
of the Girolami and Gherardini, which 
saw fierce fighting on the expulsion of the 
Ghibellines in 1266. Yonder rises that 
of St. Zanobi, the local bishop saint, dec- 
orated on each 25th of May with wreaths 
of fresh roses, yet another stately tower 
that erstwhile pertained to the Buondel- 
monti, and also carries a tree-shaded gar- 



den on its summit; and last, but by no 
means least, the belfry of the Santi Apos- 
toli, another feature never seen from the 
street. Its bronze bells have taken on a 
lovely green hue — bells that swing out in 
the quaint Tuscan fashion, the bell itself, 
by its movement, setting the clapper in 
motion. Its weather-vane of rusted iron 
carries on one side the lily of Florence, 
and on the other the wolf rampant, the 
coat-of-arms of the noble family of the 
Altoviti. Looking farther afield, athwart 
this landmark, comes within my range of 
vision the foliage-clad hill of San Mini- 
ato, which overlooks the whole city, and 
the ascent of which Dante likens to that 
from the first circle of Purgatory. I can 
pick out some part of the walls and 
watch-towers of the now useless fortifi- 
cations of Michelangelo, and can also see, 
crowning the whole, a lovely church of 
Romanesque build, its gold-gleaming 
frontal mosaic, its surmounting bronze 
eagle, shimmer and glow in the sunlight. 
In the adjoining building, once a monas- 
tery, there long dwelt the great Tuscan 
saint, Giovanni Gualberto, the "merciful 
knight" of Burne-Jones's picture. Val- 
lombrosa, of Miltonian memory, whither 
he retired later, seeking yet greater soli- 
tude, rears up on the left, overspread with 
dark firs in summer, snow-capped in win- 
ter. The tower of the Palazzo Vecchio 
sunders it in my view from the chain of 
the Apennines which has Monte Falte- 
rona for its highest peak, the mountain 
where those classic rivers, the Tiber and 
the Arno, take their rise. 

This tall, flowerlike belfry, rising far 
above the other buildings, springs up into 
the clear Tuscan sky from out square 
Guelph parapets. [See head-piece.] Its 
upper portion, however, is cut into the 
swallowtailed Ghibelline form. In the 
uppermost section hangs the great bell 
called the Vacca (cow), which is rung 
only on the most solemn occasions. I re- 
member how it boomed forth its deep, lu- 
gubrious tones when the news of Hum- 
bert's assassination spread through the 
land. It also greeted with its lowing the 
new century. Below the bell is the tiny 
room called the Alberghettino, or little 
hostelry. Here was imprisoned the great 
Cosimo, destined to go down to posterity 
as the father of his country, and here, too, 
Savonarola spent the last days of his life. 




GIOTTO S TOWER AND THE DUOMO. IN THE DISTANCE THE HILLS OF FIESOLE 

VIEWS FROM MISS ZIMMERN'S FLORENTINE ROOF GARDEN 



LXXVI— 11 




ONE END OF THE ROOF GARDEN (THE ARBOR IS AT THE EXTREME RIGHT) 



Through the open loggia of the Pa- 
lazzo Davanzati, that splendid four- 
teenth-century pile, I catch a corner of 
the parapet of pierced stones that marks 
the uppermost story of Or San Michele. 
This building, only by accident a church, 
is the seat of the Dante Society, which 
holds its meetings in the fine hall of 
which I get a glimpse. 

Letting my eye roam farther afield, my 
sphere of vision embraces the nearer, foot- 
hills of the Apennines. There nestles the 
white village of Settignano, now, as in 
the days of Michelangelo, the center of 
the stonecutters' craft. No one like the 
men from Settignano know how to chisel 
and handle marble, and Michelangelo 
was wont to assert that he owed the fact 
that he was a sculptor to the accident of 
passing his infancy in this place. Yet a 
little farther, two castles show up from 
amid thick cypress woods. The upper 
and smaller is Castel di Poggio, one of 
the strongholds seized by the mighty clan 
of the Forteguerri, who still own it, when 
Florence was at war with Pistoja. The 
lower is Vincigliata, sacked and ruined 
in the fourteenth century by the proud 
English Captain of free-lances, Sir John 
Hawkwood, — who lies buried in the Flor- 
entine Duomo, — and restored to its pris- 
tine character by another Englishman, 
Mr. Temple Leader. 

Between two towers, and helping to 
blot out Fiesole, stands Brunelleschi's 
grand red-tiled, marble-ribbed dome, that 
cupola which Emerson declared was "set 



down like an archangel's tent in the midst 
of the city." 

And thus by kaleidoscopic stages, our 
circumspection has brought us back to 
my own Buondelmonti roof, with its wide, 
overhanging eaves, where pigeons and 
swallows nest, with its bold, bracketed 
wooden capitals supporting the stone col- 
umns that once upheld its loggia. Back, 
too, to its wealth of shrubs and flowers, 
its cozy nooks, its calla-filled pool, where 
a colored "St. Lucy, with the eyes," keeps 
guard. 

Why should not inhabitants of other 
smokeless cities make for themselves like 
happy eeries? It is simple. This is only 
a square of flattened roof. It is paved 
with red brick, which dries quickly after 
rainfall. . A low parapet, intersected with 
pilasters, runs round and protects it from 
the other roofs and the street below. 
These parapets and pilasters form the 
pedestals for a quantity of flower-vases, 
and are fastened into place by iron clamps 
w T herever the wind blows strongest. Here 
ar3 planted annuals, lilac and purple iris, 
plumbago, and geraniums. On stepped 
stands, or formed into groups, other 
flower-pots and boxes are massed, some 
of the pots being of huge size and ancient 
date that might have harbored Ali Baba 
and his forty thieves. In these are 
planted the trees — fig and eucalyptus, 
lemon, orange, and oleander. For dining- 
room I have a wooden trellised walk, 
creeper-grown, which leads from the en- 
trance door the whole length of the ter- 



100 




THE ARBOR ON THE ROOF 



race, and enlarges into a wide square. 
The part open to the winds, with com- 
fortable corners and seats, is jokingly 
known as the drawing-room. Here many 
a happy, informal reception is held on 
those balmy nights that Italy alone knows 
— nights that are dewless and therefore 
never damp. 

Nature and art, light and air, those 
prime .requisites for the happiness of cul- 
tivated man, are all found united here. 
It is a fascinating transfusion of beauty, 
history, memory, and tradition, of old 
and far-off things, of the new and living. 
I have also learned up here to look upon 



life more tranquilly, to be grateful for its 
many mercies, to be more humbly re- 
signed to its imperfections. Living thus 
aloft, where art and nature are wedded 
in beauty, there grows within me an ever- 
increasing consciousness of elevation, 
mental as well as actual, a feeling that 
here I can watch and look down upon the 
play of my own life and that of my fel- 
lows in a more dispassionate, more benevo- 
lent spirit. My terrace has taught me to 
comprehend more fully how strait are the 
petty every-day aims, howpaltry and dimin- 
utive the social aspirations, to which we are 
apt to attach exaggerated importance. 



101 



GENERAL GRANTS LAST DAYS 

BY GEORGE F. SHRADY, M.D., ONE OF 
HIS CONSULTING SURGEONS 1 



WHEN General Grant was seized reach — pose, clothing, atmosphere, per- 
with his fatal illness in the autumn spective, coloring, accessories, foreground, 
of 1884, he appeared before the world in background, high light, and shadow, 
an entirely new character. From being Then each spectator can study the result 
viewed as the stern, uncompromising, and from his own point of view and profit 
conquering military commander, the rev- accordingly by his conclusions. It is not 
elation of his simple resignation in the the mere size of the man so much as his 
face of great suffering claimed for him actions under those ordinary circum- 
new fame as a hero in another sense. His stances which make up human experience, 
last battle with the great conqueror des- How would you have done? is the con- 
tined him for grander laurels than were stant question that suggests itself, 
gained on any of his many triumphant My personal acquaintance with Gen- 
fields. It was the purely human side of eral Grant covered the period of his last 
his nature that then appealed to the gen- illness, during which I was in his confi- 
cral sympathy of mankind. Thus his last dence as one of his consulting surgeons, 
and only surrender was his greatest victory. In such close association there were ex- 
If it had been otherwise, history would ceptional opportunities for obtaining an 
have cheated itself of an example of insight into his general character that 



Christian fortitude the like of which 
lias been seldom recorded. It was the 
contemplation of this phase of him that 
gives interest to every detail of his long 



would otherwise have been impossible. 
There is no place in which human nature 
shows itself so plainly as in the sick- 
room. The patient is then off his guard 



and painful illness. He was no longer the against all conventional formalities, and 

man of arms to be dreaded, or the President appears as his plain and simple self. 

to be calumniated, but the brave and help- Thus he was found, and thus will the at- 

less sufferer to be pitied and admired. tempt be made to portray him. 

This is written with the view of pre- In general appearance General Grant 
senting an intimate picture of General would be considered the type of a simple, 
Grant as he appeared to one who was in dignified, quiet, and self-contained gentle- 
close and friendly contact with him dur- man. Of medium height, he was rather 
ing the last months of his life. If ap- stockily built, with short neck and high, 
parently trivial matters are noticed, they square, and slightly stooping shoulders, 
may in a way help to finish the picture in When I first visited him, he was some- 
proportion and detail. Moreover, what what reduced in flesh and had a decid- 
would be uninteresting in ordinary per- eclly sick and dejected look, which told 
sons may have no little importance in the of his mental and physical suffering. He 
portraiture of noted characters. There was seated in a leather arm-chair in one 



should be no sparing of squints or wrin- 
kles or other apparent deformities. If 
the true character does not speak in the 



corner of his library in his house at No. 
3 East Sixty-sixth Street, New York, and he 
wore a loose, woolen morning gown and an 



likeness, the picture can never serve its ordinary smoking-cap of the same material, 

purpose. Properly to interpret motives, It would hardly have been possible to 

and intelligently to appreciate conse- recognize him from any striking resem- 

quences, one must have everything within blance to his well-known portraits. It 

1 Since these articles were announced for publication, and before the proofs were ready, 
Dr. Shrady, who had survived his associates, has also died. — The Editor. 

102 



GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 



103 



was not until he bared his head and 
showed his broad, square forehead and 
the characteristic double-curved brow- 
lock that his actual presence could be 
realized. The difference in this respect 
between the lower and the upper part of 
his face was to me most striking and dis- 



protuberant. His ears were large and 
plainly stood out at an angle from his 
head. The circumference of his skull was 
above the average for a man of his size, 
and was very broad and square in front, 
while rounded and full behind. 

His manner was so modest, and there 




From a photograph by John G. Gilman 
GEORGE FREDERICK SHRADY, M.D. 



tinctive. There was the broad and square 
lower jaw, the close-cropped full beard, 
the down-curved corners of the firmly 
closed mouth, the small, straight nose 
with the gradual droop at its tip, the 
heavily browed and penetrating, deep- 
blue eyes, and withal the head itself, 
which crowned the actual Grant with real 
dignity and force. His profile more than 
maintained the classic facial line, so that 
his chin might be said to be relatively 



was such a complete absence of assertive- 
ness, that it was difficult to imagine in 
him the great man in whom the entire 
civilized world was at the time deeply in- 
terested. He seemed anxious concerning 
the result of the consultation and was 
plainly apprehensive. 

Those present were Dr. Fordyce 
Barker, his family physician and long- 
trusted friend ; Dr. John Hancock Doug- 
las, the well-known throat specialist ; and 



104 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



Dr. Henry B. Sands, the famous surgeon 
who had consulted previously on his case. 
Each in turn made a very formal and 
careful examination of the throat of the 
patient, using for the purpose the ordi- 
nary circular reflecting-mirror fastened 



about the procedure which plainly af- 
fected the patient. Dr. Sands, as well as 
the others present, duly appreciated this, 
and was evidently desirous of diverting 
the patient's mind from the real object of 
the visit. Accordingly, when he handed 




From a photograph by Epler & Arnold 

JOHN HANCOCK DOUGLAS, M.D. 



to the forehead by a band around the ob- 
server's head. 

In accordance with the usual profes- 
sional courtesy, I, as the new consultant in 
the case, was asked to precede the others, 
but as I desired to be initiated into the 
particular method of examination to 
which the General had been accustomed 
rather than to subject him to unnecessary 
pain by want of such knowledge, the 
others took the lead. 

Very few words were exchanged by the 
little group. There seemed to be a strain 



me the mirror, he remarked in his quiet, 
off-hand manner, that whenever I followed 
him in such an examination, it was neces- 
sary to enlarge the head loop to give an 
extra accommodation for thickness of hair. 
As an opportunity was thus afforded 
to start a conversation of some sort be- 
tween us, I ventured to suggest that 
hair did not always make the difference, 
nor the mere size of the skull, as some- 
times the best brains were very closely 
packed in very small quarters. At this 
the General gave a faint smile, and 



GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 



105 



for the first time during the meeting 
showed that he was inclined to be inter- 
ested in something that might ease the 
gravity of the occasion. I was thus 
prompted to illustrate to Dr. Sands the 
truth of what was said by relating to him 
an anecdote told of Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, at the same time hoping to gain 
the attention of the patient as a casual 
listener. 

A traveling phrenologist was on a cer- 
tain occasion giv- 
ing a practical ex- 
hibition of his skill 
in one of the pub- 
lichallsof Boston, 
and had asked 
for subjects from 
the audience. By 
some chance or 
design, the dis- 
tinguished author 
was indicated as 
a choice speci- 
men for demon- 
stration. When 
he stepped on 
the stage there 
was becoming ap- 
plause, but, as he 
was unknown to 
the Lcturer, the 
latter looked with 
great surprise at 
the small man 
with a smallhead. 
Imagining that an 
attempt was being 
made to challenge 
his ability for 
discrimination, he 

became indignant. Passing his hand 
perfunctorily over the brow of the smil- 
ing and impassive victim, he rebuked the 
instigators of the supposed plot by de- 
claring that his business was to examins 
the heads of men with brains, not those 
of idiots ! Nor was his discomfiture ap- 
peased by the overwhelming outburst that 
followed this remark. 

The excuse for mentioning this appar- 
ently commonplace occurrence was that 
it might open the way for a closer per- 
sonal contact with Grant. At least he 
was temporarily amused, and appeared to 
relish the diversion. More than this, he 
told the story afterward to Bishop New- 




HENRY B. SANDS, M. D. 



man- and others, and at my next visit 
asked that it be repeated. On that occa- 
sion he remarked that his own bumps had 
been examined when he was a lad, and 
the phrenologist had made the usual prog- 
nostication, applicable to all boys, that 
he also one day might be President of the 
United States. 

Notwithstanding this show of consid- 
eration on the part of the General, there 
was a purpose to keep constantly in mind 

that he wasknown 
as a stolid and 
reticent man, and 
this disposition 
was to be care- 
fully humored by 
a studied avoid- 
ance of all undue 
familiarity on the 
I part of a new ac- 
quaintance. Thus 
it was a becom- 
ing policy that 
he should always 
take the initiative, 
and others merely 
act as willing lis- 
teners. Besides, 
it was eminently 
proper that he 
should not be 
fatigued with un- 
necessary conver- 
sation or be tired 
by the exercise of 
strained courtesy. 
Although I am 
not a hero-wor- 
shiper in the usual 
sense of the term, 
it was edifying to be even in casual asso- 
ciation with him and to note his different 
moods and acts. 

When it was learned that he was writ- 
ing his personal memoirs, never was a 
promised work more widely heralded or 
more anxiously awaited. What specially 
appealed to the sympathy of the public 
was the well-known motive for the task 
— his desire to lift his family above the 
financial distress resulting from the fail- 
ure of Grant and Ward. 

Although his countless well-wishers 
were unable to help him, it was a comfort 
to him to know that they felt for him in 
every phase of his trial, and hailed each 




From a photograph by Rockwood 
FORDYCE BARKER, M.D. 



temporary respite from suffering with 
deep and tender solicitude. During it all 
he was bravely working against time by 
making the most of the life so soon to 
end. He was getting away from himself 
by a forced interest in work, although it 
was a race against reason, strength, and 
hope. 

During the last months of his illness 
the General was confined to his bed-cham- 
ber and an adjoining apartment, which he 
used as his work-room while writing on 



his memoirs. The monotony was only 
occasionally interrupted by a short drive 
in Central Park on pleasant days ; but 
these excursions were eventually discon- 
tinued on account of the fatigue they 
caused. He was of the opinion also 
that prolonged exposure to cool air gave 
rise to neuralgic headaches, with which, 
from other causes, he was constantly 
afflicted. It was mainly for this reason 
that he wore his skull cap even when in- 
doors. He accommodated himself, how- 



106 



GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 



107 



ever, to his new conditions with remarka- 
ble ease, and showed a disposition to meet 
each requirement with becoming submis- 
sion. He greatly felt the need of some- 
thing to occupy his thoughts, and the 
preparation of his memoirs was in this 
respect a welcome relief. For hours 
he would sit at an extemporized table 
oblivious to his surroundings. At 
other times he took pleasure in receiv- 
ing some of his more intimate friends, 
occasionally indulging in reminiscent ref- 
erences. 

As his room was a thoroughfare for 
members of his family, he was seldom 
alone ; but when abstracted or engaged in 
anything that took his attention, no one 
ventured to interrupt him. 

That he was not disturbed by the pres- 
ence of others was often proved by a 
polite motion to sit down, while he would 
unconcernedly go on with his work. His 
long experience in camp-life, with his 
military family constantly about him, evi- 
dently made him feel perfectly at ease 
even in silent company. 

He was as simple in his tastes as he 
was mild in his manner. Those who knew 
him only as the stern man of Vicksburg, 
the warrior whose ultimatum was "Un- 
conditional surrender," found it difficult 
to reconcile such an estimate of his char- 
acter with that of the plain, modest per- 
son, with soft, kindly voice and cordial 
manner, who could place himself on the 
natural level with any ordinary, every-day 
visitor. His modesty, which sometimes- 
amounted to positive shyness, was so un- 
affected and natural that no one could 
doubt its genuineness, which made it all 
the more difficult to match the man with 
his former deeds. The chastisement of 
his illness doubtless had much to do with 
the accentuation of this part of his char- 
acter, and thus displayed his purely hu- 
man side to the high light of more thor- 
ough analysis. 

His mental qualities were those of 
strength and reserve in balancing propor- 
tions. It could easily be seen that he was 
accustomed to examine all important 
questions mostly from the purely subjec- 
tive side of the argument. Always ready 
to listen to the suggestions of others, he 
nevertheless reserved the right to draw 
'his individual conclusion. This was his 
plan in fighting his battles, and proved 



his extraordinary resources. Once con- 
vinced of the course to be pursued, his 
only aim was victory at any cost. The 
actual result was everything to him. 

He once said that before every battle 
he always calculated the dreadful cost in 
killed and wounded. It was the price 
before the bargain could be closed. He 
was so much misunderstood in the adop- 
tion of wise expedients in this regard that 
many had called him the relentless 
"butcher," and yet he more than once in- 
formed me that the carnage in some of his 
engagements was a positive horror to him, 
and could be excused to his conscience 
only on the score of the awful necessity 
of the situation. "It was always the idea 
to do it with the least suffering," said he, 
"on the same principle as the performance 
of a severe and necessary surgical opera- 
tion." He also remarked that the only 
way he could make amends to the 
wounded ones was to give them all the 
prompt and tender care in his power. It 
was the proportion of the killed and 
wounded that was the main thing to take 
into account, but, nevertheless, a severe 
and decisive engagement prevented much 
subsequent and useless slaughter. 

When asked if his military responsibil- 
ities had not at times rested heavily upon 
him, he significantly answered that, hav- 
ing carefully studied his plan, it then be- 
came a bounden duty to the Government 
to carry it out as best he could. If he 
then failed, he had no after regret that 
this or that might have been done to alter 
the result. It was facing destiny with a 
full front. 

Paradoxical as it may appear, he had 
an almost abnormally sensitive abhorrence 
to. the infliction of pain or injury to 
others. His sympathy for animals was 
so great that he would not hunt. John 
Russell Young in his charming book 
"Men and Memories," in referring to 
this trait, has . truthfully said: "Not even 
the Maharajah of Jeypore with his many 
elephants and his multitude of hunters 
could persuade him to chase the tiger. 
He had lost no tigers, and was not seek- 
ing them." This . instinct of gentleness 
was so strong a part of his nature that he 
often regretted that he had not in his 
early days chosen the profession of medi- 
cine. In fact, that had been his first am- 
bition. But it was otherwise to be, and 



LXXVI— 12 



108 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



he was to become an operator and a 
healer in a larger sense. 

General Grant's home-life was simple 
and natural in the extreme. This ac- 
corded with his disposition and habits. 
Even when President of the United 
States his unostentatious manner of living 
was a subject for remark, and many were 
willing to say that it did not accord with 
the true dignity of his high office. This 
criticism, however, had no effect on him 
at the time or afterward. So much did 
he desire the peace and quiet found in his 
family that the gratification of it was his 
greatest pleasure. In his active life, with 
its forced interruptions of routine and its 
constant irregularity of calculation, there 
was always the natural yearning for the 
rational comforts that so easily satisfy 
the plain man. 

Although he was not a very early riser, 
his breakfast was usually ready at eight 
o'clock. He was fond of his coffee, chop, 
and egg, but was a comparatively light 
eater. The meal finished, his first oc- 
cupation was the perusal of the daily pa- 
persi These he skimmed rather than 
read. When any subject specially inter- 
ested him, he would give it careful atten- 
tion, as if determined to understand it in 
all its bearings. He seldom missed a 
head-line, and always knew in advance 
what was necessary for him to read. In 
this respect he was essentially a man of 
affairs, as under other circumstances it 
would have been impossible for him to 
be even ordinarily informed on current 
events. 

The Grant luncheon was a bountiful 
meal, but intended more for casual guests 
than for members of the family; and the 
same may be said of the dinner, which 
was seldom a strictly family affair. The 
General always presided at the head of 
the table, with Mrs. Grant sitting op- 
posite, while the other members of the 
family were ranged alongside. The guest 
soon felt himself at home in a general at- 
mosphere of sincerity of purpose and cor- 
diality of manner. It was more in the 
nature of a neighborly call than a stiff 
and formal social function. The visitor 
never left without a favorable impression 
of the charming home-life of his host. It 
is not too much to say that such solid and 
simple domesticity formed the proper set- 
ting for the sound and wholesome meth- 



ods which dominated his placid and 
earnest character. 

A great deal has been said of Grant's 
excessive use of tobacco. He was un- 
doubtedly a great smoker. During his 
battles and while in camp, on horseback, 
on foot, or at his desk, he was seldom 
without his cigar. It had not always been 
so, at least not to such a degree. He had 
smoked from the time he was a young 
man, but never to excess until he became 
a General in the Union Army and a 
special object of interest on that account. 

His first reputation as a champion of 
the weed dated from the capture of Fort 
Donelson, when at that time he was de- 
scribed with the "inevitable cigar" in his 
mouth. The various newspapers dis- 
cussed from many points of view this 
new phase in his character, and quanti- 
ties of different brands of tobacco were 
sent to him from every quarter. In re- 
lating the circumstance, he frankly ad- 
mitted that this characteristic being as 
much of a discovery to him as to the pub- 
lic, he was rather temptingly forced to 
develop it to its full extent by industri- 
ously sampling the different brands in 
turn. The main stimulus in such direc- 
tions was from various manufacturers in 
Cuba who sent him choice selections from 
their plantations in the vain hope that he 
would aid the more extensive sale of their 
wares by his personal use and indorse- 
ment of them. He was always led to ac- 
knowledge, however, that up to that time 
his taste for fine tobacco had never been 
fully developed. 

Often when pressed with heavy re- 
sponsibilities, his rapidly smoked cigar 
became his. main reliance. While plan- 
ning or executing a battle, it was his con- 
stant companion; and, as he freely ad- 
mitted, he was never better fitted for calm 
deliberation than when enveloped in its 
grateful and soothing fumes. 

As might have been expected, the habit 
grew until only the strongest flavored to- 
bacco could meet his fully developed re- 
quirements. This habit, so inveterate in 
his later years, was destined to contribute 
in a measure, at least, to his death. Al- 
though it was not the direct agent in in- 
ducing the fatal throat disease, the irri- 
tating fumes of the weed tended in no 
small degree to aggravate the difficulty 
by increasing the irritation in the already 



GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 



109 



diseased parts. When told that it was 
necessary to throw away his cigar and 
smoke no more, he resignedly did so, but 
often averred afterward that the depriva- 
tion was grievous in the extreme. 

As an offset to what he considered a 
martyrdom, he would enjoy the smoke of 
others, and often invited his friends to 
smoke in his room. On one of these oc- 
casions he remarked that if not permitted 
to be a little wicked himself, he had a 
melancholy comfort in pitying the weak- 
ness of other sinners. This in a way 
showed that the temptation to revert to 
his besetting sin was almost constantly 
present. 

During one of the few times when he 
felt a little happy over his relief from 
pain and worry, and wished "to celebrate 
the occasion," he surprised me with the 
question, "Doctor, do you think it would 
really harm me if I took a puff or two 
from a mild cigar?" 

There was something so pitiful in the 
request, and so little harm in the chance 
venture, that consent was easily obtained. 
With an eagerness that was veritable hap- 
piness to him he hesitatingly took a cigar 
from the mantel, reached for a match, 
and was soon making the most of his 
privilege. Only a few puffs were taken 
before he voluntarily stopped his smoke. 
"Well, I have had at least that much," 
he exclaimed. Continuing, he playfully 
remarked that it would not do to have 
the performance get to the public as it 
might be said he was not obeying orders. 
This expectation, however, was not real- 
ized, owing to an inadvertence on the 
part of his only witness, who had ne- 
glected to pull down the window-shades 
at the opportune time. A day or two 
afterward there appeared in a newspa- 
per a head-line, "General Grant smokes 
again." Mrs. Grant, who knew nothing 
of the incident, indignantly denied the 
truth of the report, and the ill-credited 
story was prudently allowed to take care 
of itself. The General himself was evi- 
dently satisfied to let the matter rest with- 
out further discussion, as he never after- 
ward referred to the circumstance. 

Such occurrences made but little im- 
pression upon him, as the comments of 
the press on trivial matters were viewed 
with amusement rather than with serious 
concern. He had been criticized on so 



many more weighty matters that he had 
become seemingly callous to such as did 
not affect his general integrity of char- 
acter. 

There was no time perhaps in his whole 
career when he became more sensitive to 
the public interpretation of his motives 
than when his character for honesty was 
questioned by some in connection with 
the failure of Grant and Ward. There 
was no doubt that the shock of the an- 
nouncement greatly added to his already 
weakened condition and aggravated the 
local trouble in his throat. His mental 
* suffering was most intense and was mainly 
dependent upon the reflection on his 
honor and business integrity which had 
been so cruelly and so unjustly made by 
those who had been directly and guiltily 
responsible for the scandal. He was then 
forced to realize that there was no sacri- 
fice too great to save that good name he 
had thus far successfully labored to de- 
serve. 

In his home-life General Grant de- 
lighted in simplicity. He felt perfectly 
at ease himself, and desired all his inti- 
mate friends to accommodate themselves 
to a like condition. With a pure motive 
of respect and familiarity he would gen- 
erally call his old comrades by their sur- 
names, omitting all their conventional 
titles; but he never addressed them by 
their christened names, evidently believ- 
ing that such a course was lacking in 
ordinary propriety. Under other cir- 
cumstances, and with casual acquaint- 
ances, he was always more than courte- 
ously dignified and respectfully formal. 
First names were always used, however, 
in his immediate family. 

The intercourse between its members 
was unrestrained and oftentimes playful. 
Fred (then Colonel) Grant, who had the 
privilege of being most constantly with 
his father during the latter's illness, was 
always eager for an opportunity to min- 
ister to his most trivial needs. No greater 
show of filial love could have been possi- 
ble. He could scarcely pass his father's 
chair without reaching over to smooth 
and pat his brow, and the General ap- 
peared to be always expecting this tribute 
of affection. Father and son thus came 
very close to each other. Next to Mrs- 
Grant, "Col. Fred" was the General's 
most trusted counselor. The son felt this 



110 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



responsibility, and was always on the 
alert to second any wish of his stricken 
parent. He well knew that the time- for 
such sacred duties was short, and he was 
seemingly more than anxious to improve 
the fast-passing opportunities. What 
made the solicitude greater was the fact 
that the General, so far from being ex- 
acting in his demands, seldom com- 
plained and seemed determined to give as 
little trouble as possible under an almost 
constant stress of suffering. 

Nothing delighted the family more 
than to learn that the patient was com- 
fortable and inclined to be cheerful. 
Sometimes extraordinary efforts were nec- 
essary to make him forget for a time his 
pain and be himself again. On one such 
occasion, when the General had passed a 
restless night and was much depressed in 
consequence, I used a rather bold expe- 
dient to rouse him from a settling des- 
pondency. Mrs. Grant and Mrs. Sar- 
toris, while waiting outside his room dur- 
ing one of my morning visits, had asked 
as usual how he had slept and what was 
his condition on waking. I explained to 
them his very depressed condition, and 
asked them if they would help me create 
a diversion for the patient. The plan 
was duly accepted and the following dia- 
logue ensued: 

"General, two ladies have called, and 
have asked if they can see you. They are 
very anxious to know how you are, but 
have promised not to disturb you by use- 
less questions." 

"But why can you not tell them?" said 
he. 

"They insist upon seeing you them- 
selves, if it is possible," was the answer. 

"What did you say to them?" 

"That they might see you if they prom- 
ised to allow me to speak for you." 

"Well," said he resignedly, "you may 
invite them in." 

When Mrs. Grant and "Nelly" en- 
tered, I introduced them with mock for- 
mality and stated the object of their visit, 
at the same time promising the General 
that both ladies had made a solemn 
promise not to engage him in any con- 
versation. 

The General took in the situation at 
once; there was a new glint in his eye, 
and with a suppressed smile he very de- 
liberately said, "Ladies, the doctor will 



tell you all that you wish to know." 
Then, as if they had been strangers to 
him, I simply replied that as the General 
did not wish to be troubled with useless 
questions, he desired to say that he was 
feeling reasonably comfortable, that he 
fully appreciated the honor of their visit, 
and was correspondingly grateful for 
their sympathy. By this time his despon- 
dency had disappeared, and after Mrs. 
Grant and her daughter had bowed and 
left the room, he called to them and ended 
the episode by an enjoyable chat. 

With a similar object in view at an- 
other time a diversion was made in an- 
other direction, with an equally beneficial 
result. One night when the patient was 
much depressed and unable to sleep, he 
expressed a wish, in the temporary ab- 
sence of Dr. Douglas, to see me. Under 
ordinary circumstances an anodyne would 
have been indicated to procure for him a 
good night's rest; but such a remedy had 
on previous occasions proved disappoint- 
ing, and it was agreed that milder and 
more natural methods should be tried. 
Accordingly it was determined to ac- 
complish the results on new lines. He 
was fearful of a sleepless night, and felt 
that he must rest at any cost. Being de- 
termined that he should not yield to such 
an impression, I persuaded him that an 
altered position, in bed might affect the 
desired object. 

"What shall I do?" he asked, with 
that gentleness and willingness to obey 
orders which always characterized him. 

"Allow me to arrange your pillow and 
turn it on its cooler side, while you imag- 
ine yourself a boy again." Continuing, I 
ventured to say: "When a youngster, you 
were never bolstered up in that fashion, 
and every bed was the same. Now, curl 
up your legs, lie over on your side, and 
bend your neck while I tuck the cover 
around your shoulders." 

Apparently the idea struck him pleas- 
antly, as was shown by his docile and 
acquiescent manner. Lastly I placed his 
hand under the pillow, and asked him if 
he did not feel easy and comfortable. 
As he apparently desired then to be left 
alone, I could not resist the temptation 
to pat him coaxingly and enjoin him "to 
go to sleep like a boy." 

Mrs. Grant was present, and watched 
the proceeding with a pleased concern. 



GENERAL GRANT'S LAST DAYS 



111 



After the covering had been otherwise 
properly arranged and the light in the 
sick chamber had been turned low, she 
and I sat beside the bed and awaited de- 
velopments. In a few minutes we saw, 
to our great gratification, that the tired 
and heretofore restless patient was peace- 
fully and soundly asleep. He rested as 
he must have done when a boy. After 
watching the patient for some time, I 
turned to Mrs. Grant, saying: "I 'm 
afraid that the General will not like that 
kind of treatment. He may think it in- 
consistent with his dignity to be treated 
like a child, and may not understand the 
real motive." 

"Not the slightest danger of that," re- 
plied Mrs. Grant. "He is the most sim- 
ple-mannered and reasonable person in 
the world, and he likes to have persons 
whom he knows treat him without cere- 
mony." 

When, at his request, I tried the same 
method the following evening, he yielded 
to it as readily as before, and as the re- 
sult of his "boy-fashion of sleeping," sel- 
dom afterward was there any need for 
anodynes until the last days of his sick- 
ness. He told me subsequently that he 
had not slept with his arm under a 
bolster and his knees curled up under his 
chin in that way since he first went to 
West Point, forty years before. 

After this incident it happened that I 
was brought into closer relations with 
General Grant than I had been before. He 
seemed pleased to encourage a familiar- 
ity of intercourse. He was then no longer 
the naturally reserved man, but the frank 
and open-hearted friend. Thus he would 
often invite me to talk with him, and 
never manifested any hesitation in giving 
his views, in a reminiscent way, on differ- 
ent topics under discussion. 

I was pardonably curious to learn his 
opinion on many matters with which his 
great career as a soldier had brought him 
in direct contact. In the "reticent man" 
there was thus opened for me a new line 
of psychological study. It was the differ- 
ence between being within actual touch 
of the light-house lamps and in formerly 
wondering at their glare and flash when 
miles away. The same voice then spoke 
to me that had made armies move and 
cannon roar. It was always an edification 
to hear this central figure of it all so sim- 



ply and modestly refer to his apparently 
casual share of the work. 

When there was much discussion in the 
newspapers regarding Grant's personal 
treatment of Lee on the occasion of the 
famous meeting at Appomattox, I was 
interested to hear his own version of the 
event. In all his conversations on the 
subject, he always spoke of Lee as a great 
general and a magnanimous gentleman. 
It was only the different reasons for 
fighting each other that, in a military 
sense, made the two men forced enemies. 
Two practised players took opposite sides 
on the checker-board. When the game 
was over, the issue was closed. There 
was thus no necessity for any embarrass- 
ing explanations when the two opposing 
generals saluted each other. The real 
purpose of the meeting was at first 
masked by the ordinary civilities of the 
occasion. The difference in the appear- 
ance of the two was very marked. Lee 
was attired in an entirely new uniform ; 
Grant wore a blouse, and was, as usual, 
without his sword. 

Grant, in relating the circumstance, 
confessed himself at great disadvantage 
in his ordinary field clothes and "muddy 
boots," and felt bound to apologize ac- 
cordingly. The apparent discourtesy was 
purely accidental, as Grant had no ap- 
propriate uniform, at hand. He was no- 
torious for his neglect of such formali- 
ties. He was a mere workingman on the 
field, with soft felt hat, private's over- 
coat, no sword, and with gauntlets 
trimmed to mere gloves. His only care 
was for his horse, always well capari- 
soned and well kept. This time, how- 
ever, his pet animal limped to the rendez- 
vous with a sprained foot, carrying an 
equally sorry rider just recovering from 
a severe attack of headache. Lee wore a 
magnificent sword, presented to him by 
the ladies of Richmond. Grant, noticing 
this, instantly made up his mind to waive 
the formality of accepting the weapon, as 
he did not wish in any way to wound the 
pride of so valiant an antagonist. 

In remarking upon the circumstances 
connected with the surrender, he substan- 
tiated all the details mentioned in Ba- 
deau's military history. 

It was strange indeed to hear Grant 
describe that memorable and dramatic 



112 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



scene with the least possible show of ex- 
ultation or vainglory and with the rare 
and simple modesty of a man who' was 
describing what appeared to him to be a 
very ordinary circumstance. 

No one can say that Grant was given 
in any way to pomp or show. He was 
intolerant of all useless and extravagant 
exultation. It was his privilege to march 
at the head of his victorious army into 
Richmond and take formal possession of 
the conquered capital of the Confeder- 
acy; but instead of doing so, he immedi- 
ately hurried in a quiet way to Washing- 
ton to stop expenditure of men and 
money and to end the war in the quickest 
and most practical way in his power. 

Mrs. Grant, in referring to some of the 
ovations given him during his memorable 
trip abroad, said that he submitted to 
them rather than enjoyed them. A strik- 
ing instance was when he received the 
salute of royal elephants tendered him by 
the King of Siam. On that occasion the 
animals were drawn up in double line, 
and as the General walked alone along 
a path thus formed, each trunk by way 
of salute was raised in turn as he passed. 
While fully appreciating the marked dis- 
tinction thus shown him, his natural 
modesty was duly shocked by the atten- 
dant display of pomp, and he remarked 
at the end that he had never before "in- 
spected such a novel guard mount." The 
same feeling appeared to possess him 
when hemmed in by a cheering crowd and 
compelled to acknowledge its cordial sal- 
utations. He never seemed able to un- 
derstand that the greeting was intended 
as a distinctly personal compliment to 
the man. 

That he was never spoiled by these out- 
bursts of enthusiasm was shown by his 
frequent expressions of relief when the 
incentives for their display were over and 
he gracefully took his position as "an 
ordinary private citizen." In referring 
to the vote of thanks from Congress, he 
would say: "That is the Government's 
expression of appreciation of services" ; 
and once he said to me, "That is the cer- 
tificate given me for being a good boy in 
school." 

He told me that one rainy evening 
while walking to a reception which was 
given in his honor he was overtaken by 
a pedestrian who was on his way to the 



same place of meeting. The stranger, 
who quite familiarly shared the General's 
umbrella, volunteered the information 
that he was going to see Grant. The 
General responded that he was likewise 
on his way to the hall. 

"I have never seen Grant," said the 
stranger, "and I merely go to satisfy a 
personal curiosity. Between us, I have 
always thought that Grant was a very 
much overrated man." 

"That 's my view also," replied his 
chance companion. 

When they afterward met on the re- 
ceiving-line, the General was greatly 
amused when the stranger smilingly said : 
"If I had only known it, General, we 
might have shaken hands before." 

Although the General had a well- 
earned reputation for remembering faces 
and individual points of character in con- 
nection with them, it was not surprising 
that he should sometimes be at a loss to 
•place persons he had met before. In or- 
der to avoid embarrassment, he would 
frequently resort to the expedient of be- 
ing informed in advance of the persons 
he was to meet. 

At a reception given to him by General 
Sharpe in Kingston, New York, on a 
trip to the Catskill Mountains, a noted 
character of that region, a great admirer 
of Grant, was introduced to him. The 
General, attracted by the open-hearted 
and bluff manner of the man, inquired as 
to the chance of a pleasant day for the 
morrow and the opportunity for a view 
from the mountain peaks. The man so 
much appreciated the privilege of even 
this brief interview that he constantly re- 
ferred to it in talking with his neigh- 
bors. 

Long afterward the General was a 
guest of Mr. Harding, the proprietor of 
the Kaaterskill Hotel, when the proud 
interviewer was seen approaching them 
on the road. 

"Here comes a man, General, who con- 
stantly prides himself on having talked 
with you, and he is evidently bent on re- 
newing the acquaintance." 

"Where and when did I see him," 
asked the General, "and what is his 
name?" 

Mr. Harding, being naturally ac- 
quainted with all the facts in the case, 
having often heard the man tell his story, 



WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



113 



gave the inquirer all the necessary in- 
formation. When the countryman ap- 
proached, an introduction followed. 

"General, here is an old friend of 
yours, Mr. " 



"What, Mr. .' Oh, yes; I saw you 

at General Sharpe's. We had fine 
weather the next day, although I did not 
think it possible when you told me. Are you 
always such a good weather-prophet ? " 



(To be continued) 




WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT 
HAVE MISSED 1 

THE GREAT WORK DONE BY MEN OVER FORTY 
BY W. A. N. DORLAND 



A DISTINGUISHED citizen of the 
world, a man of extreme culture 
and erudition, whose achievements and 
literary contributions have incalculably 
enriched the storehouse of knowledge, 
not long ago remarked in a notable ad- 
dress : "Take the sum of human achieve- 
ment, in action, in science, in art, in lit- 
erature; subtract the work of the men 
above forty, and while we should miss 
great treasures, even priceless treasures, 
we would practically be where we are to- 
day. It is difficult to name a great and 
far-reaching conquest of the mind which 
has not been given to the world by a man 
on whose back the sun was still shining. 
The effective, moving, vitalizing work of 
the world is done between the ages of 
twenty-five and forty." 

No more genial and kindly disposed per- 
son exists than Professor Osier, the origin- 
ator of these views. Love for his fellow-man 
and intense sympathy are his striking char- 
acteristics. Only the most honest belief 
prompts every utterance of his pen. State- 
ments from such a source, however start- 
ling or distasteful to the average reader, 
command an earnest perusal, a close and 
searching investigation — but not a blind 
acceptance. For- even the most thor- 
oughly grounded may, if arguing from 
apparently sound, but actually incorrect, 
premises, arrive at logically correct, but 
virtually erroneous, conclusions. If the 
deduction be correct, why, one would rea- 

ISee "The Age of Mental Virility," by 



son, should the earth be cumbered with 
so much intellectual deadwood, the span 
of life be extended to threescore and ten 
years only that there may be thirty years 
of regression and slow but progressive 
mental decay? Nature in all her many 
laboratories is prodigal in her profusion, 
but never aimlessly so. There is an ex- 
cess of production, but never a useless 
accumulation. Only that survives which 
is found worthy; all else speedily makes 
way for more powerful, more efficient, 
and more productive successors. The 
Pre-tertiary times prepared the way for 
the Tertiary, this for the Quaternary, and 
all for the dwelling of man upon the 
earth. The antediluvian must perish in 
order that his more worthy successor 
should find the way clear for his devel- 
opment. The superstitions of antiquity 
and of medieval times vanish before the 
sunburst of education and accumulated 
knowledge. Only in the noblest creation 
of nature are we to find a notable excep- 
tion. Man is at his best in his youthful 
days, and then, resisting the sublime law 
of the "survival of the fittest," insists 
upon lingering "here that he may gloat 
over his early successes or bemoan his in- 
tellectual decay, according to the peculiar 
temperament with which he has been en- 
dowed. 

The sweeping and iconoclastic state- 
ment of the brilliant savant at first sight 
would seem to discount temperament, ex- 

the same writer, in the April number. 



114 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



perience, accumulated learning, judg- 
ment, discretion, maturity — all that go to 
make the intellectual granite and marble 
of the impressive and commanding man 
of middle age. Impulse, initiative, ad- 
venture, rise to the acme of desirability, 
and are the golden virtues to be cultivated 
and apotheosized. Only fifteen years of 
mental effort, and the climax is reached ! 
Then begins the inevitable descent to ob- 
livion and decay. Again, it would seem 
to indicate that all these virtues, desirable 
enough in their place and time, are strictly 
and irrevocably limited to a certain pe- 
riod of the human development. Beyond 
this epochal dead-line they cannot be 
found, save in monumental exceptions 
which are the wonder and perplexity of 
the hidebound scientist. 

Does history warrant or corroborate 
such a conclusion? Most assuredly not, 
and doubtless it was far from the inten- 
tion of the writer of the opening para- 
graph even to intimate as much. The 
record-book of the world is replete with 
the opportunities and successes of age and 
experience. As some one has said: "The 
golden thread of youth is carried to a 
much later period of life now than it was 
in former years." An Indian, chided for 
being sixty, replied that the sixties con- 
tain all the wisdom and experience of the 
twenties, thirties, forties, and fifties. Yes, 
and some of the initiative, also. The Pa- 
triarch of the Exodus, when an impulsive 
and immature man of forty, deeming the 
hour had struck, took the initiative in his 
own hands, blundered, through a miscon- 
ception of the times, and, because of his 
rash and inopportune murder of the 
Egyptian brawler, was compelled to flee 
the land. For forty years he was im- 
mured in the wilderness of Midian, buf- 
feted by wind and tempest, exiled from 
human companionship, gnawed at by con- 
flicting mental emotions, there to learn 
the - secret of self-control, and through 
protracted communion with nature to ac- 
quire the massiveness and robustness of 
character that were essential for his true 
work at eighty. 

It is not the motive of the present es- 
say, however, to take up the cudgels of 
defense for the unfortunates who have 
attained to the age of forty and over. 
Let them speak for themselves. A feel- 
ing of curiosity to know what would be 



subtracted from the sum of achievement 
had life arbitrarily been terminated at 
successive ages has prompted what can 
only properly be termed a retrograde 
analysis. Let it be supposed that all life 
had ceased at the individual age of sev- 
enty; then at sixty, fifty, and forty, and 
what then would have been left as the 
result of mental activity in the first four 
decades of life? Here is a wide field for 
most interesting investigation. The scope 
is tremendous, embracing the outcome of 
mental activity throughout the period of 
the world's authentic history, and it at 
once becomes evident that only a few 
pivotal facts can be selected as illustra- 
tive of the accomplishments of the vari- 
ous decades. The omission of one or an- 
other of the great records must not be 
construed as in any sense depreciatory or 
as delimiting their values and influence 
upon the evolution of the race. 

AFTER SEVENTY 

The Biblical limitation of life is three- 
score years and ten, and any attainment 
of years over and beyond this age is by 
reason of strength. If it had been de- 
creed that no man should exceed this 
statutory limit, what, then, would have 
been missed from the category of the 
world's achievements? 

In the first place, in the sphere of ac- 
tion, the great Mosaic law, which lies at 
the foundation of, and has virtually con- 
stituted, the moral law of the nations ever 
since its evolution, would never have been 
promulgated — at least as the Mosaic law. 
For let it be. remembered that it was pre- 
sented to the Hebrew exodists when its 
hoary-headed sponsor had rounded out a 
century or more of existence. It may be 
asserted that this law would inevitably 
have been enacted sooner or later had not 
the ancient lawgiver seized upon the op- 
portunity when it presented itself. This 
is undoubtedly true, not only of the Mo- 
saic law, but of all great achievements 
which wait the destined man and hour 
for their evolution and elaboration. It 
in no wise detracts, however, from the 
fact that this fundamental law was given 
to the world by one who had attained to 
extreme age — the twilight of life — far 
beyond the average working-period of 
man. Again, Savigny, the founder of 



WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



115 



modern jurisprudence, would not have 
published his famous treatise on "Obli- 
gations." Palmerston would not have 
attained the primacy of England, nor 
Disraeli have served his second term in 
that office. Thiers would never have had 
his great part in establishing the French 
Republic or have become its President; 
Benjamin Franklin's invaluable service 
in France would have been lost to his 
country; Gladstone would not have be- 
come the " Grand Old Man" of England 
and for eleven years have held the prime 
ministership ; and Henry Clay's Omni- 
bus Bill to avert the battle on slavery 
would not have been conceived. 

In the field of science notable losses 
would have to be recorded. Galileo 
would not have made the wonderful dis- 
covery of the moon's diurnal and monthly 
librations. Spencer's "Inadequacy of 
Natural Selection" and Darwin's "Power 
of Movement in Plants" and "The For- 
mation of Vegetable Mould through the 
Action of Worms" would not have been 
written. Buffon's five volumes on min- 
erals and eight volumes on reptiles, fishes, 
and cetaceans, and Lamarck's greatest 
zoological work, "The Natural History 
of Invertebrate Animals," would have 
been lost. Von Baer, the eminent biolo- 
gist, would not have composed his mon- 
umental "Comparative Embryology." 
Humboldt's masterpiece, "Kosmos," and 
Harvey's "Exercitationes de Generatione 
Animalium" would not exist ; Euler's 
greatest astronomical work, "Opuscula 
Analytica," and Galileo's most valuable 
book, "Dialogue on the New, Science," 
would have failed of publication. 

Priceless treasures would be eliminated 
from the art-collections of the world. 
Tintoretto's crowning production, the 
vast "Paradise," would not have ap- 
peared, nor would Perugino have painted 
the walls of the Church of Castello di 
Fontignano. Titian would not have lived 
to paint his "Venus and Adonis," "Last 
Judgment," "Martyrdom of St. Lau- 
rence," "Christ Crowned with Thorns," 
"Diana and Actaeon," "Magdalen," 
"Christ in the Garden," and his "Battle 
of Lepanto," which appeared when the 
•artist was ninety-eight years old. Benja- 
min West would not have painted his 
masterpiece, "Christ Rejected"; Corot's 
"Matin a Ville d'Avray," "Danse An- 



tique," and "Le Bucheron," would not 
exist; nor would Cruikshank's frontis- 
piece to Mrs. Blewitt's "The Rose and 
the Lily," the latter having been com- 
pleted when the artist was eighty-three 
years old. 

In music, Verdi's two brilliant mas- 
terpieces "Otello" and "FalstafT," and 
his beautiful "Ave Maria," "Laudi 
alia Virgine," "Stabat Mater," and "Te 
Deum," would not have been written; 
Rossini's "Petite Messe Solennelle" would 
have been lost ; while Meyerbeer's mas- 
ter production "L'Africaine," and Han- 
del's oratorio "Triumph of Time and 
Truth" would not enrich the world's 
repertory. 

And what shall we say of the realm of 
literary effort? It is astonishing to note 
what these old men of seventy and over 
have contributed in this direction. Ben- 
jamin Franklin's inimitable autobiog- 
raphy; Disraeli's "Endymion"; Landor's 
"Imaginary Conversations" and his mas- 
terful "Hellenics"; Schelling's "Philos- 
ophy of Mythology and Revelation" ; 
Kant's "Anthropology," "Strife of the 
Faculties," and "Metaphysics of Eth- 
ics"; Chateaubriand's celebrated "Mem- 
oires d'outre-tombe" ; Hugo's "Torque- 
mada," "93," and "History of a Crime" ; 
Milman's "History of St. Paul's"; Vol- 
taire's tragedy "Irene"; Leigh Hunt's 
"Stories in Verse"; Isaac DTsraeli's 
"Amenities of Literature"; Samuel 
Johnson's best work, "The Lives of 
the Poets"; Emerson's "Letters and So- 
cial Aims" ; Ruskin's "Verona and Other 
Lectures"; Micheiet's "History of the 
Nineteenth Century" ; Guizot's " Medita- 
tions on the Christian Religion" and his 
large five-volume "History of France"; 
Swedenborg's "De Coelo et de Inferno" 
and his "Sapientia Angelica"; Whittier's 
"Poems of Nature" and "St. Gregory's 
Guest"; Tennyson's "Rizpah," "The 
Foresters," "Locksley Hall Sixty Years 
After," and other famous poems; Long- 
fellow's "Ultima Thule," "Hermes Tris- 
megistus," and "Bells of San Bias"; 
Browning's "Asolando" and his "Parley- 
ings with Certain People" ; Bryant's bril- 
liant translations of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey; Grote's "Aristotle"; Hallam's 
" Literary Essays and Characters" ; Wash- 
ington Irving's "Life of Washington" and 
his "Wolfert's Roost"; Holmes's "Iron 



116 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



Gate and Other Poems," "Medical Es- 
says," "Pages from an Old Volume of 
Life," "Essay on Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son," and the "New Portfolio"; Ranke's 
"History of Wallenstein," "History of 
England," and the twelve volumes of 
his "History of the World"; Hobbes's 
"Behemoth," "Rosetum Geometricum," 
"Decameron Physiologicum," and"Prob- 
lemata Physica" ; the last three volumes 
of Bancroft's history; Froude's "Life of 
Lord Beaconsfield" and "Divorce of 
Catherine of Aragon" ; much of Momm- 
sen's "Corpus Inscriptionum Latina- 
rum" ; and the last part of Goethe's 
"Faust," and his "Wilhelm Meisters 
Wanderjahre." 

BETWEEN SIXTY AND SEVENTY 

Had the seventh decade (that which may 
well be termed the period of history- 
making and autobiography) been elimi- 
nated from the totality of human life, 
still greater drafts upon the storehouse 
of knowledge and achievement would 
have to be made. From the field of ac- 
tion alone most important events would 
be deducted. That remarkable ethico- 
political system, Confucianism, which has 
done so much to mold the Celestial intel- 
lect, would have been lost to China ; Bis- 
marck would not have instituted the ca- 
reer of Germany as a colonizing power ; 
Pasteur's discovery of the value of inoc- 
ulation for the prevention of hydrophobia 
would have been left for some other 
bright intellect to evolve. Monroe would 
not have enunciated the famous doctrine 
for the development and protection of 
the American nationalities. Von Moltke 
would not have executed the marvelous 
campaign that won the Franco-Prussian 
War, nor would Sir Charles Napier's fa- 
mous campaign in the Sind, with its great 
and decisive victories of Meanee and 
Hyderabad, have been conceived. The 
United States would have lost the bril- 
liant career of John Hay as Secretary of 
State, and the great principle of the 
preservation of the unity of China would 
not have been established, to the undoing 
of national, political, and territorial 
greed. Columbus would not have ac- 
complished his third and fourth great 
voyages; wherein he discovered the South 
American continent and the island of 
Martinique. England would not have 



profited by the magnificent statesmanship 
of Palmerston; John Adams would not 
have attained the Presidency nor Jeffer- 
son have served his second term. Bea- 
consfield's primacy in England, Crispi's 
in Italy, and Daniel Webster's second 
term in the Department of State would 
have been lost to their respective govern- 
ments, while tne American Colony would 
have been deprived of Benjamin Frank- 
lin's invaluable services at home. In the 
great religious struggle in Europe, Lu- 
ther's pamphlet on the "Wittenberg Ref- 
ormation" and much of his personal in- 
fluence would have been abolished; and 
Savigny's great "Modern System of 
Roman Law" would not have enriched 
the literature of jurisprudence. 

From the granaries of science must be 
extracted some of their choicest accumu- 
lations, including Darwin's famous "De- 
scent of Man," his "Insectivorous 
Plants," and "Emotions in Man and 
Animals"; Bullion's "Natural History of 
Birds"; Tyndall's "Essays on the Float- 
ing Matter of the Air" ; Herbert Spen- 
cer's "Factors of Organic Evolution"; 
Audubon's "Biography of American 
Quadrupeds" ; Lyell's third great work, 
"Antiquity of Man"; John Hunter's 
masterpiece on "Blood, Inflammation, 
and Gunshot Wounds" ; Max Miiller's 
"Buddhist Texts from Japan," "Science 
of Thought," "Lectures on Natural and 
Physical Religion," and "Anthropologi- 
cal Religions" ; Lagrange's remarkable 
work, "Theory of the Analytical Func- 
tions"; Biot's enlarged "Elementary 
Treatise on Physical Astronomy" ; Gali- 
leo's famous "Dialogue with God upon 
the Great Systems of the World" ; Lever- 
rier's tremendous task of the revision of 
the planetary theories; D'Alembert's im- 
portant work "Opuscules mathemat- 
iques" ; John Napier's masterful inven- 
tion of the system of logarithms and his 
description thereof, — which is second 
only to Newton's "Principia," — and his 
"Rabdologia," descriptive of the famous 
Napier enumerating bones; and Fara- 
day's "Experimental Researches in 
Chemistry and Physics," and his "Lec- 
tures on the Chemical History of a Candle." 

Truly priceless treasures would be 
missed from the galleries and labora- 
tories of art. Michelangelo's celebrated 
"Last Judgment," the most famous sin- 



WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



117 



gle picture in the world, and his frescos 
in the Sistine Chapel; Corot's "Soli- 
tude," "Repose," and other beautiful 
works ; Cruikshank's elaborate etching 
for Brough's "Life of Sir John Falstaff," 
and his most important picture, "Wor- 
ship of Bacchus" ; Titian's period of ar- 
tistic acme, including his "Battle of Ca- 
dore" and the portraits of the twelve 
Caesars; West's famous canvases, includ- 
ing the celebrated "Christ Healing the 
Sick" ; Perugino's frescos in the Monas- 
tery of Sta. Agnese in Perugia; Turner's 
inimitable "Fighting Temeraire," his 
"Slave Ship," and his Venetian sketches; 
Meissonier's famous "Friedland— 1807," 
"Cuirassier of 1805," "Moreau and his 
staff before Hohenlinden," "Outpost of 
the Grand Guard," "Saint Mark," and 
many others of his works ; Blake's great 
series of engravings illustrating the Book 
of Job; Bouguereau's "Love Disarmed," 
"Love Victorious," "Psyche and Love," 
"Holy Women at the Sepulchre," "Lit- 
tle Beggar Girls," and other works; 
Hogarth's "The Lady's Last Stake," "Ba- 
thos," and "Sigismunda Weeping over 
the Heart of her Murdered Lover" ; Mu- 
rillo's series of pictures in the Augustin- 
ian Convent at Seville illustrating the 
life of the " glorious doctor," and his able 
portrait of the Canon Justino ; Reynolds's 
portraits of Mrs. Siddons as "The Tragic 
Muse," the Duchess of Devonshire and 
her child, Miss Gwatkin as "Simplicity," 
and "The Infant Hercules"; Landseer's 
powerful "Swannery Invaded by Sea 
Eagles" and his "Pair of Nutcrackers"; 
Wagner's "Parsifal"; the two works on 
which Haydn's claims to immortality 
mainly rest, the oratorio "Creation" and 
the cantata "The Seasons"; Verdi's fa- 
mous "Requiem"; Handel's oratorios 
"Judas Maccabaeus," "Joshua," "Solo- 
mon," "Susanna," "Theodora," and 
"Jephtha"; Gluck's "Armide" and his 
famous "Iphigenie en Tauride" ; Gou- 
nod's brilliant oratorio "La Redemption," 
his "Le Tribut de Zamora," the oratorio 
"Death and Life," and the "Messe a la 
Memoire de Jeanne d'Arc" ; and Meyer- 
beer's "Star of the North" and "The 
Pardon of Ploermel." 

The devastation in the field of litera- 
ture would be irreparable. Now would 
be eliminated Littre's great "Dictionary 
of the French Language," pronounced 



the best lexicon in any living tongue; 
Grote's "Plato and the Other Compan- 
ions of Socrates"; Ranke's "History of 
England"; Grimm's celebrated "Corre- 
spondence litteraire" ; Newman's "Apol- 
ogia," the greatest and most effective re- 
ligious autobiography of the nineteenth 
century, his "Dream of Gerontius," a 
poem of great subtlety and pathos, 
and his " Grammar of Assent" ; Sydney 
Smith's trenchant "Letters on the Eccle- 
siastical Commission" ; Sir Richard Bur- 
ton's translation of the " ArabianNights" ; 
Renan's "History of the Israelitish Peo- 
ple"; Southey's "Doctor"; the third part 
of Butler's "Hudibras"; Grant's "Mem- 
oirs"; Landor's famous "Pericles and 
Aspasia" and his equally famous "Pen- 
tameron" ; Herbert Spencer's " Man 
versus the. State" and "Ecclesiastical In- 
stitutions" ; Thomas Chalmers's noted 
" Institutes of Theology"; Lowell's "Old 
English Dramatists," "Heartsease and 
Rue," and some of his "Political Es- 
says"; John Knox's "Historie of the 
Reformation" ; Carlyle's largest work, 
"History of Frederick the Great"; Cor- 
neille's "Attila" and "Tite et Berenice"; 
Defoe's "Fortunes and Misfortunes of 
Moll Flanders," "Journal of the Plague 
Year," "Political History of the Devil," 
and "System of Magic"; the second part 
of "Don Quixote," which is much supe- 
rior in invention to its predecessor, though 
composed when the author was sixty- 
seven years of age; also Cervantes's sec- 
ond best work, "Novelas Exemplares," 
and his most successful poem "Voyage to 
Parnassus" ; Saint-Simon's last and most 
important expression of his views, "The 
New Christianity"; Leigh Hunt's "Au- 
tobiography," "Wit and Humor," and 
"A Jar of Honey from Mount Hybla" ; 
Swift's " Polite Conversation" ; Schopen- 
hauer's " Parerga und Paralipomena" ; 
Goethe's "Theory of Color," his autobi- 
ography "Poetry and Truth," and many 
of his best poems; Young's "Night 
Thoughts"; Wordsworth's "Evening 
Voluntaries"; Bryant's "Letters of a 
Traveler"; Guizot's "History of the 
British Commonwealth" ; Swedenborg's 
famous "Arcana Coelestia" ; Bulwer 
Lytton's "Kenelm Chillingly," "The 
Coming Race," and "The Parisians"; 
Edmund Burke's "Reflections on the 
Revolution in France" and his splendid 



118 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



"Letters on a Regicide Peace"; Bunsen's 
well-known "Bible-work," "God in His- 
tory," and "Egypt's Place in Universal 
History"; Wilhelm Grimm's "Old Ger- 
man Dialogues"; Hugo's "Toilers of the 
Sea," "The Man Who Laughs," and 
"The Terrible Year"; Isaac DTsraeli's 
"Genius of Judaism" and "Commentary 
on the Life and Reign of Charles I" ; Du 
Maurier's "The Martian" ; the second se- 
ries of Matthew Arnold's " Essays in Crit- 
icism" ; George William Curtis's "Easy 
Chair" ; Wyclif's most important book, 
"Trialogus"; John Stuart Mills "Essay 
on Theism"; Huxley's "Evolution and 
Ethics"; Berkeley's famous "Common- 
Place Book," one of the most valuable 
autobiographical records in existence; 
many of Verne's best works, including 
"The Mysterious Island"; Dean Stan- 
ley's "Christian Institutions," an exceed- 
ingly important work; Coleridge's fa- 
mous "Epitaph" and his "Confessions of 
an Inquiring Spirit"; Milton's "Para- 
dise Regained," "Samson Agonistes," 
and "History of Britain to the Norman 
Conquest"; Condillac's "Logic" and the 
important work "Commerce and Govern- 
ment"; Zola's "Verite"; Parkman's 
"Montcalm and Wolfe" and "A Half 
Century of Conflict" ; Hobbes's master- 
piece "Leviathan," and his famous "Ele- 
menta Philosophica de Cive, " " De Corpore 
Politico," and "Human Nature"; Leib- 
nitz's celebrated "Essais de Theodicee," 
his "Monadologie," and the "Principes 
de la Natur et de la Grace" ; Mommsen's 
"Provinces of the Roman Empire"; La- 
martine's "History of the Restoration" 
and "History of Russia"; Hallam's "In- 
troduction to the Literature of Europe" ; 
Bockh's great work, "History of the 
World-cycles of the Greeks" ; Voltaire's 
unsurpassable tale "Candide"; Ruskin's 
"Arrows of the Chase," "Art of Eng- 
land," and the fascinating, though un- 
finished autobiography " Prseterita" ; Mil- 
man's great work, "History of Latin 
Christianity"; Emerson's "Society and 
Solitude," his anthology "Parnassus," and 
"Lectures on the Natural History of the 
Intellect" ; Dryden's masterful second 
ode on "St. Cecilia's Day" and his trans- 
lation of Vergil ; the eighteen volumes 
of Lacepede's "General, Physical, and 
Civil History of Europe" ; Michelet's 
monumental work, "History of France"; 



Jacob Grimm's two masterpieces, "His- 
tory of the German Language" and 
the "Deutsches Worterbuch" ; Locke's 
"Thoughts on Education," "Vindica- 
tion," and "Reasonableness of Christian- 
ity"; Francis Bacon's "History of Henry 
VII," "Apothegms," and "History of 
Life and Death" ; Diderot's "Essay on 
the Reigns of Claudius and Nero" ; 
D'Alembert's "Dream" and his play 
"Jacques le Fataliste" ; Washington Irv- 
ing's "Oliver Goldsmith" and "Lives of 
Mahomet and his Successors" ; Whittier's 
"Among the Hills," "Ballads of New 
England," "Hazel Blossoms," "Mabel 
Martin," and "Vision of Echard" ; Long- 
fellow's "New England Tragedies," 
"Aftermath," "Hanging of the Crane," 
and "Mask of Pandora"; Tennyson's 
"Gareth and Lynette," "Last Tourna- 
ment," "Queen Mary," "Harold," the 
best of his dramas, the lyric "Revenge," 
"Defence of Lucknow," and "The Lov- 
er's Tale" ; Browning's " Dramatic Idyls," 
"The Inn Album," and "Aristophanes' 
Apology"; Holmes's "Poet at the Break- 
fast-Table," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"The Iron Gate," and "Memoirs of John 
L. Motley" ; the fourth part of Le Sage's 
"Gil Bias"; Froude's lives of Caesar and 
Carlyle and "The English' in the West 
Indies"; Lew Wallace's "Prince of In- 
dia"; Lever's "The Bramleighs of Bish- 
op's Folly" and "Lord Kilgobbin" ; 
Reade's "A Woman-Hater," "The Wan- 
dering Heir," and "The Jilt"; Samuel 
Richardson's "Sir Charles Grandison" ; 
Trollope's "The Prime. Minister," "The 
American Senator," and "Is He Popen- 
ioy?" and. Ibsen's "Hedda Gabler," 
"The Master Builder," "Little Eyolf," 
"John Gabriel Borkman," and "When 
the Dead Awake." 

BETWEEN FIFTY AND SIXTY 

The sixth decade of life has been most 
prolific in human achievement, and may 
well be designated as the age of the mas- 
terwork. In action alone its accomplish- 
ments have revolutionized history, and it 
would be most difficult to conceive what 
would be the present status of the world's 
affairs had these ten years of individual 
life never existed. Columbus would not 
then have made his discovery of the 
American continent ; Marlborough would 
not have won the great victory at Blen- 



WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



119 



heim; Morse's invention of the tele- 
graphic alphabet would have been lost; 
Richelieu would not have attained su- 
premacy in France and concluded the 
Peace of Westphalia; Caesar would not 
have corrected the calendar or have 
written his "Commentaries"; Cromwell 
would not have overthrown Charles I and 
established the Protectorate in England; 
Lincoln would not have issued his Eman- 
cipation Proclamation; Bright's great 
fight in Parliament for reform would not 
have been made; Loyola would not have 
founded the Society of Jesus, nor Jeffer- 
son have established the Democratic party 
in the United States ; Knox's great work of 
the Reformation in Scotland would have 
been lost; Wyclif would not have made 
the first complete English version of the 
Bible, nor Luther the first complete trans- 
lation of that book; Schliemann's exca- 
vations at Troy and elsewhere would not 
have enriched archaeology; Humboldt 
would not have established a line of mag- 
netic and meteorologic stations across 
northern Asia; Galvani would never 
have enunciated his celebrated theory of 
animal electricity, nor John Hunter have 
discovered the uteroplacental circulation, 
first ligated successfully the femoral ar- 
tery in the canal that bears his name, and 
have built his famous anatomical museum 
when generally recognized as the first 
surgeon in England ; Kepler would not 
have invented his wonderful table of lo- 
garithms, nor Faraday have lived through 
his second great period of research in 
which he discovered the effect of magnet- 
ism on polarized light and the phenome- 
non of diamagnetism. Lord Chester- 
field's famous system of social ethics and 
the Hegelian and Lotzian systems of 
philosophy would have been lost. Leib- 
nitz would not have founded the Academy 
of Berlin, nor Bunsen have urged the 
unity of Germany. Wellington would 
not have accomplished the Emancipation 
of the Catholics during his primacy. Penn 
would not have made his famous treaty 
with the Indians ; Laud and Cranmer 
would not have influenced the church of 
England, and the latter have secured the 
legalization of the marriage of the clergy. 
John Adams's celebrated "Defense of the 
American Constitution" would have been 
lost; Washington would not have become 
the first President of the United States, 



nor would Talleyrand have overthrown 
the Napoleonic Empire, secured the 
ascension to the throne of Louis XVIII, 
and achieved his supreme triumph at the 
Congress of Vienna; Robert E. Lee's 
services would have been lost to the Con- 
federacy, and much of Von Moltke's re- 
markable activity in strategical and tac- 
tical military affairs would have been 
missed ; Herschel would not have in- 
vented his great reflecting telescope, nor 
have made his sublime discovery of the 
action of mechanical laws in the move- 
ments of the celestial bodies. Sweden- 
borg would not have experienced his re- 
ligious change and founded his order. 
Joe Jefferson would not have made the 
part of "Bob Acres" a national favorite, 
nor Irving have reached the apex of his 
career. Guizot would not have attained 
the primacy of France and ruled for 
eight years ; Peel would not have con- 
tributed his masterwork in improving the 
finances of his country. Canning's bril- 
liant career in Parliament would have 
been lost, together with the formation of 
the Triple Alliance between France, Rus- 
sia, and Great Britain which resulted in 
the independence of Greece. Monroe 
would not have served through his ad- 
ministration, Edmund Burke have devised 
his famous India Bill and secured the 
impeachment of Warren Hastings, or Gari- 
baldi have become the dictator of Italy. 

Scientific investigation would have 
been impoverished by the loss of Leidy's 
famous contribution to biology; the first 
fifteen volumes of Buffon's "Natural His- 
tory" ; Darwin's "Fertilization of Or- 
chids" and "The Habits and Movements 
of Climbing Plants"; Cuvier's magnifi- 
cent "Natural History of Fishes" and his 
"History and Anatomy of Mollusks" ; 
and Huxley's "Physiography" and "Sci- 
ence and Culture." Herbert Spencer 
would not have contributed his "Study 
and Principles of Sociology," "Political 
and Ceremonial Institutions" and "The 
Data of Ethics" ; Hugh Miller's master- 
work, "My Schools and Schoolmasters," 
would have been lost. Saint-Simon would 
not have written his "L'Industrie" and 
"L'Organisateur"; Galileo his "II Sag- 
giatore" ; Lagrange his great work "Me- 
canique analytique" ; John Stuart Mill 
his "Representative Government"' and 
"Utilitarianism"; Copernicus his great 



120 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



treatise on "The Revolutions of Celes- 
tial Bodies" ; Boerhaave his famous 
"Elements of Chemistry"; and Adam 
Smith his masterpiece on the "Wealth of 
Nations." Biot's "Researches in Ancient 
Astronomy" would have been lost, as 
would also Condillac's "Study of His- 
tory" and his " Treatise . on Animals," 
Sir Richard Burton's "Zanzibar" and 
"Gold Mines of Midian," and Rennell's 
celebrated "Geographical System of He- 
rodotus." Faraday would not have pub- 
lished the first two volumes of his "Ex- 
perimental Researches in Electricity," 
Diderot would not have prepared the 
main part of his great French encyclope- 
dia, or Tyndall have written the "Use 
and Limit of Imagination in Science." 

Many famous pictures would be missed 
from the galleries of the world, including 
Velasquez's great portrait of Innocent X, 
which was pronounced by Reynolds the 
finest picture in Rome; his famous por- 
trait of Pareja; the masterful "Spin- 
ners," the splendid "Venus and Cupid," 
"Maids of Honor," and many other of 
his works ; some of Reynolds's best work ; 
Cruikshank's tragical and powerful series 
of pictures for "The Bottle"; Perugino's 
masterpiece, "Madonna and Saints," in 
the Certosa of Pavia, and his wonderful 
paintings in the audience-hall of the 
Guild of Bankers of Perugia; Leonardo 
da Vinci's famous "Battle of the Stan- 
dard," designed when the artist was the 
most famous painter of Italy; Gainsbor- 
ough's most noted work, the "Duchess of 
Devonshire"; Romney's famous "Infant 
Shakespeare attended by the Passions," 
and "Milton and his Daughters"; the 
most brilliant works of Rembrandt, in- 
cluding his masterpiece, "Syndics of the 
Cloth Hall," "Jewish Bride," and the 
"Family Group of Brunswick"; Corot's 
famous "Sunset in the Tyrol," "Dance 
of the Nymphs," "Dante and Vergil," 
"Macbeth," and "Hagar in the Desert"; 
Titian's "Venus" of Florence, and "St. 
Peter Martyr"; West's "Death of 
Wolfe", and the noted "Penn's Treaty 
with the Indians" ; Tintoretto's mag- 
nificent "Plague of Serpents," "Moses 
Striking the Rock," and many of his 
memorable paintings, including the four 
extraordinary masterpieces "Bacchus and 
Ariadne," "Three Graces and Mercury," 
"Minerva discarding Mars," and the 



" Forge of Vulcan" ; Constable's famous 
"Valley Farm"; the best of Turner's 
work, including "Ulysses Deriding Poly- 
phemus," "Bridge of Sighs," "Ducal 
Palace," and "Custom House, Venice"; 
Landseer's excellent "Flood in the 
Highlands," "Deer in Repose," and 
"Deer Browsing"; Hogarth's admira- 
ble prints of an "Election," "Paul be- 
fore Felix," "Moses brought to Pha- 
raoh's Daughter," and "Gate of Calais"; 
Rubens's equestrian picture of Philip IV, 
"Banqueting House at Whitehall," 
"Feast of Venus," the portraits of 
Helena Fourment, and over forty pic- 
tures in Spain; Millet's "The Knitting 
Lesson," "November," and "Butter- 
making"; Meissonier's "Desaix and the 
Army of the Rhine" ; and Bouguereau's 
well-known "Youth of Bacchus," "Ma- 
ter Afflictorum," "The Birth of Venus," 
"Girl Defending Herself from Love," 
and "The Scourging of our Lord." 

From the musical conservatories would 
be taken Spohr's great "The Fall of 
Babylon"; Meyerbeer's famous "The 
Prophet"; Verdi's "Don Carlos" and the 
great "Aida" ; Gluck's superb "Alceste" 
and " Paris and Helen" ; Handel's great 
oratorios "The Messiah," "Saul," "Israel 
in Egypt," "Samson," "Joseph," "Bel- 
shazzar," and "Hercules"; Bach's mag- 
nificent "Mass in B minor," pronounced 
one of the greatest masterpieces of all 
time; Beethoven's famous "Choral Sym- 
phonies"; Brahms's supreme achievement, 
the four "Ernste Gesange" ; and Wag- 
ner's "Ring of the Nibelung" and "Die 
Meistersinger." 

And what shall we miss from the book- 
shelves? Priceless treasures in very truth. 
The works of Aristotle and Plato ; Kant's 
"Critique of Pure Reason"; Bacon's cel- 
ebrated "Novum Organum" ; Locke's fa- 
mous "Essay Concerning Human Under- 
standing" ; the second part of Butler's 
"Hudibras"; Raleigh's prison-written 
"History of the World"; Reade's "Foul 
Play" and "Put Yourself in His Place"; 
the last volume of Niebuhr's "History of 
Rome"; George Fox's "Journal"; Bun- 
yan's " Holy War" and the second part of 
"The Pilgrim's Progress"; Hawthorne's 
second masterpiece, "The Marble Faun"; 
La Rochefoucauld's famous "Maxims"; 
Boswell's "Life of Johnson"; the third 
book of Montaigne's "Essays"; Vol- 



WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



121 



taire's wonderful "Philosophical Dic- 
tionary" and his famous "Diatribe du 
Docteur Akakia" ; Sir Edwin Arnold's 
"Light of the World" and "With Sa'di in 
the Garden" ; Erasmus's celebrated "Col- 
loquia"; Dickens's "Our Mutual Friend" 
and "Mystery of Edwin Drood" ; Ke- 
ble's famous "Lyra Innocentium" ; Dry- 
den's best play, "Don Sebastian," and his 
opera "Albion and Albanius" ; Hay's 
(collaborated) life of Lincoln; Chateau- 
briand's "Les Natchez"; Boucicault's 
"The Shaughraun," and the beautiful 
"Daddy O'Dowd" ; Grote's celebrated 
"History of Greece"; the second volume 
of Penn's "Fruits of Solitude"; Chal- 
mers's work on "Political Economy"; 
Dean Stanley's "Historical Memorials of 
Westminster Abbey"; Goethe's "Natiir- 
liche Tochter" and the first part of 
"Faust"; the first series of Landor's 
"Imaginary Conversations"; the third 
part of "Gil Bias" ; "Robinson Crusoe" ; 
Rousseau's celebrated "Confessions"; 
"Ben Hur" ; the last two volumes of 
Macaulay's "History of England"; La- 
martine's greatest prose work, "History 
of the Girondins" ; Cowper's "Task"; 
" The Divine Comedy" ; " Paradise Lost" ; 
"Canterbury Tales"; "Les Miserables" ; 
the first part of "Don Quixote"; Free- 
man's "Ottoman Power in Europe" and 
his famous "The Reign of William Ru- 
fus" ; the second collection of La Fon- 
taine's "Fables," pronounced divine; 
"Gulliver's Travels," and the "Drapier's 
Letters," Swift's greatest political tri- 
umph; Sainte-Beuve's "Study of Vergil" 
and the final and best series of the "Mon- 
day" articles ; the last seven volumes of 
Sterne's "Tristram Shandy"; Gibbon's 
delightful "Memoirs"; Zola's famous 
"Debacle" and "Fecundity"; Montes- 
quieu's masterwork, "L'Esprit des lois" ; 
Ibsen's "A Doll's House," "Ghosts," and 
" Rosmersholm" ; many of Matthew Ar- 
nold's best essays; Racine's masterpiece 
" Athalie" ; Livingstone's " Narrative of an 
Expedition to the Zambesi" ; Dodgson's 
"Mathematica Curiosa" and "Rhyme? 
and Reason?" Du Maurier's "Trilby" and 
" Peter Ibbetsen" ; Leigh Hunt's " Captain 
Sword and Captain Pen," "Legend of 
Florence," and the charming "Imagina- 
tion and Fancy" ; the most singular of 
Lever's works, "Life's Romance"; Sam- 
uel Richardson's "Pamela" and his mas- 



terpiece, "Clarissa Harlowe" ; Hood's 
"Song of the Shirt" and "Bridge of 
Sighs" ; the third volume of Isaac DTs- 
raeli's "Curiosities of Literature"; Mo- 
liere's brilliant "Le malade imaginaire" ; 
Francis Parkman's "The Old Regime in 
Canada" and " Count Frontenac and New 
France under Louis XIV" ; Corneille's 
"Discourses on Dramatic Poetry" and his 
"GEdipe," "Sophonisbe" and "Serto- 
rius" ; Berkeley's celebrated "Siris"; 
Comte's greatest work, "System of Posi- 
tive Polity," and his "Catechism of Posi- 
tivism" ; Froude's "English in Ireland"; 
Ranke's "History of Prussia" and "His- 
tory of France in the Sixteenth and Sev- 
enteenth Centuries"; Browning's "Rabbi 
Ben Ezra," and his masterpiece, "The 
Ring and the Book" ; Max Miiller's 
"Origin and Growth of Religion" and 
"Selected Essays on Language, Mythol- 
ogy, and Religion"; Ruskin's "Proser- 
pina," "Deucalion," and "Lectures on 
Art"; Descartes's essay on the "Passions 
of the Mind"; Lowell's "Among My 
Books" and "My Study Windows"'; 
Prescott's "Conquest of Peru" and "His- 
tory of Philip IV" ; Cooper's "The Deer- 
slayer" and "The Two Admirals"; 
Michelet's "History of the French Revo- 
lution" and "Women of the Revolu- 
tion"; Washington Irving's "Astoria"; 
Bulwer Lytton's "A Strange Story" ; 
Coleridge's "Aids to Reflection in the 
Formation of a Manly Character" ; 
Emerson's "English Traits" and "Con- 
duct of Life"; Renan's "Marcus Aure- 
lius" and his "Evangelists"; Whittier's 
"In War-Time," "Snow-bound," "Maud 
Muller," and "National Lyrics"; Ten- 
nyson's "Enoch Arden," "The Holy 
Grail," and "Lucretius"; Longfellow's 
"The Courtship of Miles Standish," 
"Tales of a Wayside Inn," "Birds of 
Passage," and "The Children's Hour"; 
Holmes's "The Professor at the Break- 
fast-Table," "Elsie Venner," and "Hu- 
morous Poems"; Machiavelli's "Art of 
War," "History of Florence," and the 
powerful play "Mandragola" ; Ben Jon- 
son's "The Staple of News" and "The 
New Inn"; Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical 
Sketches"; Scott's last novels, "Wood- 
stock," " The Fair Maid of Perth," "Chron- 
icles of the Canongate," and "Anne of Geier- 
stein" ; Jean Paul Richter's "Comet"; 
and a host of other standard works. 



122 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



BETWEEN FORTY AND FIFTY 

Finally, the elimination of the- fifth 
decade of life would cause tremendous 
inroads upon the already sadly depleted 
records of human achievement. John 
Gutenberg would not have invented the 
art of printing from type, nor Franklin 
invented the lightning-rod. Humboldt 
would not have devised the system of 
isothermal lines, nor Galvani the metallic 
arc, nor would the latter have made his 
discovery of dynamic electricity. Priest- 
ley would not have discovered oxygen, 
nor Jenner have made his wonderful in- 
oculation for smallpox, nor Harvey have 
announced his discovery of the circula- 
tion of the blood. Bessemer would not 
have invented his pneumatic process for 
the manufacture of steel, Watt the double 
acting steam-engine, nor Stephenson have 
instituted the modern era of railways. 
The colonies would have forfeited the in- 
valuable services of Washington in the 
Revolutionary War ; Morris would not 
have been the financial support of the 
Government; Jay would not have become 
the first Chief-Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States; Hungary 
would have lost the statesmanship of 
Kossuth; Talleyrand would not have ac- 
complished his diplomatic career, nor 
Webster his great Congressional record; 
Peel would not have made his great 
speech on Catholic Emancipation; Mon- 
roe would not have negotiated the Louisi- 
ana Purchase; Calhoun would not have 
become the author of the doctrine of 
"nullification," to which the Civil War 
may be traced. Grant would not have 
won his great victories of the Civil War, 
nor would Sherman have achieved his 
military fame. Wren would not have 
designed St. Paul's Cathedral. France 
would have lost the services of Maret and 
Cardinal Mazarin. Cavour would not 
have become the virtual ruler of Italy 
and convened the first Italian Parliament, 
nor would Savonarola have become the 
lawgiver of Florence. Blackstone would 
not have prepared his "Commentaries"; 
Nelson would not have won the battle of 
Trafalgar, nor Cromwell his victories at 
Marston Moor and Naseby. Cardinal 
Wolsey would not have enjoyed his suc- 
cessful career ; Boerhaave would not have 
introduced the system of clinical instruc- 



tion into the study of medicine. Richard 
Henry Lee would not have suggested 
holding the Continental Congress, and 
thereby have strongly incited to the revo- 
lution of the Colonies. Luther would 
not have published the famous Augsburg 
Confession, nor Knox have become a 
Protestant and begun the Reformation in 
Scotland. Bright would not have made 
his great speech on the Crimean War ; 
Turgot have accomplished his magnifi- 
cent work in France as Minister of Fi- 
nance ; Richelieu would not have had his 
famous military and diplomatic career; 
Wellington would have missed his cam- 
paign in Spain and would not have over- 
thrown Napoleon at Waterloo; Reynolds 
would not have founded the Royal Acad- 
emy and have become its first president ; 
Edmund Burke would not have made his 
great speech on Conciliation; Bunsen 
have accomplished his diplomatic career 
in Italy; nor Palmerston have lived 
through the most important and success- 
ful period of his life, during which he 
placed Leopold upon the throne of Bel- 
gium. Macready, Irving, and Forrest 
would not have attained the height of 
their power, nor would La Salle have ex- 
plored the Mississippi, Livingstone have 
made the Zambesi expedition and discov- 
ered the Victoria Falls, nor Champlain 
have founded Quebec and established the 
French power in lower Canada. 

Science would lose Huxley's "Anatomy 
of Vertebrates and Invertebrates" ; Dar- 
win's "Origin of Species"; Hugh Mil- 
ler's "The Footprints of the Creator"; 
Lacepede's "Natural History of Fishes" ; 
Herbert Spencer's "Principles of Biol- 
ogy" and his "Synthetic Philosophy"; 
Geoflroy Saint-Hilaire's celebrated "Ana- 
tomical Philosophy"; Von Baer's "De- 
velopment of Fishes" and "History of 
the Evolution of Animals" ; Linnaeus's 
masterwork, "Species Plantarum" ; Cope's 
famous work in paleontology; Agassiz's 
great work on "Zoology"; Lamarck's 
famous "Botanical Dictionary" and his 
invention of the name "invertebrate"; 
Newton's monumental "Principia"; the 
first volume of Audubon's "Birds of 
America" ; Kepler's extraordinary pro- 
duction, "Celestial Harmonics," and his 
" Stereometria Doliorum," which entitles 
him to rank among those who prefaced 
the discovery of the infinitesimal calcu- 






WHAT THE WORLD MIGHT HAVE MISSED 



123 



lus; Rennell's great work, "Memoir of a 
Map of Hindustan" ; Tyndall's studies 
on heat-radiation and his "Natural Phil- 
osophy" and "Dust and Disease"; Di- 
derot's monumental "Encyclopedia" 
D'Alembert's "Elements of Philosophy" 
Hegel's famous "Science of Logic" 
Berkeley's "Alciphron" and "The 
Analyst"; Descartes's "Discourse on 
Method," "Meditations on the First 
Philosophy," and "Principia Philoso- 
phise," all great works; Lotze's fine 
work "Mikrokosmos" ; Biot's magnificent 
"Treatise on Experimental Physics"; 
Lyell's famous "Elements of Geology"; 
Lavoisier's " Method of Chemical No- 
menclature" ; and Laplace's celebrated 
"Celestial Mechanics," which contains 
his enunciation of the nebular hypoth- 
esis. Lagrange would not have pub- 
lished his theory of cometary perturba- 
tions ; Dalton have originated the vol- 
umetric method of chemical analysis ; 
Galileo have solved the riddle of the 
Milky Way, discovered the satellites of 
Jupiter, and the triple form of Saturn, 
and have published his famous "Sidereus 
Nuncius" ; nor Herschel have discovered 
Uranus, and have begun the most impor- 
tant series of observations culminating 
in his capital discovery of the relative 
distances of the stars from the sun and 
from one another. 

The art-galleries would have lost 
Tintoretto's magnificent "Crucifixion"; 
many of Gainsborough's finest por- 
traits; Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Sup- 
per," the third most celebrated picture 
in the world ; the best of Du Maurier's 
illustrations ; Dore's illustrations for the 
"Ancient Mariner"; Velasquez's "Sur- 
render of Breda," one of the greatest of 
historical paintings ; Perugino's cele- 
brated "Pieta"; Cruikshank's famous il- 
lustrations for Dickens and Ainsworth; 
Rubens's pictures illustrating the life of 
Maria de' Medici, and his magnificent 
"Assumption of the Virgin" and "The 
Massacre of the Innocents" ; Millet's 
"Angelus," "The Man with the Hoe," 
and "The Gleaners"; Meissonier's 
"Reading at Diderot's"; Rembrandt's 
greatest works, including the famous 
"Portrait of Jan Six," "John the Bap- 
tist in the Wilderness," and "Jacob 
Blessing the Sons of Joseph" ; Blake's 
illustrations for Blair's " Grave" ; West's 

LXXVI— 13 



famous "Death on the Pale Horse"; 
Turner's "Decline of the Carthaginian 
Empire," "Hostages Leaving Carthage 
for Rome," and his paintings for the 
"Rivers of England"; Titian's "As- 
sumption of the Madonna," one of the 
most world-renowned masterpieces, the 
famous "Bacchus and Ariadne," "En- 
tombment of Christ," "St. Sebastian," 
and "The Three Ages"; Diirer's mas- 
terwork, "Adoration of the Trinity by 
all the Saints" ; Plogarth's admirable 
"Strolling Actresses," the famous "Mar- 
riage a la Mode," and the series of twelve 
plates "Industry and Idleness"; Paul Ve- 
ronese's "Feast of Simon the Leper," 
"Feast of Levi," and "Venice Triumph- 
ant"; Murillo's "Return of the Prodi- 
gal," "Moses Striking the Rock," and 
"St. Elizabeth of Hungary"; and Land- 
seer's well-known "Stag at Bay," "Sanc- 
tuary," "Monarch of the Glen," and 
"Peace and War." In music must be 
noted Meyerbeer's "Les Huguenots"; 
Handel's oratorios "Deborah" and "Atha- 
lia" ; Liszt's "Third Symphonic Poem"; 
Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde"; Bee- 
thoven's pastorals and his grand "Missa 
Solemnis" ; Bach's "Christmas Orato- 
rio"; Rossini's great "Stabat Mater"; 
Gounod's "Faust" and "Romeo et Juli- 
ette" ; the greatest of Spohr's sacred 
compositions, "The Last Judgment" and 
his oratorio "The Crucifixion"; and 
Gluck's "Orfeo ed Euridice." 

From literature would be missing all 
of Shakspere's masterpieces and most of 
his plays ; the last three books of the 
"Faerie Queene" and the magnificent 
"Epithalamion" ; Rabelais's "Panta- 
gruel" and "Gargantua"; Coleridge's 
"Kubla Khan" and "Christabel" ; John 
Stuart Mill's masterful "Political Econ- 
omy"; Kingsley's "Water-babies"; De- 
foe's famous "Mrs. Veal"; Le Sage's 
"Turcaret," one of the best comedies in 
French literature ; Samuel Johnson's fa- 
mous "Rasselasl' and his "Dictionary of 
the English Language"; Rousseau's "La 
Nouvelle Heloise" ; "The Wandering 
Jew" ; most of Scott's novels ; Emerson's 
"Representative Men" and the second 
volume of his "Essays"; Whittier's 
"Voices of Freedom" and "Songs of La- 
bor" ; Rossetti's masterpiece, "Dante's 
Dream" and his "Rose Mary"; Racine's 
famous "Esther"; Jonathan Edwards's 



124 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



"Freedom of the Will"; many of Beran- 
ger's songs; Burton's marvelous "Anat- 
omy of Melancholy" ; most of Addison's 
essays, including his creation, Sir Roger 
de Coverley; "Mrs. Caudle's Curtain 
Lectures"; Wordsworth's "Excursion"; 
Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Ro- 
man Empire" and his able "Memoire 
Justificatif " ; Hume's "History of Eng- 
land"; Dodgson's "The Hunting of the 
Snark"; Hallam's "Middle Ages" and 
"Constitutional History of England"; 
"The Scarlet Letter," "Mosses from an 
Old Manse," "The House of the Seven 
Gables," "The Blithedale Romance," and 
"Tanglewood Tales"; Carlyle's "The 
French Revolution" and "Oliver Crom- 
well's Letters and Speeches" ; Pope's 
"Essay on Man"; the first two parts of 
"Hudibras"; the first portion of Ban- 
croft's "History," and of Mommsen's 
monumental "Corpus Inscriptionum Lat- 
inarum" ; Lew Wallace's "The Fair 
God"; Lamartine's "Souvenirs of the 
East"; Ranke's "Roman Papacy" and 
"History of Germany in the Time of the 
Reformation"; Boehm's great "Theo- 
logia Germanica" ; most of Boucicault's 
plays; "Lorna Doone" and "The Maid 
of Sker" ; the first two volumes of Ma- 
caulay's "History of England" and his 
"Lays of Ancient Rome"; Washington 
Irving's "Conquest of Granada" and 
"Life of Columbus"; Bulwer Lytton's 
"Harold," "The Caxtons," and "My 
Novel" ; the first two books of Mon- 
taigne's "Essays"; La Rochefoucauld's 
"Memoirs"; Trollope's excellent "Bar- 
chester Towers"; Ebers's "Homo Sum." 
"The Sisters," "The Emperor," and 
"Serapis" ; Schiller's "Maria Stuart" and 
his great "Wilhelm Tell" ; Petrarch's fa- 
mous " Epistle to Posterity" ; the first vol- 
ume of Thiers's "History of the Consulate 
and the Empire"; "Henry Esmond," 
"The Newcomes," and "The Virginians" ; 
Verne's "Twenty Thousand Leagues Un- 
der the Sea," "Around the World in 
Eighty Days," and "Hector Servadac" ; 
Lowell's "Fireside Travels" and the sec- 
ond series of "The Biglow Papers"; 
"The Song of Hiawatha," "The Golden 
Legend," and "Kavanagh"; Isaac D'ls- 
raeli's "Calamities" and "Quarrels of 
Authors"; "A Tale of Two Cities," 
"Hard Times," "Uncommercial Trav- 
eller," "Great Expectations," "Little 



Dorrit," and "Bleak House"; Sir Edwin 
Arnold's "Light of Asia"; Schopen- 
hauer's "Will in Nature"; Motley's 
"Rise of the Dutch Republic" and "His- 
tory of the United Netherlands"; "The 
Deserted Village" and "She Stoops to 
Conquer" ; Gray's great odes "The Bard" 
and "Progress of Poetry"; Prescott's 
"Ferdinand and Isabella" and "Con- 
quest of Mexico"; Milman's "History of 
Christianity under the Empire" ; "Handy 
Andy" and "Treasure Trove"; Du 
Chaillu's "Land of the Midnight Sun"; 
"Pilgrim's Progress"; "Monte Cristo" 
and "The Three Musketeers"; Henry 
Fielding's "History of Tom Jones" and 
"Amelia"; Daudet's famous "Sapho" 
and "Port-Tarascon" ; Balzac's "Mo- 
deste Mignon" and "Beatrix"; Steele's 
famous political paper "The Plebeian," 
and his successful comedy "The Con- 
scious Lovers"; Michelet's "History of 
the Roman Republic" and "The Jesu- 
its" ; Condorcet's lives of Turgot and 
Voltaire and his famous " Historic Table 
of the Progress of the Human Soul" ; 
Farrar's lives of Christ and St. Paul ; 
"The Moonstone" and "The New Mag- 
dalen"; Matthew Arnold's "Essays in 
Criticism," "St. Paul and Protestantism," 
"Literature and Dogma," and many of 
his poems; Spurgeon's "Commentary on 
the Psalms"; Corneille's "Heraclius," 
"Nicomede," and "Andromede" ; the 
first collection of La Fontaine's "Fables" 
and the famous "Books of the Contes" ; 
Dryden's "Marriage a, la Mode," "Love 
in a Nunnery," "GEdipus," and his 
best drama,- "All for Love"; Cooper's 
"The Pathfinder," and "The Bravo"; 
Ben Jonson's "Book of Epigrams"; 
Richter's masterpiece, "Flegeljahre" ; 
Reade's "Never Too Late to Mend," 
"The Cloister and the Hearth," and 
"Hard Cash"; Tennyson's "In Memo- 
riam," "Charge of the Light Brigade," 
"Maud," and "Idylls of the King"; 
Willis's "People I Have Met" and "Fa- 
mous Persons and Places" ; Lessing's 
"History and Literature" and "Nathan 
the Wise"; Erasmus's "Adagia" and 
"Edition of the Greek Testament with 
Corrected Latin Version and Notes" ; 
Voltaire's "La Pucelle" ; Ruskin's fifth 
volume of "Modern Painters," his popu- 
lar "Sesame and Lilies," "Ethics of the 
Dust," and "Crown of Wild Olives"; 



IN A STORM 



125 



Dean Alford's Edition of the Greek 
Testament, with running commentary; 
Fichte's remarkable "Treatise on Sci- 
ence" ; the first series of Sainte-Beuve's 
celebrated "Monday" articles; Machia- 
velli's famous "II Principe"; Chateau- 
briand's "Rene" and "Adventures of the 
Last of the Abencerages" ; Max Miiller's 
"Chips from a German Workshop" and 
"Introduction to the Science of Relig- 
ion"; Leibnitz's "History of the Bruns- 
wick- Liineburg Family" ; the first and 
second volumes of Froude's "History of 
England"; Holmes's "The Autocrat of 
the Breakfast-Table" ; Freeman's master- 
piece, "History of the Norman Con- 
quest" ; Chalmers's celebrated work in 
defense of endowment, literary and ec- 
clesiastical ; most of Watts' s hymns ; 
Goethe's "Tasso," his great "Wilhelm 
Meisters Lehrjahre" and the noted "Her- 
mann und Dorothea"; Parkman's "Pio- 
neers of France in the New World," 
"Jesuits in North America," and "The 
Discovery of the Great West" ; Guizot's 
famous "History of Civilization in 
France" ; the best of Moliere's works ; 
Thomson's "Castle of Indolence"; Fene- 
lon's famous "Adventures of Tele- 
maque" ; the first and second volumes of 
Stanley's " History of the Jewish Church" 
and his "Sinai and Palestine"; the first 



six volumes of Sterne's "Tristram 
Shandy" and the first series of "Sermons 
by Yorick" ; Penn's "History of the 
Quakers" and the first volume of "Fruits 
of Solitude"; and Young's "Love of 
Fame the Universal Passion." 

SUMMARY 

What more need be said? Were the im- 
possible to come to pass, and the work of 
the veterans of life subtracted from the 
"sum of human achievement," the world 
would not be virtually where it is to-day. 
Well has the gist of the matter been con- 
densed in the words of a medical con- 
temporary : 

"In one respect at least the man of in- 
tellectual capacity and pursuits is much 
better off than his brother who works 
with his hands. In the world of manual 
labor the pitiful dictum seems well estab- 
lished that at forty the laborer is 'a dead 
one' ; he must not hope for employment 
or a wage after that period. The intel- 
lectual man, however, despite the expres- 
sion of a famous colleague, maintains the 
vigor of his mind unabated almost until 
he is ready to step into his grave ; and if 
by this means he gains his livelihood, 
then need he not fear the lack of employ- 
ment or emoluments even though his 
years be far advanced." 



IN A STORM 



BY HARRY H. KEMP 

UPON a great ship's tilted deck 
I stand, an undiscerned speck ; 
And, where the vast wave-whitened sea 
Leaps at the moon enormously 
In green-ridged tides, the ship's expanse 
Dwindles to insignificance. 
Through ether, perilously hurled, * 
Thunders the huge bulk of the world ; 
But in the eyes of other spheres 
Itself a sunlit mote appears. 
In turn all suns and stars in sight 
Lessen to needle-points of light, 
Flung helpless through an awful void 
Where measures fail and time 's destroyed. 
And still dost note when sparrows die ? 
Oh, God, where art Thou? Here am I ! 



THE CANALS AND OASES 

OF MARS 

(MARS AS THE ABODE OF LIFE) 
BY PERCIVAL LOWELL, LL.D. 

Director of the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona 



THIRTY years ago what were taken 
for the continents of Mars seemed, 
as one would expect continents seen at 
such a distance to appear, virtually fea- 
tureless. 

SCHIAPARELLI AND THE CANALS 

In 1877, however, a remarkable observer 
made a still more remarkable discovery ; 
for in that year Schiaparelli, in scanning 
these continents, chanced upon long, nar- 
row markings in them which have since 
become famous as the canals of Mars. 
Surprising as they seemed when first im- 
perfectly made out, they have grown only 
more wonderful with study. It is cer- 
tainly no exaggeration to say that they 
are the most astounding objects to be 
viewed in the heavens. There are celes- 
tial sights more dazzling, spectacles that 
inspire more awe, but to the thoughtful 
observer who is privileged to see them 
well there is nothing in the sky so pro- 
foundly impressive as these canals of 
Mars. Little gossamer filaments only, 
cobwebbing the face of the Martian disk, 
but threads to draw one's mind after 
them across the millions of miles of in- 
tervening void. 

Although to the observer practised in 
their detection they are not only perfectly 
distinct, but are not even difficult phe- 
nomena, — being by no means at the limit 
of vision, as is often stated, — to one not 
used to the subject, and observing under 
the average conditions of our troublesome 
air, they are not at first so easy to descry. 
Had they been so very facile, they had 
not escaped detection so long, nor needed 



Schiaparelli, the best observer of his day, 
to discover them. I say this after having 
had twelve years' experience in the sub- 
ject — almost entitling one to an opinion 
equal to that of critics who have had 
none at all. 

When our air is at its best, the first 
thing to strike one in these strange phe- 
nomena is their geometric look. It has 
impressed every observer who has seen 
them w T ell. It would be hard to deter- 
mine to which of their peculiar charac- 
teristics this effect was specially due. In- 
deed, it is probably attributable to their 
combination ; for distinctive as each trait 
is alone, their summation is multiplicitly 
telling. That the lines run quite straight 
from point to point — that is, on arcs of 
great circles, or else curve in an equally 
determinate manner — is, to say the least, 
surprising. When to this is added their 
uniform width throughout, the unnatu- 
ralness is increased. Their extreme tenu- 
ity only deepens the impression and this, 
lastly, is further emphasized by their 
enormous length. 

LINES ARE STRAIGHT 

That the lines are absolutely straight — 
which means that on a sphere like Mars 
they follow arcs of great circles — is 
shown by two facts which fay into one 
another. One of these is that they look 
straight to the observer when central 
enough not to have foreshortening tell. 
This could not happen unless they were 
the shortest possible lines between their 
termini. The other proof consists in their 
fitting together to form a self-agreeing 

127 



128 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



whole when the result of all the drawings 
— hundreds in number at each opposition 
— are plotted on a globe. 

In regard to their width, it would be 
nearest the mark to say that they had 
none at all. For they have been found 
narrower and narrower as the conditions 
of scanning have improved. By careful ex- 
periments at Flagstaff it has been shown 
that the smallest appear as they should 



Indeed, they are of all sizes, from lines it 
would seem impossible to miss to others 
it taxes attention to descry. 

All the more surprising for their rela- 
tive diversity is the remarkably uniform 
size of each throughout its course. So 
far as it is possible to make out, there is 
no perceptible difference in width of a 
canal, when fully developed, from one 
end of it to the other. Certainly it takes 



ITfcOp 




From a globe made by Professor Lowell 

A SECTION OF THE CANAL EUMENIDES ORCUS TERMINATING 
IN THE JUNCTION TRIVIUM CHARONTIS 

The length of this canal is 3500 miles. The remainder of the canal may be seen on the hemis- 
phere shown on page 128, where it starts from Phoenix Lake (Lucus Phceiiicis). 



were they but two or three miles across. 
The reason so slender a filament is visi- 
ble is due to its length, and this probably 
because of the number of retinal cones 
that are struck. Were only one affected, 
as would be the case were the object a 
point, it certainly could not be detected. 

So much for the smallest canal now 
visible with our present means. The 
larger are much more conspicuous. These 
look not like gossamers, as the little ones 
do, but like strong pencil-lines. Com- 
parison with the thread of the micrometer 
gives for the average canal a breadth of 
about twenty miles. The canals, how- 
ever, are by no means of a uniform width. 



a well-ruled line on paper to look its peer 
for regularity and deportment. 

True thus to itself, each canal differs- 
from its neighbor not only in width, but 
in extension. For the canals are of very 
various length. Some are not above 250 
miles long, while others stretch 2500 
miles from end to end. Nor is this span 
by any means the limit. The Eumenides 
Orcus runs 3450 miles from where it 
leaves the Phoenix Lake to where it en- 
ters the Trivium Charontis. Enormous 
as these distances are for lines which re- 
main straight throughout, they become 
the more surprising w T hen we consider the 
size of the planet on which they are 



THE CANALS AND OASES OF MARS 



129 



found. For Mars is only 4220 miles 
through, while the earth is 7919. So that 
a canal 3450 miles long, for all its un- 
swervingness to right or left, actually 
curves in its own plane through an arc of 
some ninety degrees to get round the 
planet. It is much as if a straight line 
joined London to Denver, or Boston to 
Bering Strait. 

Odd as is the look of the individual 
canal, it is nothing to the impression 
forced upon the observer by their number 
and still more by their articulation. When 
Schiaparelli finished his life-work, he had 
detected 113 canals; this figure has now 
been increased to 436 by those since added 
at Flagstaff. As with the discovery of 
the asteroids, the later found are as a 
rule smaller and in consequence less evi- 
dent than the earlier. But not always ; 
and, unlike asteroidal hunting, it is not 
because of easy missing in the vast field 
of sky. The cause is intrinsic to the 
canal. 

This great number of lines forms an 
articulate whole. Each stands jointed to 
the next (to the many next, in fact) in 
the most direct and simple manner — that 
of meeting at their ends. But as each has 
its own peculiar length and its special di- 
rection, the result is a sort of irregular 
regularity. It resembles lace-tracery of 
an elaborate and elegant pattern, woven 
as a whole over the disk, veiling the plan- 
et's face. By this means the surface of 
the planet is divided into a great number 
of polygons, the areolas of Mars. 

AREOLAS OF MARS 

Schiaparelli detected the existence of 
the canals when engaged in a triangula- 
tion of the planet's surface for topo- 
graphic purpose. What he found was a 
triangulation already made. In his own 
words, the thing "looked to have been laid 
down by rule and compass." Indeed, no 
lines could be more precisely drawn, or 
more meticulously adjusted. Not only do 
none of them break off in mid-career, to 
vanish, as rivers in the desert, in the 
great void of ocher ground, but they con- 
trive always in a most gregarious way to 
rendezvous at special points, running into 
the junctions with the space punctuality 



of a train on time. Nor do one or two 
only manage this precision; all without 
exception converge from far points ac- 
curately upon their centers. The meet- 
ings are as definite and direct as is possi- 
ble to conceive. None of the large ocher 
areas escapes some filament of the mesh. 
No secluded spot upon them could be 
found, were one inclined to desert isola- 
tion, distant more than three hundred 
miles from some great thoroughfare. 

CANALS IN DARK REGIONS 

For many years — in fact, throughout the 
period of the observation of the great 
Italian — the canals were supposed to be 
confined to the bright or reddish ocher 
regions of the disk. None had been seen 
by him elsewhere, and none was divined 
to exist. But in 1892, W. H. Pickering, 
at Arequipa, saw lines in the dark re- 
gions, and, in 1894, Douglass, at Flag- 
staff, definitely detected the presence of a 
system of canals crisscrossing the blue- 
green similar to that networking the 
ocher. Later work at Flagstaff has shown 
all the dark areas to be thus seamed with 
lines, and lastly has brought out with 
emphasis the pregnant fact that these are 
continued by others connecting with the 
polar snows. 1 Thus the system is planet- 
wide in its application, while it ends by 
running up to the confines of the polar 
cap. The first gives it a generality that 
opened up new conceptions of its office, 
the second vouchsafes a hint as to its 
origin. 

These strange geometricians have at 
last stood successfully for their pictures. 
The photographic feat of making them 
keep still sufficiently long — or, what with 
heavenly objects is as near as man may 
come to his practice with human subjects, 
the catching of the air-waves still long 
enough to secure impression of them upon 
a photographic plate — has been accom- 
plished by Mr. Lampland. After great 
study, patience, and skill he has suc- 
ceeded in this almost incredible perform- 
ance, of which Schiaparelli wrote in sur- 
prise : "I should never have believed it 
possible." 

The lines join all the salient points of 
the surface to one another. If we take a 



1 Previous to 1907 the fact was known only for the northern hemisphere. In 1907 the Flagstaff 

observations disclosed the important extension of the scheme through the 

antarctic zone; a striking confirmation of theory. 




From a globe made by Professor Lowell 

HEMISPHERE SHOWING THE OASIS CALLED ASCRMUS LUCUS 

From this radiate many canals. Also in the upper right-hand space 
is shown the continuation of the Eumenides Orcus. 



map of the planet and join its prominent 
landmarks by straight lines, we shall find, 
to our surprise, that we have counter- 
parted the reality. That they are so re- 
gardant of topography on the one hand, 
and so regardless of terrane on the other, 
gives a most telltale insight into their 
character : it shows that they are of later 
origin than the main markings them- 
selves. For they bear them without re- 
gard to what they are. Their character- 
istics and their attitudes, in short, betray 
that at some time subsequent to the fash- 
ioning of the planet's general features 
the lines were superposed upon them. 

CANALS SUPERPOSED OVER MAIN 
FEATURES 

But this is not all. Since the seas prob- 
ably were seas in function as in name 
once upon a time, the superposition must 
have occurred after they ceased to be 
such ; for clearly the lines could not have 
been writ on water, and yet be read to- 

130 



day. We are thus not only furnished with 
a datum about the origin of the canals, 
but with a date determining when it took 
place. The date marks a late era in the 
planet's development, one subsequent to 
any the earth has yet reached. This ac- 
counts for the difficulty found in under- 
standing them, for as yet we have noth- 
ing like them here. 

OASES 

Next in interest to the canals come the 
oases. Many years after the detection of 
the canals, scrutiny revealed another class 
of detail upon the planet of an equally 
surprising order. This was the presence 
there of small, round, dark spots dotted 
over the surface of the disk. Seen in any 
number, first by W. H. Pickering in 1892, 
they lay at the meeting-places of the ca- 
nals. He called them lakes. Some few 
had been caught earlier, but were not well 
recognized. We now know 186 of them, 
and we are very certain they are not 
lakes. In the case of one of them, the 



THE CANALS AND OASES OF MARS 



131 



Ascraeus Lucus, no less than seventeen 
canals converge to it. 

It thus appears that the spots make, as 
it were, the knots of the canal network. 
They emphasize the junctions in look and 
at the same time indicate their importance 
in the system. For just as no spot but 
stands at a junction, so, reversely, few 
prominent junctions are without a spot, 
and the better the surface is seen, the 
more of these junctions prove to be pro- 
vided with them. 

Their form is equally demonstrative of 
their function. They are apparently self- 
contained and self-centered, being small, 
dark, and, as near as can be made out, 
round. It is certain that they are not 
mere reinforcements of the canals due to 
crossing, for crossings do occur where 
none is seen, while the lines themselves 
are perfectly visible, and of the same 
strength at the crossing as before and 
after. 

DETECTION BY SCHIAPARELLI OF 
DOUBLE CANALS 

We now come to a yet more surprising 
detail. The existence of the single ca- 
nals had scarcely been launched upon a 
world quite unprepared for their recep- 
tion, and duly distant in their welcome 
in consequence, before that world was 
asked to admit something more astound- 
ing still ; namely, that at certain times 
some of these single canals appeared mys- 
teriously paired, the second line being an 
exact replica of the first, running by its 
side the whole of its course, however long 
this might be, and keeping equidistant 
from it throughout. The two looked like 
the twin rails of a railroad. 

To begin by giving an idea of the phe- 
nomenon, I will select a typical example, 
which happened also to be one of the very 
first observed — that of the great Phison. 
The Phison is a canal that runs for 2250 
miles between two important points upon 
the planet's surface, the Portus Sigaeus, 
half-way along the Mare Icarium, and 
the Pseboas Lucus, just off the Protoni- 
lus. In this long journey it traverses 
some six degrees of the southern hemi- 
sphere and about forty degrees of the 
northern. The canal was first seen as a 
single, well-defined line — not a line that 
admitted of haziness or doubt, but which 
was as strictly self-contained and slen- 

LXXVI-U 



derly distinguished as any other single 
canal on tlfe planet. A Martian month 
or more after it thus expressed itself, it 
suddenly stood forth an equally self-con- 
fessed double, two parallel lines replac- 
ing the solitary line of some months be- 
fore. Not the slightest difference in the 
character, direction, or end served was to 
be detected between the two constituents. 
Just as certainly as a single line had 
shown before, a double line now showed 
in its stead. 

Study of the doubles has been prose- 
cuted for some years now at Flagstaff, 
and its prosecution has gradually re- 
vealed more and more of their peculiari- 
ties. The first thing this study of the 
subject has brought out is that duality, 
bilateralism, is not a universal feature of 
the Martian canals. Quite the contrary. 
It cannot be said in any sense to be even 
a general attribute of them. The great 
majority of the canals never show double 
at any time, being persistently and per- 
petually single. Out of the 436 canals 
so far discovered, "only 51 have ever 
shown duplicity. From this we perceive 
that less than one eighth of all the canals 
visible affect the characteristic, nor are 
these 51 distinguished in any manner, by 
size or position, from those of the other 
385 that remain pertinaciously single. 
They are neither larger nor smaller, 
longer nor shorter, nor anything else 
which would suffice on a superficial show- 
ing to distinguish their strange inherent 
potentiality from that of those which do 
not possess the property. 

Now, this fact directly contradicts 
every optical theory of their formation. 
If the doubles were products of any op- 
tical law, that law should apply to all 
canals alike, except so far as position, 
real or relative upon the disk, might af- 
fect their visibility. Now, the double ca- 
nals are not distinguished in any of these 
ways from their single sisters. They run 
equally at all sorts of angles to the me- 
ridian, and are* presented equally at all 
sorts of tilts to the observer ; and yet the 
one kind keeps to its singularity, and the 
other to its preference for the paired es- 
tate. 

WIDTH DIFFERS FOR DIFFERENT DOUBLES 

The next point is that the width of the 
gemination — the distance, that is, between 



132 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



the constituents of the pair — is not the 
same for all the doubles. Indeed, it va- 
ries enormously. Thus, we have at one 
end of the list the little, narrow Djihoun, 
the constituents of which are not sepa- 
rated by more than two degrees ; while at 
the other end stands the Nilokeras, with 
its members eleven degrees apart. That 
is, we have a parallelism of severity- 
five miles in one case, and one' of four 
hundred in another. This fact dis- 
poses again of any optical or illusory 
production ; for were their origin 
such, they would all be of the same 
width. 

Position is the next thing to be consid- 
ered. A general investigation of this 
shows some results which are highly in- 
structive. To begin with, the distribu- 
tion of the doubles may be broadly looked 
at from two points of view, that of their 
longitudinal or latitudinal placing upon 
the planet. Considering the longitudinal 
first, if we cut the planet in halves, the 
one hemisphere extending from longitude 
20° to 200° and the other from 200° to 
20°, more than two thirds of all the 
double canals turn out to be in the second 
section; the numbers being fifteen in the 
one to thirty-six in the other. It appears, 
then, that the doubles are not evenly dis- 
tributed around the planet. 

We now turn to their partition accord- 
ing to latitude; and here we are made 
aware of a curious distribution affecting 
them. If we divide the surface into zones 
of ten degrees each, starting from the 
equator and traveling in either direction 
to the pole, and count the double canals 
occurring in each, we note a marked fall- 
ing off in their number after we leave the 
tropic and subtemperate zones, and a 
complete cessation of them at latitude 63° 
north. The actual numbers are as fol- 
lows : 

Between 90 S and 30 S o 

" 30 S " 20 S . . . . . 3 

" 20 S " io° S .' . . . . 9 

io° S " o° . . ; . . 20 

o° " io°N 29 

" io°N " 2o°N 26 

" 20 N " 3o°N 23 

" 30 N " 4o°N 20 

" 40 N " 5o°N 4 

" 50 N " 6o°N 3 

" 6o° N " 63°N . . . "■.' . 2 

" 63 N " 9Q°N . . . . . o 



AREA OF ZONES 

Thus the doubles are tropical features of 
the planet, not general ones. Decidedly 
this proclaims again their reality, for 
were they optical only, they could not 
show such respect for the equator — a re- 
spect worthy of commendation from Syd- 
ney Smith. 

Another of their peculiarities consists 
in their being confined to the light re- 
gions. For, with one possible exception, 
no doubles have been detected in the dark 
areas of the disk, whereas plenty of sin- 
gle canals have been found there. 

Yet to the dark areas they stand some- 
how beholden. For the great majority 
of them debouch from these great dark 
areas. Of the 51 doubles, no fewer than 
28 are thus connected. But this is not 
the end of the dependence. .For the re- 
maining canals, 23 in number, each con- 
nect with one or other of the doubles that 
personally connect with the dark regions. 
In all but two cases the secondary depen- 
dence is direct ; in these two a smaller 
dark patch occurs in the line of the con- 
nection. 

Thus, the double canals show a most 
curious systematic dependence upon the 
great dark areas of the southern hemi- 
sphere. In this they reproduce again the 
general dependability of single canals 
upon topographic features; but with more 
emphatic particularity, for they prove 
that not only are prominent points for 
much in their localization, but that 
different kinds of terrane are curiously 
concerned. The relation of one kind 
of terrane to another is essential to 
their existence, since they are virtually 
not found in the blue-green areas, and 
yet are found in the light only in con- 
nection with the blue-green. That the 
blue-green is vegetation and the ocher 
desert leads one's thought to conjecture 
beyond. 

To turn, now, to another mode of po- 
sition, we will look into the direction in 
which these doubles run. To do this, we 
shall segregate them according to the 
compass-points. Any one of them, of 
course, runs two ways; as for example, 
N. N. E. and S. S. W., and we shall there- 
fore have but half the whole number of 
compass-points to consider. Taking the 
direction two points apart, we shall have 



THE CANALS AND OASES OF MARS 



133 



eight sets, dividing the canals into 
bunches, as follows : 

S. and N 7 

S. S. E. and N. N. W. . 5 

S. E. and N. W 4 

E. S. E. and W. N. W. ..... . 3 

E. and W 6 

E. N. E. and W. S. W 6 

N. E. and S. W. ....... 12 

N. N. E. and S. S. W 8 

51 

At first, to one considering this table, 
no marked preponderance for one direc- 
tion over another manifests itself in the 
orientation. Still a certain trend to the 
east of north as opposed to the west of 
north is discernible. For 25 doubles run 
within 45° of northeast and southwest, 
to 12 only that do the same thing for 
northwest and southeast. Following up 
the hint thus given us, we proceed to ap- 
portion the canals firs.t into quadrantal 
points. The result is a fairly equable di- 
vision all around the circle. Now, as a 
matter of fact, by lumping the doubles of 
the two hemispheres together, we have 
almost obliterated a striking fact which 
lies hidden in the table. If, instead of 
thus combining them, we separate those 
exclusively of the northern . hemisphere 
from those of the southern one only, and 
now note in each of these what propor- 
tion trend to the west of south as against 
those that run to the east of it, and vice 
versa, we come out with significant re- 
sults. In the northern hemisphere, the 
proportion of double canals to show a 
westward trend as opposed to an eastern 
is 17 to 4. In the southern hemisphere, 
the easterly-trending outnumber the west- 
erly-trending by 1 to 0. While for those 
whose course is common to both hemi- 
spheres we find for the ratio of south- 
western to southeastern 8 to 7. 



EXPLANATION 

How can this be explained? Consider a 
particle descending from the pole to the 
equator under the push of a certain mo- 
mentum. As the particle (of water, for 
example) reaches a lower and lower lati- 
tude, it comes upon a surface which is 
traveling faster and faster eastward, be- 
cause since all parts of the body, whether 
the earth or Mars, rotate in the same 



time, those particles where the girth is 
greatest have the farthest distance to go. 

In consequence of this the particle would 
constantly be going at a less speed to the 
east than the spot upon which it found it- 
self adventured, and so relatively to that 
place would move to the west. From the 
south pole to the equator, therefore, its 
course would always show a deviation 
southwesterly from a due north and south 
direction. 

In the southern hemisphere, on the 
other hand, since the rotation of the 
planet is the same, its direction with re- 
gard to the pole is different, for the sur- 
face still sweeps to the east upon which 
the particle successively comes. It would, 
therefore, relatively to the surface, move 
to the northwest, and we should have in 
this hemisphere a northwesterly trend 
from the pole equatorward. 

This is actually what we see in the 
doubles of Mars. The proportion of ca- 
nals trending to the west as against those 
trending to the east in the northern hemi- 
sphere is, as we have seen, 1 7 to 4 ; while 
in the southern hemisphere the proportion 
trending to the east is 1 to 0. As for ca- 
nals occupying both grounds a compro- 
mise is effected, the canals running ac- 
cording to the hemisphere in which the 
greater part of their course is situated. 
This is certainly a very curious conclu- 
sion, and seems to justify the name canals 
as typifying a conduit of some sort in 
which something flowed. 

Passing strange as is the mere look of 
the canals, study has disclosed something 
about them stranger yet : changes in their 
aspect depend on the time. 

CANALS PERMANENT IN PLACE : IMPER- 
MANENT IN CHARACTER 

Permanent the canals are in place, im- 
permanent they prove in character. At 
one epoch they will be conspicuous ob- 
jects, almost impossible to miss; then, a 
few months later, acuteness is taxed to 
discover them at all. Nor is this the 
whole story; some will show when others 
remain hid, and others will appear when 
the first have become invisible. Whole 
regions are affected by such self-efface- 
ment or an equal ostentation ; while 
neighboring ones are simultaneously given 
to the reverse. 




DOUBLE CANALS SEEN IN A DRAW- 
ING MADE JULY i6 ; 1903, BY 
PROFESSOR LOWELL 

Curiously enough, the canals are most 
conspicuous not at the time the planet is 
nearest to the earth and many other fea- 
tures are in consequence best seen; but as 
the planet goes away, the canals come 
out. The fact is that the orbital position 
and the seasonal epoch conspire to a 
masking of the phenomenon. For the 
planet comes to its closest approach to 
the earth a little before it reaches in its 
orbit the summer solstice of its southern 
hemisphere. For two reasons this epoch 
•of nearness is an unpropitious date to see 
the canals: first, because the bright areas, 
where the canals are easiest made out, lie 
chiefly in the hemisphere then tipped 
away from the earth ; and secondly, be- 
cause it is not the Martian season for the 
canals to show. 

Due to this inopportune occasioning of 
the event, the canals lay longer unde- 
tected by man than would otherwise have 
been the case. Something of the same in- 
felicity of appointment defeats the mak- 
ing of their acquaintance by many observ- 
ers to-day. They look at the wrong time. 

NEW METHOD OF RESEARCH 

From their changes in con- 
spicuousness it was evident 
that the canals, like the 
large blue-green patches on 
the disk, were seasonal in 
their habit. To discover 
with more particularity 
what their law of change 
might be, an investigation 
was undertaken at the 
opposition of 1903, and 
in consequence a singular 
thing was brought to light. 
The research in question 

134 





CANALS IN DARK REGIONS 
CONNECTING WITH THE 
POLAR CAP. FROM A DRAW 



SINGLE AND DOUBLE CANALS IN A DRAWING 

OF THE SAME REGION MADE JULY 13, 

1905, BY PROFESSOR LOWELL 

was the determination from complete 
drawings of the disk of the varying 
visibility of the several canals statisti- 
cally considered during a period of many 
months. For the making of the drawings 
extended over this time, and by a com- 
parison of them one might note how any 
particular canal had altered in the inter- 
val. Their great number enabled acci- 
dental errors to be largely eliminated, and 
so assured a more trustworthy result. 
Systematic conditions affecting visibility 
— such as our own air or the position of 
the marking — were allowed for, so as to 
make the drawings strictly comparable. 
On the average, there were for each canal 
100 drawings in which that canal either 
appeared or might have done so. And as 
109 canals were considered in all, there 
resulted 10,900 separate determinations 
as bases for the eventual conclusion. 

Owing to the different rotation periods 
of the two planets, any Martian region is 
well presented at intervals of about six 
weeks, and continues so for a fortnight. 
At such times the drawings were scanned 
for the appearance of the 
canal, and a percentage 
was adduced from their 
sum of the visibility of the 
canal at the time. It is 
pleasing to note that to no 
one has the method com- 
mended itself more than 
to Schiaparelli. To wel- 
come new procedures is 
the best test of greatness. 
Most men's knowledge is 
cut on a bias of early ac- 
quisition, and cannot be 
adapted to new habits of 



ING BY PROFESSOR LOWELL thought. 




Drawn by Percival Lowell 



COLOR APPEARANCE OF MARS IN 1905 

This tinted hemisphere represents the appearance of the planet Mars in its mid-August aspect at 
the bottom, which is the North Pole, and in its mid-February aspect at the top, which is the South 
Pole. Blue-green suggests vegetation, and rose-ocher suggests desert. Many double canals are here 
shown, among them, on the right hand, the Phison 2250 miles long, starting from Pseboas Lucus. 



THE CANALS AND OASES OF MARS 



137 




AMASS OF DOUBLE CANALS, ELYSIUM (SEE 

THE HEMISPHERE PAGE 126). FROM A 

DRAWING MADE ON JUNE I, 1903, 

BY PROFESSOR LOWELL 

The percentages of visibility of these 
109 canals at each of their presentations 
having thus been obtained, a tabulation 
of them showed what had been each ca- 
nal's history during the period it was 
under observation. From perusal of the 
table could be learned the canal's career, 
whether it had been a mere unchanging 
line upon the planet's disk, or whether 
for reason peculiar to itself it had varied 
during the interval. To show this the 
more easily, the percentages were plotted 
upon coordinate paper, in which the hori- 
zontal direction should represent the time 
and the vertical the amount, of the per- 
centage. Then the points so found could 
be joined by a smooth curve, and the 
curve would instantly acquaint the eye 
with the vicissitudes of the canal's career 
from start to finish. The curve, in fact, 
would be its history graphically repre- 
sented, and furthermore, would furnish a 
sign-manual by which it might be specifi- 
cally known. The curve could be consid- 
ered the canal's cartouche, — after the 
manner of the ideographs of the Egyp- 
tian kings, — symbolizing its achievements 
and distinguishing it at once from others. 

Since the height of the curve from the 
horizontal base to which it stood referred 
denoted the degree of visibility of the 
canal at the moment, any deviation in 
this height along the course of the curve 
showed that the canal was then changing 
jn conspicuousness from intrinsic cause. 
If the height grew greater, the canal was 
on the increase; if less, it was on the de- 
cline. For precautions had already been 
taken to eliminate every circumstance, it 
will be remembered, which could affect 
the canal's appearance, except change in 
the canal itself. 



Not tmly increase or decrease in the 
canal stood forth thus manifestly con- 
fessed, but any change in the rate of such 
wax and wane also lay revealed. In look- 
ing at them, one has only to remember 
that the action proceeds from left to 
right and that the ups and downs of the 
curve show exactly what that action was. 

Only one possible form out of them all 
indicates that no action at all was going 
on — the straight horizontal line. That 
cartouche signifies that its canal was a 
dead, inert, unchanging phenomenon for 
the period during which it was observed. 

Now, of all the 109 canals examined, 
only three cartouches came out as hori- 
zontal straight lines, and even these it is 
possible to doubt. This is a most telling 
bit of information. To begin with, it is 
an obiter dictum of the most subtly em- 
phatic sort upon the reality of the canals. 
It states that the canals cannot be optical 
or illusory phenomena of any kind what- 
soever without in the least going out of 
its way to do so, as a judge might lay 
down some quite indisputable point of 
law in the course of a more particular 
charging of the jury. For an illusion 
could no more exhibit intrinsic change 
than a ghost could eat dinner without en- 
dangering its constitution. The mere fact 
that it is an illusion or optical product 
renders it incapable of spontaneous vari- 
ation. Consequently, its cartouche would 
be a horizontal straight line. As the car- 
touches are not such lines, we have in 
them instant disproof of optical or illu- 
sory effects of every kind. 

NoWj that the cartouches are curves 
shows that the action in them is not per- 
sistently in one direction. It is, there- 




A MASS OF SINGLE CANALS ABOUT LUC US 
PHCENICIS (SEE THE HEMISPHERE PAGE 
128). FROM A DRAWING MADE IN NOVEM- 
BER, 1894, BY PROFESSOR LOWELL 



138 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



fore, periodic, which lead us again to the 
fact that it is seasonal. 

SEARCH FOR CLUE TO DECIPHERMENT 

From the knowledge about the individual* 
canal which the cartouches thus afford, 
we advance to much more which they 
prove capable of imparting by collective 
coordination with one another. To com- 
pare them it was necessary to select some 
point of the cartouche capable of com- 
parison purposes. The one that suggested 
itself was the point where the curve fell 
to a minimum. This point denoted the 
time at which each canal began to in- 
crease in conspicuousness, the dead point 
from which it rose. This dead point was 
found for each cartouche, and starred on 
the curve. At a first glance it seemed as 
if comparison were hopeless, and each 
cartouche only a law unto itself. 

But by remarking that the canals exist 
upon the surface of a globe and that the 
two directions for positioning a place 
upon a sphere are longitude and latitude, 
we are led to try latitude as the more 
promising of the two to furnish a clue. 

To do this, the canals were segregated 
according to the zone on the planet in 
which they lay, and their separate values 
for consecutive times -combined into a 
mean canal cartouche for the zone. This 
was done for all the zones, andvthe mean 
cartouches were then placed in a column 
descending according to latitude. 

QUICKENING OF CANALS ACCORDING 

TO LATITUDE 

,. i ■ 

The result was striking. Following 
down the column, there is evident an in- 
crease in the time of occurrence of the 
minimum as we descend the latitudes. 
This means that the canals started to in- 
crease from their dead point at success- 
ively later epochs in proportion to their 
distance from the planet's polar cap. 

Now, before seeking to put this sym- 
bolism into comprehensive terms, — to do 
which, I may add parenthetically, is just 
as scientific and far more philosophic 
than to leave the diagram as a cryptic 
monument of a remarkable law, which it 
were scientifically impious to interpret, — 
another fact exhibited by the diagram de- 
serves to be brought out. It appears, if 
attention be directed to it, that in all the 
mean canal cartouches, the gradient is 



less before the minimum than after it. 
The curves fall slowly to their lowest 
points, and rise sharply from them. What 
this betokens will suggest itself on a mo- 
ment's thought. It means that the effects 
of a previous motive force were slowly 
dying out in the first part of the curves, 
and then a fresh impulse started in to 
act. The new impulse was more instant 
and of greater strength in its action, and 
by piecing the two parts of the curve to- 
gether, we conclude that it was in both 
cases an impulse which acted fairly 
quickly and of which the effects took a 
longer time to die out. The mean car- 
touches, then, assure us of two quicken- 
ings and lead us to infer that both were 
of the nature of forces speedily applied 
and then withdrawn. 

QUICKENING STARTS AT POLAR CAP 

To interpret now the successive growth 
of the canals latitudinally down the disk 
is our next concern. We saw that it 
started at the edges of the polar cap. 
Now, such an origin in place at once sug- 
gests an origin of causation as well, and 
furthermore precludes all other. For the 
origin of time was after the melting of 
the cap. First the cap melted, and then 
the canals began to appear. Those near- 
est to the cap did so first, and then the 
others in their order of distance from it, 
progressing in a stately march down over 
the face of the disk. 

LIBERATED WATER CAUSE OF QUICKENING 

Thus we reach the deduction that water 
liberated from the polar cap and thence 
carried down the disk in regular progres- 
sion is the cause of the latitudinal quick- 
ening of the canals. A certain delay in 
the action, together with the amount of 
darkening that takes place, negatives the 
supposition that what we see is the water 
itself. 

On the other hand, vegetation would 
arise only after a lapse of time necessary 
for it to sprout, — a period of, say, two 
weeks, — and such tarrying would account 
for the observed delay. 

VEGETATION EXPLANATORY OF SHIFT 

Vegetation, then, explains the behavior 
of the canals. Not transference of water 
merely, but transformation consequent 
upon transference, furnishes the key to 



THE CANALS AND OASES OF MARS 



139 



the meaning of the cartouches. Not the 
body of water, but the quickened spirit to 
which it gives rise, produces the result 
we see. Set free from its winter storage 
by the unlocking of the bonds of its solid 
state, the water, accumulated as snow, 
begins to flow and starts vegetation, 
which becomes responsible for the in- 
creased visibility of the canals. 

Waked in this manner, the vegetal 
quickening, following the water with 
equal step, but only after due delay, 
passes down the disk, giving rise to those 
resuscitations we mark through the tele- 
scope, and attribute not without reason 
to seasonal change. Change it is, and sea- 
sonal as well, yet it is not what we know 
by the name in one important particular. 
For it is a vernal quickening peculiar to 
Mars which knows no counterpart on 
earth. 

THE EARTH AS WITNESSED FROM SPACE 

To realize this, we must try to see our- 
selves as others might see us.- If we could 
do away with the cloud-envelop which 
must to a great extent shield our earth's 
domestic matters from prying astrono- 
mers upon other orbs, and selecting some 
coign of vantage, as, for example, Venus, 
scan the face of our familiar abode from 
a distance sufficient to merge the local in 
the general aspect, we should at intervals 
of six months notice a most interesting 
and beautiful transformation spread over 
it. It is the vernal flush of the earth's 
awakening from its winter's sleep that we 
should then perceive. Starting from near 
the line of the tropic, we should mark the 
surface turn slowly green. As the tint 
deepened, we should see it also spread, 
creeping gradually up the latitudes until 
it stood within the Arctic Circle and ac- 
tually bordered the perpetual snow. 

MARTIAN CHANGE THE OPPOSITE OF OURS 

We should witness thus much what we 
mark on Mars at intervals twice as long, 
because timed to the greater length of 
the Martian year. But one striking dif- 
ference would be patent to the observer's 
eye : the wave of wakening would travel 
on the earth from equator to pole; on 
Mars it journeys from pole to equator. 
So much alike in their general detail the 
two would thus be parted by the opposite 



sense of the action to a diversity which at 
first would seem to deny any likeness in 
cause. To us the very meaning of sea- 
sonal change hinges on the return of the 
sun due to our change of aspect toward 
it. That the reverse could by any reason 
be ascribed to the same means might ap- 
pear at first impossible. 

Not so when we consider it with care. 
Apart from the all-important matter of 
the seed, two factors are concerned in the 
vegetal process, the absence of either of 
which is equally fatal to the result. The 
raw material, represented by oxygen, ni- 
trogen, a few salts, and water, is one of 
these; the sun's rays constitute the other. 
Unless it be called by the sun, vegetation 
never wakes. But, furthermore, unless it 
have water, it remains deaf to the call. 
Now, on the earth water is, except in 
deserts, omnipresent. The sun, on the 
other hand, is not always there. After 
its departure south in the autumn, vege- 
tation must wait until its return in the 
spring. 

MELTING FIRST NECESSARY ON MARS 

Mars is otherwise circumstanced. De- 
pendent like us upon the periodic pres- 
ence of the sun directly, it is further de- 
pendent upon the same source indirectly 
for its water supply. Not having any 
surface water except such as comes from 
the annual unlocking of the snows of the 
polar cap, vegetation must wait upon this 
unlocking before it can begin to sprout. 
The sun must have already gone north 
and melted the polar snows before vege- 
tation starts, and when it starts, it must 
do so at the north, where the water arises 
and then follow the frugal flood down 
the disk. Thus, if it is to traverse the 
surface at all with vegetation in its train, 
the showing must begin at the pole and 
travel to the equator. 

This, to us, inverse manner of vernal 
progression is precisely what the car- 
touches exhibit. Their curves of visibil- 
ity show that the verdure wave is timed 
not primarily to the simple return of the 
sun, but to the subsequent advent of the 
water, and follows not the former up the 
parallels, but the latter down the disk. 

SPEED OF SPREAD OF VEGETATION 

It is possible to gage the speed of the lat- 
itudinal sprouting of the vegetation, and 



Jktys be/on. "ollltie. 



Days^/tt 




So" /oo' s*o' /-?•?*■ /6o' 780" jco' i-fo° 120' 

Phenology CimVEs -earth, 

-k - Dead Point of Vegetation. 



From a chart made by Professor Lowell 

SPROUTING TIMES OF VEGETATION ON THE EARTH 

The earth is represented upside down in direct comparison 
with Mars as we see it in the telescope. 



therefore of the advent of the water down 
the canals, by the difference in time be- 
tween the successive darkenings of the 
canals of the several zones. Thus it ap- 
pears that it takes the water fifty-two 
days to descend from latitude 72° north 
to the equator, a distance of 2650 miles. 
This means a speed of fifty-one miles a 
day, or 2.1 miles per hour. 

So,, from our study it appears that a 
definite law governs the wax and wane of 
these strange things. Quickened by the 
water let loose on the melting of the po- 
lar cap, they rise rapidly to prominence, 
to stay so for some months, and then 
slowly proceed to die out again. Each in 
turn is thus affected, the march of verifi- 
cation stalking the latitudes with steady 
stride down the surface of the disk. 
Nothing stops its measured progress, or 
proves deterrent to its course. One after 
the other each zone in order is reached 



and traversed, till even the equator is 
crossed, and the advance invades the ter- 
ritory of the other side. Following in its 
steps afar, comes its slower wane. But 
already from the other cap has started an 
impulse of like character that sweeps re- 
versely back again, traveling northward 
as the first went south. Twice each Mar- 
tian year is the main body of the planet 
traversed by these antistrophic waves 
of vegetal awakening, grandly oblivious 
to everything but their own advance. 
Two seasons of growth it therefore has, 
one coming from its arctic, one from 
its antarctic, zone, its equator standing 
curiously beholden semestrally to its 
poles. 

There is something stirring to thought 
in this solidarity of movement, timed in 
cadence to the passage of the year. Si- 
lent as it is, the eye seems half to catch 
the measured tread of its advance as the 



140 



Days be/o 



fo 


00 


Says after 

go 


120 


K 













S Sul-Trop 
S. Tropic 



$. Equatorial H 
MEaitatorial 



XTrop 




cct Stf /off" 120' 140' i6o' 'So' zoo" 220' 24c 260' 280' JO 
PHEN0Z.OGYCURVES-MARS. 

if «. Dead Point of Vegetation. 



320' 340' jda' 



From a chart made by Professor Lowell 

SPROUTING TIMES OF VEGETATION ON MARS 



darkening of the canals sweeps on in pro- 
gressive unison of march. That it means 
life, not death, detracts no jot from the 
moving quality of its effect. For all its 
peaceful purpose, the rhythmic majesty 
of the action imposes a sense of power on 



the mind, seeming in some better way to 
justify the planet's name in its wholly 
Martian character. Called after the god 
of war, the globe is true to its character 
in the order and precision of its stately 
processional change. 




141 





The following lines were originally a passage in the first draft of Miss 
Keller's essay, " Sense and Sensibility," which was published in The 
Century Magazine for February and March. As Miss Keller de- 
veloped the thought, her style became dithyrambic, and made a poetical 
chant which stood out from the prose. Her friends advised her to take 
the passage out and reshape it into a loose stanzaic structure. The 
original passage began with a quotation from Job, the idea being 
that Job lived through affliction and darkness to win new faith, and 
that there is yet another faith which finds joy in the midst of dark- 
ness. Miss Keller's lines are seen to be a blending of her imagination 
with passages from Job and, to a less extent, from modern poets. 
The quotations from Job are the foundation from which springs Miss 
Keller's own chant of faith, the text on which she has constructed 
her poem with a definite autobiographic intention. — The Editor. 



' My wings are folded o'er mine ears, 
My wings are crossed o'er mine eyes, 
Yet through their silver shade appears, 
And through their lulling plumes arise, 
A Shape, a throng of sounds." 

Shelley' 's "Prometheits Unbound." 



I DARE not ask why we are reft of light, 
Banished to our solitary isles amid the unmeasured seas, 
Or how our sight was nurtured to glorious vision, 
To fade and vanish and leave us in the dark alone. 
The secret of God is upon our tabernacle ; 
Into His mystery I dare not pry. Only this I know : 
With Him is strength, with Him is wisdom, 
And His wisdom hath set darkness in our paths. 
Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 
And in a little time we shall return again 
Into the vast, unanswering dark. 



rsr^ 




RWEIB CROUCH . ....*».' x' 



142 



O Dark ! thou awful, sweet, and holy Dark ! 
In thy solemn spaces, beyond the human eye, 
God fashioned His universe; laid the foundations 

of the earth, 
Laid the measure thereof, and stretched the line upon it ; 
Shut up the sea with doors, and made the glory 
Of the clouds a covering for it • 
Commanded His morning, and, behold ! chaos fled 
Before the uplifted face of the sun ; 
Divided a water-course for the overflowing of waters ; 
Sent rain upon the- earth— 
Upon the wilderness 
Wherein there was no man, 
Upon the desert 
Where grew no tender herb, 
And, lo ! there was greenness upon the plains, 
And the hills were clothed with beauty ! 
Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 
And in a little time we shall return again 
Into the vast, unanswering dark. 



O Dark! thou secret and inscrutable Dark! 

In thy silent depths, the springs whereof man hath 

not fathomed, 
God wrought the soul of man. 
O Dark ! compassionate, all-knowing Dark ! 
Tenderly, as shadows to the evening, comes thy 

message to man. 
Softly thou layest thy hand on his tired eyelids, 
And his soul, weary and homesick, returns 
Unto thy soothing embrace. 

Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 
And in a little time we shall return again 
Into the vast, unanswering dark. 

Dark! wise, vital, thought-quickening Dark! 
In thy mystery thou hidest the light 

That is the soul's life. 

Upon thy solitary shores I walk unafraid ; 

1 dread no evil ; though I walk in the valley of the shadow, 
I shall not know the ecstasy of fear 

When gentle Death leads me through life's open door, 

When the bands of night are sundered, 

And the day outpours its light. 

Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark w'e came, 

And in a little time we shall return again 

Into the vast, unanswering dark. 





143 






f 




The timid soul, fear-driven, shuns the dark; 

But upon the cheeks of him who must abide in shadow 

Breathes the wind of rushing angel-wings, 

And round him falls a light from unseen fires. 

Magical beams glow athwart the darkness ; 

Paths of beauty wind through his black world 

To another world of light, 

Where no veil of sense shuts him out from Paradise. 

Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 

And in a little time we shall return again 

Into the vast, unanswering dark. 

O Dark ! thou blessed, quiet Dark ! 

To the lone exile who must dwell with thee 

Thou art benign and friendly; 

From the harsh world thou dost shut him in ; 

To him thou whisperest the secrets of the wondrous night ; 

Upon him thou bestowest regions wide and boundless 

as his spirit ; 
Thou givest a glory to all humble things ; 
With thy hovering pinions thou coverest all unlovely 

objects; 
Under thy brooding wings there is peace. 
Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 
And in a little time we shall return again 
Into the vast, unanswering dark. 



II 

Once in regions void of light I wandered ; 

In blank darkness I stumbled, 

And fear led me by the hand ; 

My feet pressed earthward, 

Afraid of pitfalls. 

By many shapeless terrors of the night affrighted, 

To the wakeful day 

I held out beseeching arms. 

Then came Love, bearing in her hand 

The torch that is the light unto my feet, 

And softly spoke Love: "Hast thou 

Entered into the treasures of darkness? 

Hast thou entered into the treasures of the night? 

Search out thy blindness. It holdeth 

Riches past computing." 

The words of Love set my spirit aflame. 
My eager fingers searched out the mysteries, 



V 



Yv 




144 



s~ 




The splendors, the inmost sacredness, of things, 
And in the vacancies discerned 
With spiritual sense the fullness of life; 
And the gates of Day stood wide. 

I am shaken with gladness ; 
My limbs tremble with joy; 
My heart and the earth 
Tremble with happiness ; 
The ecstasy of life 
Is abroad in the world. 

Knowledge hath uncurtained heaven; 

On the uttermost shores of darkness there is light ; 

Midnight hath sent forth a beam ! 

The blind that stumbled in darkness without light. 

Behold a new day ! 

In the obscurity gleams the star of Thought ; 

Imagination hath a luminous eye, 

And the mind hath a glorious vision. 



in 



"The man is blind. What is life to him? 

A closed book held up against a sightless face. 

Would that he could see 

Yon beauteous star, and know 

For one transcendent moment 

The palpitating joy of sight!" 

All sight is of the soul. Behold it 

In the upward flight 

Of the unfettered spirit ! Hast thou 

Seen thought bloom in the blind child's face? 

Hast thou seen his mind grow, 

Like the running dawn, to grasp 

The vision of the Master? 

It was the miracle of inward sight. 

In the realms of wonderment where I dwell 

I explore life with my hands ; 

I recognize, and am happy; 

My fingers are ever athirst for the earth, 

And drink up its wonders with delight,^ 

Draw out earth's dear delights; 

My feet are charged with the murmur, 

The throb, of all things that grow. 





145 




This is touch, this quivering, 

This flame, this ether, 

This glad rush of blood, 

This daylight in my heart, 

This glow of sympathy in my palms ! 

Thou blind, loving, all-prying touch, 

Thou openest the book of life to me. 



The noiseless little noises of earth 

Come with softest rustle ; 

The shy, sweet feet of life; 

The silky flutter of moth-wings 

Against my restraining palm ; 

The strident beat of insect-wings, 

The silvery trickle of water ; 

Little breezes busy in the summer grass ; 

The music of crisp, whisking, scurrying leaves, 

The swirling, wind-swept, frost-tinted leaves ; 

The crystal splash of summer rain, 

Saturate with the odors of the sod. 



With alert fingers I listen 

To the showers of sound 

That the wind shakes from the forest. 

I bathe in the liquid shade 

Under the pines, where the air hangs cool 

After the shower is done. 



My saucy little friend the squirrel 

Flips my shoulder with his tail, 

Leaps from leafy billow to leafy billow, 

Returns to eat his breakfast from my hand. 

Between us there is glad sympathy; 

He gambols ; my pulses dance ; 

I am exultingly full 

Of the joy of life ! 



Have not my fingers split the sand 

On the sun-flooded beach? 

Hath not my naked body felt the water sing 

When the sea hath enveloped it 

With rippling music? 

Have I not felt 

The lilt of waves beneath my boat, 




ft WEIR. CROOCM 



l-!6 





The flap of sail, 

The strain of mast, 

The wild rush 

Of the lightning-charged winds? 

Have I not smelt the swift, keen flight 

Of winged odors before the tempest? 

Here is joy awake, aglow ; 

Here is the tumult of the heart. 

My hands evoke sight and sound out of feeling, 

Intershifting the senses endlessly, 

Linking motion with sight, odor with sound. 

They give color to the honeyed breeze, 

The measure and passion of a symphony 

To the beat and quiver of unseen wings. 

In the secrets of earth and sun and air 

My fingers are wise ; 

They snatch light out of darkness, 

They thrill to harmonies breathed in silence. 




I walk in the stillness of the night, 
And my soul uttereth her gladness. 
O Night, still, odorous Night, I love thee ! 
O wide, spacious Night, I love thee ! 

steadfast, glorious Night ! 

1 touch thee with my hands ; 
I lean against thy strength; 
I am comforted. 



fathomless, soothing Night ! 
Thou art a balm to my restless spirit, 

1 nestle gratefully in thy bosom, 
Dark, gracious mother ! Like a dove, 
I rest in thy bosom. 

Out of the uncharted, unthinkable dark we came, 
And in a little time we, shall return again 
Into the vast, unansiuering dark. 




147 



MARY GARDEN 



BY HENRY T. FINCK 



ADELINA PATTI was born in Spain, 
Jr\. but her parents were Italians, and 
they brought her to New York at so 
early an age that, to cite her own words, 
she "learned of all languages English 
first." Olive Fremstad was born in Nor- 
way, but came to the United States as a 
child, and grew up here. Mary Garden 
was born in Scotland, but came to Chi- 
cago at the age of six, and remained in 
this country till she was nineteen, when 
she returned to Europe. Perhaps we can- 
not claim these three singers as Americans 
with the same right that we claim Emma 
Eames, who happened to see the light of 
the world first in Shanghai ; yet the fact 
that all of them lived with us during the 
most impressionable, educational period 
of life prevents us from looking on them 
as foreigners. Mary Garden, at any 
rate, looks on herself as being an Ameri- 
can, and we have reason to be proud of 
it, for she is an artist of unusual gifts 
and attractive individuality. 

Like many other girls, she had musical 
ambitions, but not the means to gratify 
them. Kind friends who believed in her 
future supplied the funds, and she went 
to Paris. The French metropolis is not 
usually regarded as the best place for 
music students, — at least it was not so 
regarded until Jean de Reszke began to 
teach, — but in the case of Miss Garden 
the choice was a wise one ; for, as the se- 
quel proved, her gifts were preeminently 
suited to the French style of art. She 
had taken some music-lessons before leav- 
ing her American home, and she took 
some in Paris ; but they were so few in 
number that she may be regarded as vir- 
tually self-taught. 

The stage became her conservatory ; on 
it she learned her art. Her debut was 
unexpected, and it brought her instanta- 
neous fame. The singer who had the 

148 



role of Louise in Charpentier's opera of 
that name having become indisposed dur- 
ing the second act, Miss Garden was 
called upon to take her place in the third 
and fourth acts. She was not an under- 
study, but she was present in the audi- 
ence and the manager happened to know 
that she had learned the part. The fol- 
lowing week she became one of the stars 
of the Opera Comique, and has been 
identified with its successes and failures 
ever since. The failures have been few ; 
in fact, of the nine operas in which she 
has so far appeared at that house only 
one, "La Fille de Tabarin," by Pierne, 
failed to keep the stage. The other eight 
were "Louise," "Pelleas et Melisande," 
"La Reine Fiamette," "La Traviata," 
"Cherubin," "Helene," "Aphrodite," 
"Thai's." In all of her operas except 
"Louise" she "created" the role of the 
heroine. At Brussels she has sung other 
roles, including Marguerite in "Faust" 
— Gounod's "Faust," one must add in 
these days of Boito and Berlioz revivals ; 
and in the same city she is to sing Sa- 
lome in the much-maligned opera of 
Richard Strauss ; an event to which she 
looks forward eagerly. 

In engaging Miss Garden for his Man- 
hattan Opera House, Mr. Oscar Ham- 
merstein ran a considerable risk. Our 
women still take fashion hints from Paris, 
but Parisian taste in music has less in 
common with New York taste. Of the 
operas in Mary Garden's repertory, only 
two were known in New York before she 
appeared here; wherefore the fact that 
she is a popular favorite in the French 
metropolis — so great a favorite, indeed, 
that after her departure the manager of 
the Opera Comique was in despair as to 
where he might find a successor to her in 
some of the operas most in demand — did 
not necessarily imply that she would 



MARY GARDEN 



149 



equally interest New Yorkers. Her chief 
successes, moreover, had been won in 
such ultra- Parisian and ultra-modern 
operas as Massenet's " Thai's," Charpen- 
tier's "Louise," and, above all, Debussy's 
"Pelleas et Melisande." Would these 
please American opera-goers? Other 
managers had doubted this, but Mr. 
Hammerstein believed, or at least hoped, 
they would; and being as fearless as 
Siegfried , he went ahead with his experi- 
ment — an experiment the more to be com- 
mended because the Metropolitan Opera 
House had strangely neglected French 
opera ever since Mr. Conried assumed the 
directorship. 

"Thais" was the first to be tried. On 
November 25 the Manhattan Opera 
House held a throng of eagerly expec- 
tant spectators. They saw Mary Garden 
in the role of a famous Alexandrian stage 
beauty and priestess of Venus, in an age 
when queenly homage was rendered to 
such courtezans. At a feast in the house 
of one of her admirers, Nicias, her atten- 
tion is arrested by the sight of a stranger 
of austere aspect whose fierce eyes are 
fixed on her with an expression new to 
her. It is Athanael, a monk, who has left 
the desert for the express purpose of sav- 
ing her soul. She parries his words at 
first with banter and an attempt to in- 
toxicate his senses by her charms. She 
continues her efforts when "he visits her, 
being piqued by the presence of the first 
man who resists her fascinations, even as 
he is piqued by the thought of how glori- 
ous it would be to vanquish her whom no 
other woman equaled in beauty or profli- 
gacy. The one bitter drop in her cup of 
heathen bliss is the fear of death, and it 
is by revealing to her the evangel of the 
life everlasting that he effects a sudden 
change in her attitude and feelings — a 
change which, after a night's meditation, 
prayer, and weeping, becomes so vital 
that she breaks away from her worshipers 
and goes with him to the desert, to be- 
come one of the white-robed nuns of the 
monastery in the oasis. But in making a 
saint, Athanael has himself become a sin- 
ner ; the arrow of sensual love has en- 
tered his heart, and at the couch of Thais, 
who is dying of remorse and fasting, he 
implores her to live and love. 

Like Sibyl Sanderson, for whom this 
role was written, Mary Garden is favored 



with the full yet slender form of a 
Phryne, the sinuous charms of which are 
enhanced by a fine feeling for plasticity 
and a rare art of picturesque posing. 
Every step and gesture is part of a har- 
monious whole subtly contrived to secure 
verisimilitude. At the beginning of the 
second act, the mingled weariness of her 
triumphs and dread of losing her beauty 
form a fine contrast to the ironic playful- 
ness and wanton challenge in the preced- 
ing scenes. The struggle in her soul with 
all the changing emotions is charmingly 
mirrored in her features ; the offer of a 
kiss, the appeal to Venus, the sudden pal- 
lor, fear, weeping, the nervous laugh at 
the last moment of revolt, the despair 
when the monk smashes the image of 
Eros, — the last link with her past life, — 
all these are portrayed with an art that 
introduced Miss Garden as a consum- 
mate, unique actress, an individuality to 
be reckoned with. With all its audacity, 
her enactment of the role of this priestess 
of Venus was free from vulgarity; it was 
sensual, yet not offensive. As a singer 
she revealed a voice the lower and middle 
registers of which were always agreeable 
while some of the high tones had a harsh 
quality. The most admirable thing about 
her singing was its genuine dramatic 
quality, its passionate intensity of utter- 
ance, its emotional realism. 

The proud priestess of Venus in 
"Thais" becomes a plain Parisian work- 
ing girl in "Louise," the second of the 
operas in which Miss Garden appeared 
before an American audience. Louise is 
employed in a dressmaker's establishment, 
and she loves Julien, a young poet, whose 
suit for her hand does not meet the ap- 
proval of her parents. The mother up- 
braids her for bestowing her heart on this 
"starveling," this "tavern supporter, 
whose existence is the scandal of the 
quarter." In the second act we see, Louise 
among the working girls in the busy shop. 
She hears a serenade below, which grad- 
ually hypnotizes her ; she pleads illness, 
and pretends she is going home : but the 
skeptical girls at the window, to their 
amusement, see her going off with the 
serenader. Julien takes her to a little 
house he has found for their honeymoon, 
on the Butte Montmartre, overlooking 
Paris. Here their friends assemble one 
evening with Japanese lanterns ; there is 



LXXVI-15 



150 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



dancing, and Louise is crowned Muse of 
Montmartre. In the midst of the festiv- 
ities her mother arrives and implores her 
to return to her father ; he is very ill, and 
she alone can cure him. Louise obeys, 
after the mother has promised Julien she 
will be allowed to return to him. This 
promise is not kept. Louise finds her old 
home more and more irksome, intolerable. 
The call of Paris comes to her ears ; she 
raves about her lover, her life of bliss in 
his cottage, till her father's patience is 
exhausted. He opens the door, bids her 
begone, and throws a chair after her; 
then he sinks down in heart-breaking re- 
morse : but it is too late to bring her 
back ; she is lost in Paris, a needle in a 
haystack. 

Mary Garden has lived in Paris long 
enough to understand thoroughly the kind 
of girl Charpentier depicts in the libretto 
he wrote for his opera. She represents 
her as heartless, vain, fond of finery, im- 
pulsive, yet not really degraded. As she 
has herself remarked, Louise is not a Ten- 
derloin type. "She loves life, its froth 
and fun, which does not necessarily mean 
anything vicious. She is a cheery little 
skater on the edge of an abyss, like the 
Mimis in general, who are so well under- 
stood on the boulevards and in Montmar- 
tre, who are loved for that very quality 
of unthinking gaiety, and who often end 
their butterfly career by marrying." In 
the last scene, Miss Garden rises to a 
splendid height of dramatic impersona- 
tion. The call of Paris — her Paris, 
" splendeur de vies desirs/' her "encore un 
jour d'amour," and the whole delirious 
scene where her memories overpower her 
till her mother cries "She 's going mad !" 
— all this was acted with entrancing art, 
and her impassioned singing intensified 
the impression. 

It is in Debussy's " Pelleas et Melisande," 
however, that Mary Garden has won her 
greatest triumph. She confesses that she 
is a little tired of the role of Louise after 
singing it over 220 times. Melisande she 
loves more and more after over eighty im- 
personations, and she is convinced it will 
never weary her. Nor is it likely ever to 
pall on the admirers of Debussy's opera, 
or rather, music-drama; for an opera it 
is not, having no arias, duos, choruses, or 
processions. The composer himself has 
repeatedly testified to his admiration for 



her art. In 1903 he dedicated a volume 
of his songs to "Miss Mary Garden, the 
unforgettable Melisande." Into the copy 
of the score of his opera which he gave 
to her he wrote: "In the future others 
may sing Melisande, but you alone will 
remain the woman and the artist I had 
hardly dared hope for." And in "Mu- 
sica Noel," dated January 8, 1908, he has 
an article in which he refers to the hours 
spent in rehearsing "Pelleas et Meli- 
sande" as among the pleasantest in his 
life. "I have known," he adds, "cases 
of great devotion and great artists. 
Among the latter there was an artist cu- 
riously personal. I had hardly anything 
to suggest to her; by herself she gradu- 
ally painted the character of Melisande ; 
I watched her with a singular confidence 
mingled with curiosity." 

Maeterlinck's play on which Debussy's 
opera is based must be read to be appre- 
ciated. To give a summary of it would 
be to miss its very essence — its intangible, 
dreamlike, vague, elusive atmosphere; 
Melisande is a princess who has fled from 
some mysterious palace. Prince Golaud 
finds her in the forest, takes her home, 
and marries her; he never finds out who 
she is or whence she came. He is gray- 
bearded, and she is young; young also is 
the prince's half-brother, Pelleas. The 
two fall in love. The jealous Golaud 
surprises them at what was to have been 
their last meeting, and slays Pelleas. Mel- 
isande dies soon after, leaving a daughter 
to take her place. "I killed without rea- 
son," Golaud exclaims; "they kissed like 
children." 

The mystic, shadowy remoteness and 
unreality of the Melisande which Miss 
Garden presents, recalls the paintings of 
Rossetti, making a striking contrast to 
her Thais, which is so intensely human. 
Her voice — even in the declaration of 
love — and her motions are wonderfully 
consistent, giving one the impression of 
some vague yet definite dream-person. 
She is as lithe and sinuous as a snake ; 
she keeps a singular virginal atmosphere 
about her, despite the beautiful outlining 
of her figure, which is almost as frank as 
in " Thais." She wears at first a quaint and 
appropriate costume, close-fitting, white 
with overwork of pink. Is it a bit of 
symbolism that when her husband abuses 
her because her eyes feign, as he thinks, 



A TROPICAL TEMPEST 



151 



such "a great innocence," and when she 
meets Pelleas, at last acknowledging her 
love, she no longer displays her glorious 
body, but veils it with heavy lines and 
wraps it in dull colors, instead of dis- 
playing its unspoiled beauty and wearing 
the early white and rose of the young and 
possibly happy wife? 

Thais, too, wore rose-color and blonde 
hair, but what a tremendous chasm exists 
between the victorious courtezan, with her 
clinging flesh-colored draperies and auda- 
cious golden head and the girlish Meli- 
sande, with her glorious hair meekly 
parted in the middle, pouring over her 
like a flood of sunlight ! She seems un- 
aware of the glory of this hair, to have 
only a dim idea of its effect on Pelleas, 
even in the window scene when it falls 
over his head and neck and he caresses it 
as if it were living ; but later she seems 
to realize this effect, and when she gives 
up the rose and white gown, she confines 
the golden flood in long braids which 
hang in melancholy lines along her white 
cheeks and over the sad-hued draperies. 

How can this woman with her exuber- 
ant vitality change herself so completely, 



become a monochrome in look, in voice — 
which but once rises to real song — in ges- 
ture, as passionless, in spite of her for- 
bidden love, as an angel of Fra Angelico ? 
There is a forlorn groping for the tangi- 
ble, a weird, uncomprehending sadness 
which envelops her like a mantle, but 
withal she strongly conveys the impres- 
sion of a terrified shrinking from the ac- 
tual, a horror of being touched which 
may spring from fear — the fear so well 
shown in the very first scene, but which 
seems still more to express the mysterious 
contradictions of a character incompre- 
hensible to herself as well as to those 
about her. 

The three new characters presented by 
Miss Garden have given the opera season 
of 1907-08 a unique distinction. Next 
year she promises to add three more roles, 
which doubtless will give further oppor- 
tunity of admiring the beauty of her 
movements, which reminds one of Emer- 
son's lines : 

Thou canst not wave thy staff in air 
Or dip thy paddle in the lake, 

But it carves a bow of beauty there, 
And ripples, in rhyme, the oar forsake. 




A TROPICAL TEMPEST 



A TALE OF YUCATAN 



BY EDWARD H. THOMPSON 



THERE is a kind of tropic storm that 
often begins on the ocean. The sky 
is clear, too clear. Things far off seem 
near. The sea is so smooth that the spring 
of the flying-fish makes a series of sur- 
face ripples ; and so oily, that the push of 
the steamer barely raises foam at the bow. 
A tiny cloud appears, the only sky 
stain from horizon to horizon. It drifts 
up like a feather puff borne on a zephyr, 
so light and white and downy is it. Be- 
hind it are others, light and white, but 
not so downy, and behind these are tur- 
gent cloud-masses, lead-colored and 
heavy. 



Quickly the dark clouds climb up into 
the highest heavens, they push and tear 
asunder the fleecy clouds, and bear them 
down under their greater weight. 

The sun becomes overcast ; its face 
turns the color ef dull brass, its rays a 
sickly yellow. 

Then the dark clouds turn and rend 
one another. 

Black and sullen, they twist and turn 
and jam one another, as giants at battle, 
but silently; and all the world is silent 
too. 

Suddenly they open great brazen 
mouths and with sulphurous fires come 



152 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



forth the noises of hell— the sounds of 
wailing souls fighting demon hordes; a 
rattling as of countless chains on shaking 
fortress walls ; a clanging as of many 
bells on falling towers ; a rushing and 
crashing as of a thousand chariots over 
the rock-paved streets of a smoking 
city. 

The turmoil grows until the heavens 
themselves stand aghast, open the gates 
of their torrents, and quench the fires of 
the tempest, while all beneath begin to 
breathe once more. 

But this is not the tropic storm I wish 
to describe just now. The one I mean 
occurs on land, generally near the outer 
edge of a city or town. Here it is : 

Old X'Leut sat on a rock in front of 
her palm-thatched "na," combing her 
long but scanty locks with a big-toothed 
wooden comb. Things had gone wrong 
with her that morning, and as a climax 
for it all, an owl had perched on her roof 
just before daylight and awakened her by 
its unholy screeching. Everybody that 
knows anything of such things knows 
that the perching of an owl on the house- 
top forebodes some great disaster to its 
inmate. 

X'Pet Iuit, in the little tumbledown 
hut opposite, was in a bad humor that 
morning, too. It had rained heavily the 
night before, and the rain had come 
through the big holes in the rotten thatch 
until the inside of the hut was as wet and 
nasty as the outside. Worse, for outside 
all. things were washed bright and clean 
by the heavy rain. The very weeds were 
green and fragrant, the old tin cans 
showed gleaming spots of tin through 
their rust, and even the big sea-turtle 
shell, where the solitary duck took his 
infrequent bath, lay clean and gleaming 
white, like the virgin shield of some new- 
made knight. 

In the house, in the tumbledown hut 
that to X'Pet and drunken, light-hearted 
Bruno was home, the rain had worked a 
different way. 

The great drops had pounded through 
the rotten palm-leaves and carried the 
leaf bits down with them, where they lay 
in little heaps on the floor beneath. 

Worse still, the drops had trickled 
along the smoke-stained rafters, and then 
had dropped on to a snowy pile of freshly 
washed clothes that X'Pet had heaped to 



gether in a basket to carry to their own- 
ers early in the morning. Now the great 
black stains meant hours of hard work 
before she could tie in her handkerchief 
the silver she so much needed for her 
clothes. 

Thus X'Pet felt mean and bitter as she 
opened her door, to sweep out the wet 
rubbish into the street. She saw old 
X'Leut sitting in moody silence on the 
rock, slowly passing the comb through 
her snaky locks ; but the old woman, never 
looking up, only went on combing. 

X'Pet looked on in malicious silence 
for a moment, and then leaning on her 
long-handled broom, shouted as if to some 
one inside the hut, — her own daughter 
X'Mat,— and said: "Ha! ha! X'Mat, you 
make me laugh ! Six hairs on one side, 
and twelve on the other, and yet you sit 
where the whole world can see you comb- 
ing the hairs, as if you were a girl of 
twelve. Are you crazy, X'Mat?" 

Well did old X'Leut know that X'Mat 
was not at home, and had not been for 
many a day, and well did she know that 
the words of X'Pet were meant for her 
and for her alone. The trick was an old 
and familiar one to her, for she was old, 
and had used it herself often. 

She said nothing, her lips tightened 
until her mouth was a . narrow slit, and 
her eyes closed until they were a pair of 
narrow slits ; but she went on slowly 
combing her locks until she had finished. 
Then she slowly looped it up after the 
manner of her people for unnumbered 
centuries, tucked in the straggling ends, 
and stood up. 

X'Pet was, comparatively speaking, a 
new-comer to this particular barrio, and 
it is hardly to be believed that she would 
have tackled the old woman so freely if 
she had known what was coming, or, to 
put it in the figurative expression of the 
native, if she had known "how much 
wood it was going to take to cook the 
sweetmeat." 

Old X'Leut had been in her day a fa- 
mous fish-woman at the port. 

Fish-women since the days of the im- 
mortal Charlemagne have been noted as 
uncomfortable creatures to stir up with a 
verbal pole. 

But a port fish-woman ! Ah ! What 
is the use of attempting to describe the 
undescribable ! 



A TROPICAL TEMPEST 



153 



A gleam of satisfaction .shot athwart 
the old woman's features, followed by a 
disappointed one as X'Pet entered her 
house, and shutting the door with a bang, 
securely barred it. 

Old X'Leut shook her dress to free it 
of stray hairs, stretched her skinny arms 
as if to embrace the universe, and then 
the slit of a mouth became straightway- a 
cavern, revealing long and yellow fangs. 
The eyes opened wide, and from them 
shot fire ; and from the mouth — 

At first she indulged only in generali- 
ties, and these, too, in a low, monotonous 
voice, almost without inflection, like the 
purring of a cat, that simply yawns and 
stretches out her claws just a tiny bit, to 
see if they are in good shape. 

Behind the closed door, in the security 
of her own house, as she thought, poor, 
deluded X'Pet, with her head against the 
door, listened calmly. 

The monotonous voice, hardly raised 
above a conversational tone, soothed her, 
and she was almost smiling, when a word 
flitted by that cut the smile short. 

Old X'Leut had left the generalities, 
and raising her voice to a higher pitch, 
began on the personalities. 

She scanned the annals of X' Pet's im- 
mediate ancestry, and discovered parallel 
traits between it and canines of a certain 
sex, the feline tribe, and the common 
pole-cat. And now her voice rose still 
higher, — not loud, because of the dozing 
policeman on the corner of the near-by 
crossing, — but shrill and insistent. She 
figuratively snatched up these relatives 
one and collectively, and held them up to 
the view of the public ; she tore them 
ferociously apart to see what they were 
made of, and what made them go. Then 
suddenly throwing their mangled remains 
to one side, she addressed herself to 
prophecy. 

She told what would be the beginning 
and the end of X' Pet's nearest relatives 
and remotest descendants. 

Ah, old X'Leut, when in the full tide 
of her eloquence, was unique, she was 
weird, she — but what is the use? 



X'Pet grew restive and uneasy, and 
threw anxious looks around. The door, 
securely barred, as it was, was not so safe 
as it looked. 

The ugly words slipped through the 
cracks and crevices like quicksilver, ^and 
then they burned her badly. She stopped 
the keyhole with a rag, but by that time 
it was too late; the tide was on, with the 
resistless force of all tides. 

The flood of words rushed forth over- 
whelmingly. They beat through the 
wooden fabric of the door, they filtered 
through the rotten palm thatch. 

They crept up under the careless eaves, 
and dropped red hot and scorching upon 
the shrinking X'Pet, as she cowered be- 
neath them. 

Finally X'Pet could stand it no longer, 
and pallid and trembling, almost hys- 
terical, she fled through the back door, 
down the yard, and into the little thatched 
hut where the hens roosted on the rotting 
poles. There, sheltered by the great mus- 
tard plants, she crouched tired and spent 
on a fallen door of withes. 

The motherly duckings of the maternal 
hens, the sleepy scoldings of the brood- 
ing one, and the solicitous bustlings of 
the roosters soothed her, and she actually 
fell asleep and slept soundly until the 
bickerings of two quarrelsome hens awoke 
her with an anxious start. 

She caught the feathered termigants 
and cuffed them soundly; then she went 
slowly and shakily toward the house. 

A knock at the door made her start 
and tremble, but another and a louder 
one made her open it. 

There stood old X'Leut, with jolly 
eyes and kindly mouth, holding in her 
hands a steaming bowl of atole gruel. 

"Are you still bitter against' me?" she 
asked in the vernacular. "If not, let 's 
be friends again. Here is a gourd of hot 
atole ; it 's good for a headache. I 
know." 

She nodded her old head understand- 
ing^. Knew? Of course she knew. 

And so the tropic tempest passed, and 
all was clear and serene once more. 



TOPICS OF THE TIME 



CHARLES F. CHICHESTER 

FOR a third of a century, Charles F. 
Chichester, who died on the 20th of 
February last, served faithfully the pub- 
lic and the cause of literature as an ac- 
tive force in The Century Co., publishers 
of The Century Magazine, "St. Nich- 
olas," "The Century Dictionary," and 
many other publications. He had been 
since 1881 a trustee and the treasurer of 
the company. 

He was born in Troy, New York, De- 
cember 31, 1848, and was educated at the 
Brooklyn Polytechnic, and through the 
wide reading of books. He also studied 
for some time at the Cooper Union Art 
School. His earlier business life was in 
Chicago, but later he was connected with 
the "Christian Union," New York. At 
the time of his death he was a director in 
the Bank of the Metropolis and a trustee 
of the Union Square Savings Bank. 

He was one of the original and most 
active members of the Grolier Club of 
New York, serving on its publication 
and house committees, and being at the 
time of his death a member of its coun- 
cil. He was also a member of the 
Caxton Club of Chicago, the Union 
League Club, the Aldine Association, 
The Players of New York, the National 
Club of London, and various civic and 
charitable associations. 

In typography and the esthetics of book- 
making, as well as in its practical details, 
Mr. Chichester's taste was remarkable, 
and, better than this, his standards of 
business ethics and his aims as a publisher 
were high. In a business which is inevi- 
tably associated with artistic and moral 
influences, he recognized that while the 
making of money was necessary it should 
by no means be the sole consideration. 
His interest in the details of the publish- 
ing of periodicals and books did not abate 

154 



with his later months of impaired vigor ; 
for to the last he cheerfully, loyally, 
and steadfastly poured his strength into 
the service of the great publishing con- 
cern of which he was an important mem- 
ber. 

His life work was with The Century 
Co., and its enterprises called forth his 
deepest sympathies and fullest energies. 
While he will be greatly missed in the 
circle of his friends and fellow-workers, 
yet his labors will long continue to tell, 
in many ways, upon the methods and 
standards of the Company, and, it is not 
too much to say, constitute a public ser- 
vice of no mean degree. 

Since Mr. Chichester's death many let- 
ters have been received from American 
and European correspondents, showing 
that even those who came casually into 
relation with him were impressed by 
those genial and attractive traits which 
endeared him to his more intimate asso- 
ciates. 

"THE AGE OF MENTAL VIRILITY" 

NOT only the middle-aged and the old 
should be interested in Dr. Dorland's 
studies relating to "The Age of Mental 
Virility" (in the April and May numbers 
of The Century), but no less all those 
who are younger. For no young person 
wishes to believe that if he succeeds in 
passing beyond the age of forty, his suc- 
cess in keeping alive is, so to speak, to 
be counted as failure — in that view of 
life which regards it as unlikely that any 
very valuable achievement may be ex- 
pected in the entire period from forty to 
the end. 

Dr. Dorland's two papers make abso- 
lute nonsense of the contention that the 
age of forty .marks a limit of mental en- 
ergy. As for the unfortunate and gloom- 
creating Bible phrase concerning a sev- 



TOPICS OF THE TIME 



155 



enty-years' limit, that also is shown to be 
unnecessarily restrictive. In fact, Dr. 
Dorland's collection of records puts to 
flight all the theories of pessimism and, 
considered along with the advance in hy- 
gienic and strength-preserving methods 
of our days, should start a wave of cheer- 
fulness on the subject of longevity and 
mental virility that will effectually coun- 
teract ill-founded pronouncements of a 
discouraging nature. 

As a matter of fact, it is perfectly un- 
derstood by those who are observant of 
the phenomena of life that age is a mat- 
ter not of figures as to years, but of en- 
durance as to the individual. No two 
men nominally of forty, for instance, are 
actually of the same age. 

There are few communities that fail to. 
afford examples of important accomplish- 
ment by men full of years. The Phila- 
delphia "Ledger" recently contained an 
editorial on "Grand Old Men" from 
which we quote : 

The celebration of George Meredith's eigh- 
tieth birthday in England this week, while he 
still busily pursues his literary career, and the 
knowledge that Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, in the 
foremost ranks of our American authors, is 
seventy-eight years old to-day, as he plans new 
novels full of the spirit of romance and human- 
ity, should give pause to those who may believe 
that men at forty have done their best work 
and at sixty go to the lumber room. ... 

Age may be thought to dim the eye for see- 
ing the joys and appreciating the feelings of 
youth. It has never dimmed Dr. Mitchell's. 
He describes the likes and the loves, the hopes, 
dreams and aspirations of young men and 
young women with as much enthusiasm and 
a deal more art than the dabsters of a later 
literary generation who write the people's 
fiction. These words are not meant to make 
literary work in the upper decades of life seem 
remarkable. The object is simply to state a 
fact in an age which we are sometimes dis- 
posed to surrender to young men. 

Nor does Dr. Mitchell stand alone in this 
country. It is not necessary to go out of 
the city to find two others who are shoulder to 
shoulder with him. They are to criticism 
and history what he is to the novel, which is 
to say preeminent. Horace Howard Furness 
is only three years younger, while Henry C. 
Lea is five years older. These three grand 
old men of literary Philadelphia were born — 
Lea on September 19, 1825; Mitchell, Febru- 
ary 15, 1830; and Furness, November 2, 1833. 

Lea and Furness work on in their literary 
fields as industriously as Dr. Mitchell in his, 



and they will continue to do so, hopefully 
and confidently, to the end. May all three 
enjoy many returning birthdays, with their 
books and papers around them! There is 
cheer for the race of man in three such 
lives. 

For New York it would be easy to pre- 
pare a list of men and women who in the 
sixties, seventies, and eighties, and even 
beyond, are doing some of the most use- 
ful and important work of their lives. 
Human existence has, in any case, so 
large a proportion of failure, disappoint- 
ment, and pain, that it is hardly worth 
while to spread abroad depressing theo- 
ries as to life; and Dr. Dorland deserves 
the thanks of the community for doing 
exactly the opposite, and that on inde- 
structible data. 



THE WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE ON 
OUR NATIONAL RESOURCES 

THE NEED OF A RADICAL POLICY IN FORESTRY 

THE Conference of Governors and 
other influential and prominent men 
which by invitation of President Roose- 
velt is to meet at the White House on 
May 15 to consider what can be done 
toward the conservation of the natural 
resources of the country, will have at once 
a great opportunity and a great responsi- 
bility. The letters to us from seventeen 
of the Governors, printed in the February 
Century, show a commendable realiza- 
tion of the fact that in the matter of for- 
est destruction, at least, a crisis is upon 
us, and on every hand and in every part 
of the country evidence is given that the 
public is thoroughly aroused to the im- 
portance of the subject. Whatever the 
President may or may not have done, he 
has kept the country thinking, and in this 
case it is thinking straight. With the 
complete information on all phases of the 
question which will be furnished to the 
conference by the Forestry Bureau — 
which, to judge from its publications and 
accomplishments, is one of the best-man- 
aged branches of the governmental ser- 
vice — there is every chance that that dis- 
tinguished body will have full opportu- 
nity for a dispassionate study of the per- 
ils of ax and fire. After wise counsel 
should come vigorous action. 

The situation calls for radical con- 
servatism. If the work of saving the for- 



156 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



ests — or what is left of them by the igno- 
rance and rapacity of corporate and pri- 
vate ownership — is to be set on foot, once 
for all, without false starts, it must be 
undertaken not only in a patriotic spirit 
but with imagination. It is easy to learn 
what has been wasted in the century past 
— public resources probably sufficient to 
have made it unnecessary for any Amer- 
ican citizen to have paid a cent of tax. 
What is needed, is to project the mind 
fifty years ahead, to consider the problem 
in the light of the enormous foreign pop- 
ulation that is coming to us and learning 
from us ghastly lessons of laissez-faire — 
a policy which in matters of forestry their 
own governments have learned through 
disastrous experience to abandon. 

There are unmistakable signs of a re- 
action in the excessive individualism, the 
go-as-you-please, every-man-f or-himself , I- 
may-do-what-I-wish-with-my-own views of 
life. A new spirit is upon us, with a new 
definition of eminent domain, enlarging 
its scope to the control of private inter- 
ests that exist to the injury of the public. 
This is not socialism in the violent sense 
of that word : rightly conceived, it is a 
new sense of brotherhood. Its principle 
is, "You ought not to get your happiness 
at the expense of your fellow-men." It 
does not point to confiscation : on the con- 
trary it promises to supply a working sub- 
stitute for anarchy. It may easily be mis- 
applied or carried too far. But it is not 
more dangerous than certain false meth- 
ods of corporate ownership and the 
equally tyrannical excesses of trade union- 
ism, which together have created so 
much of the new social unrest. The 
trend of progress points to a more excel- 
lent way. 

To apply this to a single aspect of the 
forestry question : Why should owners of 
enormous tracts of mountain forests be 
permitted to denude them, to the mani- 
fest injury of the agriculture, navigation, 
and commerce of the valleys and streams 
which they supply? We are accustomed 
to think of nature as a dominating force, 



whereas its modification by human action 
is the most constant of phenomena. The 
life of man has been described as substan- 
tially a warfare against the animals, 
against his fellows, and against the face 
of nature. It is the business of govern- 
ment not to promote, but to restrict this 
warfare, as it has done in the reservation 
of Western forests — one of the most im- 
portant notes of progress the country has 
struck since the Civil War. It is the 
office of the wise not only to protect the 
weak against the strong, but to protect 
the foolish from themselves. 

There are signs that in this matter 
other countries are awake to their peril 
and responsibilities. British Columbia is 
taking Time by the forelock and, by a 
sweeping act, reserving for governmental 
control every acre of forest land not al- 
ready leased. Colombia in South Amer- 
ica has also passed new forest laws in 
keeping with intelligent modern public 
opinion. The conference cannot directly 
legislate, but its recommendations and in- 
fluence ought to shape a policy of cooper- 
ation between the nation and the States 
along uniform lines. The Appalachian 
Bill is a step in the right direction and 
ought to be enacted, but we must go far- 
ther, considering the forests of the coun- 
try, with all due respect to private own- 
ership, a heritage of posterity. 

An important and commendable step 
has just been taken by the State of New 
York in the purchase of Mt. Marcy and 
other peaks of the Adirondacks at the 
very headwaters of the Hudson. This 
policy should at once be continued until 
the Reservation reaches its maximum ex- 
tent. Then the whole tract should be 
administered under a system which, while 
guaranteeing private rights, will give the 
State supervision of the cutting of trees. 
The public health, the interests of agri- 
culture, commerce, and navigation in New 
York and Pennsylvania, call imperatively 
for a large-minded and immediate con- 
sideration of the whole subject. "Be wise 
in time: 't is madness to defer." 





OPEN LETTERS 




Charles R. Knight 

(THE CENTURY'S AMERICAN ARTISTS SERIES) 

Mr. Charles R. Knight, whose painting 
of Mr. J. P. Morgan's champion collies, 
" Wishaw Clinker" and " Blue Prince," is 
reproduced in this number of The Century 
(page 126), was born in Brooklyn in 1874. 
His art education was received at the Metro- 
politan Art School and the Art Students 
League of New York. At an early age he 
developed great fondness for animals and 
animal-drawing, although his first studies 
were in decorative designing, and for three 
years he worked for one of the largest stained- 
glass firms of this city, making sketches in 
water-color for windows. At the League, Mr. 
Knight studied figure-drawing under George 
De Forest Brush, F. V. Du Mond, and Wil- 
lard L. Metcalf. His studies of animal life 
were continued, however, being carried on in 
the zoological gardens of this country and 
Europe. 

Mr. Knight's inclination is to paint wild 
animals, the domestic forms 'not having the 
same interest for him, and his attention has 
been especially devoted to the larger cat 
animals, such as the lion, tiger, and jaguar. 
It is probably in this line that his delineation 
of animal character has been most successful. 

In 1896 he became associated with the 
American Museum of Natural History, by 
which he was commissioned to make a series 
of restorations, both in models and paintings, 
of fossil animals ; many of these have been re- 
produced in The Century. His work in this 
unique field has resulted in an extensive and 
elaborate series made from the mounted skele- 
tons in the various museums of this country and 
Europe. Mr. Knight has endeavored to give 
realistic impressions of the animals and the 
landscape in which they lived, and his success 
in that line has been due to the fact that he 
has reproduced them in what was probably a 
realistic position and in a landscape in which 
it was possible for them to live at any age of 
the world. In this work he has found it 
of great assistance to make models of the 
creatures first, afterward placing them in 
sunlight in order to observe the actual shape 
of the shadow cast upon the ground, thus 
securing in the finished picture a realism that 
would otherwise have been impossible to ac- 
complish. 

It is to the modeling and painting of 

LXXVI— 16 



modern animals, however, that Mr. Knight 
has of late years given most of his attention. 
Several years ago there were reproductions 
in The Century of submarine studies made 
by him in Bermuda, and from time to time 
his paintings of wild animals have appeared 
in its pages. 

The picture here reproduced was painted a 
few years ago at Mr. Morgan's summer 
home at Highland Falls, New York. The 
dogs portrayed were remarkably fine speci- 
mens of the breed, one having been purchased 
in England for a very large sum, the other 
bred in Mr. Morgan's own kennels at his home 
on the Hudson. 

"A Reception at the Academic Francaise" 

As many portraits have been introduced by 
M. Andre Castaigne into his picture on 
page 7, its interest will be enhanced by the 
identification of them. The three members 
seated in the tribune, under the bust of the 
Due d'Aumale, are Frederic Masson (on the 
left), Le Vicomte Melchior de Vogue, and 
Gaston Boissier ( Perpetual Secretary of the 
Academy); the member on their left ad- 
dressing the assemblage is Maurice Barres ; 
seated at his left is Emile Gebhart, and on 
his left Edmond Rostand, and above Geb- 
hart, Henry Houssaye ; seated under the trib- 
une to the right of Barres, come Ernest 
Lavisse, the Marquis Costa de Beauregard, 
Comte Albert de Mun, and Emiie Faguet ; in 
the center of the second row under the trib- 
une (his *hat raised to his cheek) is Paul 
Hervieu ; the second person to his right is 
Jules Claretie, then Jules Lemaitre ; above 
Claretie is Paul Bourget, and above the latter, 
to the right, Paul Deschanel, with Ludovic 
Halevy, Etienne Lamy, and Rene Bazin in the 
same group ; at the left of the figure in the cen- 
ter of the picture with his hand to his fore- 
head is Brunetiere ( deceased ), then Alexandre 
Ribot, then Francois Coppee (with face 
averted), then the Comte d'Haussonville in 
the foreground ; in the row back of these 
gentlemen, beginning at the left, are M. 
Berthelot (deceased), and Alfred Mezieres 
( with his hand to his chin). In the center 
of the picture among the guests, with her 
arm on the circular table, is Mile. Cecile 
Sorel of the Comedie Francaise and to the 
right of her, Mme. Severine and the Com- 
tesse Mathieu de Noailles, president of the 
so-called "Academy of Women." 

157 




IN LIGHTER VEIN 



v?v@ 



The Mythological Zoo 

BY OLIVER HERFORD 
With pictures by the Author 




Drawn by Oliver Herford 

I. Pegasus 

The ancients made no end of fuss Alas for fame ! The other day 

About a horse named Pegasus, I saw an ancient " one-hoss shay " 

A famous flyer of his time, Stop at the Mont de Piete, 

Who often soared to heights sublime, And, lo ! alighting from the same, 

When backed by some poetic chap A bard, whom I forbear to name. 

For the Parnassus Handicap. Noting the poor beast's rusty hide 

(The horse, I mean), methought I spied 
What once were wings. Incredulous, 
I cried, " Can this be Pegasus ! " 



158 




Drawn by Oliver Hcrford 



II. The 

You 'd think a lion or a snake 

Were quite enough one's nerves to shake ; 

But in this classic beast we find 

A lion and a snake combined, 

And, just as if that were n't enough, 

A goat thrown in to make it tough. 

Let scientists the breed pooh ! pooh ! 



Chimera 

Come with me to some social zoo 
And hear the bearded lion bleat 
Goat-like on patent-kidded feet, 
Whose " civil leer and damning praise " 
The serpent's cloven tongue betrays. 
Lo ! lion, goat, and snake combined ! 
Thanks ; I prefer the ancient kind. 



Little What=For 

BY JULIAN STREET 



Every day he sets out, holding Somebody's 

hand — 
Does our little What-For — to look over the 

land ; 
And I 'd not let him go if he did n't agree 
To come back each night to his supper and 

me, 
And climb to my lap for a fine twilight talk 
Of the wonderful things that one sees on a 

walk. 
He met a big dog, with a stick in his jaws ; 



Wh^ did n't he carry the stick in his paws? 

He heard a horse sing. What-for call it a 
neigh ? 

Why could n't he know what the horse meant 
to say? 

And when a horse neighs, do the dogs under- 
stand? 

Who pushes the grass up from under the 
land? 

Why are there tall trees that we play in the 
shade of? 



159 



160 



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE 



What makes the birds fly? And what are 

flies made of? 
Are flowers alive ? Then why don't they take 

cold? 
What-for am I little ? What-for are you old ? 
And why is it Monday? And what makes 

Dad shave ? 
I 'm afraid that it hurts him, but Dad 's very 

brave. 
Who gets all that beard that he razes away? 
Will I have black stickers, like Daddie's, some 

day? 
What makes little lines run all over your face ? 
What-for can't I take the books out of the 

case 
And build a big house on the lib'ary floor? 
And why does the wind come and rattle the 

door? 
What-for are those pipes that the water goes 

through ? 
And if they are pipes, does n't Dad smoke 

them, too? 
What-for must I eat? And why must n't I 

spill? 
And what-for 's my mouth, if it is n't to fill? 
And why, when my supper is all tucked away, 
Does Dark come around and paint everything 

gray? 
What-for do they take off my things every 

night, 
And tuck me all in, and then turn out the 

light? 
What-for are the fairies? And how can they 

see 
To dance all the night, when it 's darkness to 

me? 
And why am I sleepy ? Why 's sand in my 

eye? 
And who came and put it there — Mother— ? — 

and — why — ? 



Jes a=HopirT 

Lif' yo' eyes up to de sky; 
Springtime comin' by-an' -by. 



Summah sun an' April rain ; 
01' Mis' Spring she come again! 

Souf win' croonin', goin' by; 
Sunshine drippin' frough de sky. 

Heah de catbu'd how he sing: 
"Howdy; howdy do, Mis' Spring!" 

Shell road kin' er dusty brown ; 
Ribber singin', goin' down. 

Dogwood pole, an' piece er twine, 
Big, fat wo'm — just watch mah line ! 



Honey bee, you honey bee, 
Quit yo' sassyin' wid me ! 



Hills a-shinin' f'om de rain, 
Singin' low in won'rous pain. 

Dis oP coon he kain't sing low ; 
Feel so full he bus' fer sho. 

Whooee ! Whooee ! Heah me sing? 
Howdy ; howdy do, Mis' Spring ! 



Lif yo' eyes up to de sky; 
Springtime comin' by-an' -by. 

Herman Da Costa. 

Moving 

Oh, there 's lots of fun in moving, — 

Pulling up the carpet-tacks, 
Packing up the books and china, 

Piling chairs and things in stacks, — 
Mother sighs, and says her head aches, 

And she wishes we were done, 
But / think the whole whangdoodle 

Is a da?idy lot of fun. 

We have splendid times with eating, 

Everything in cans and jars ; 
When we really get to living, 

Mother says she '11 thank her stars. 
But I think it 's simply great, and hope 

'T will last a good long while, 
For it 's corking fun to make believe 

You 're on a desert isle. 

But the best of all is sleeping 

On a mattress on the floor; 
Though my father says it 's draughty, 

And the dickens of a bore ; 
But it 's different, and I like it, 

'Cause I play we 're camping out. 
But o' course the grown folks never 

Know what / am thinking 'bout. 

Then it 's great to hold the ladder 
When my father 's doing things, 
'Cause when Daddy putters round, he 
Dances horn-pipes, and he sings — 
'R else he mutters. Then he tells me, 
" Don't you ever say that, son ! " 
Gee ! I think that when you 're moving 
There 's a scrumptious lot of fun ! 

Edna Kingsley Wallace 

The Great Scrap-Book 

( Scrap : a fight. Century Dictionary.) 

" I 'VE got my lessons," Bobbie said, 
" And learned a fact that 's not half bad 

The greatest scrap-book ever made 

Is that old Homer's Iliad." 

Allen Wood. 



THE DE VINNE PRESS, NEW YORK 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 



29 



HONEST GOODS 
HONEST LABELS 
-THEN QUALITY 

Mother's pastry was always good because 
her shortening was always good and the 
only shortening she knew was leaf lard— 
genuine leaf lard. That's exactly what 
" Simon Pure" Lard is, only it really is 
better than home-made lard can be be- 
cause of the uniform excellence found 
only in "Simon Pure." Besides, mother 
could not get as good raw leaf as we do. 
We have the pick of thousands of pieces 
daily — she had only what her butcher 
could give her. It's due to these spe- 
cially selected, crinkly, edible leaves — 
refined by honest, Quality-producing 
methods — that "Simon Pure" is the fin- 
est lard on earth — the "Cream of Short- 




ening." Sold only in Government Inspected 
and Sealed Pails, three's, five's and ten's. E 
you wish to better mother's pastry you must 
better her shortening. You can by using Simon 
Pure — many a mother says so herself, and 
she ought to know. So will you if you try it. 




FRIED food is as nutritious as that 
which is baked or boiled, in spite 
of the solemn protests of faddists 
who declare that it is most in- 
digestible. If it proves unhealthful, the 
cause may be traced to one of two things 
—the frying process has been unskill- 
fully performed, or more often, the lard 
used was of an inferior quality. 

"Frying" means immersing the article 
to be cooked in fat that covers it. In 
the last analysis it is steaming. The 
moment the article to be cooked touches 




Golden Ball Fritters 




"Simon Pure" Pop-Overs 
the fat, its surface becomes coagulated, 
making it impossible for the natural 
juices to get out. These are turned into 
steam, which cooks the food. The fat 
merely browns the outer surface. About 
three pounds of Armour's Simon Pure 
Leaf Lard will be required for use in a 
kettle eight inches in diameter. This 
may appear to be an extravagance to a 
housekeeper whose idea of frying con- 
sists in greasing the bottom of a frying 
pan with a tiny bit of fat. As a mat- 
ter of fact, frying in deep fat is an econ- 



omy as well as an absolute necessity 
from the standpoint of health. 

The fat should not be boiling, bui 
"smoking" hot. A good general rule 
regarding temperature is this: If a slice 
of raw potato browns in it in from 40 to 
60 seconds, the fat is ready for use. Gen- 
erally speaking, doughnuts and batters 
require a lower heat than breaded meats, 
and the latter do not require as high c. 
temperature as potatoes, fish and all wat- 
ery articles, which must be fried at the 
highest possible temperature. 




"Simon Pure" Rosettes 



May 1908 



3° 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— INSURANCE 



You can't 
insure when 
you are 
worn out. 



You can't 
insure when 
you are 
dying*. 

INSURE 
NOW 



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PRUDENTIAL 

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The longer you put it off the harder it will be. If the future of your wife, your daughters, 
your sons, yourself, — is to be provided for, — the best time to make that provision is NOW. 



WRITE TODAY FOR RATES 

The Low Cost will Surprise You. 

State age, nearest birthday, and occupation. 



The Prudential 

Insurance Company of America 

Incorporated as a Stock Company by the State of New Jersey 

JOHN F. DRYDEN, Prest. Dept. 45 HOME OFFICE : Newark, N. J. 






CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PIANO FORTES 



3i 




COMPOSITE 



OF 



Celebrated Pianists 

PHOTOGRAPHED FOR 

KRANICH & BACH 



By JOSEPH GRAY KITCHELL 
Who evolved the famous "Composite Madonna." 



I 



N this photograph there are blended the 
portraits of twelve of the greatest living 
pianists, as follows : 



Copyrighted igo8 by Kranich & Bach 



Paderewski, Rosenthal, Gabrilowitsch, D 'Albert, 
DePachman, Hofmann, Lhevinne, Slivinski, 

Joseffy, Hamburg, Bauer, and Sauer 



■*■ I A HE study of this idealistic face is not only interesting to students of physiognomy in 
exhibiting the predominance of the purely artistic and temperamental features and the 
subordination of the grosser ones, but it offers to lovers of piano music a field for speculation 
in an effort to imagine a repertoire performance by a Composite Unity possessing all the 
varied and distinctive characteristics associated with each of the artists merged in this 
composite portrait. 

IH flTYV ^\ TT^ ITI V IVYnn "^ ma S az i ne illustration could convey the 
I III Jm I 11^ 1 A 111 I refined subtleties of expression and the mystic 

I VI IB 111 m\ I m qualities of the composite negative, so a 

I II I \J m. m JL li t' M limited number of proof impressions were 

struck from a copper photogravure and 
printed on Imperial Japanese Parchment, size 8x10 (suitable for framing) and a copy will 
be sent to early applicants on receipt of seven two-cent stamps to pay packing and 
forwarding charges. The edition is limited, each copy numbered and bears no advertising. 

A COMPOSITE PIANO 

i'/TPHE Kranich & Bach is truly a composite of the highest artistic units. It possesses the 
essentials that contribute to tone quality, artistic appearance, durability, and economy, 
land not only combines in its own unity the individual elements of* all qualifications of piano 
'excellence, but in addition it possesses important exclusive features not found in any other 
piano of the world. This piano has earned the title "Supreme in the Class of Highest Grade." 






<$ 



Sold on the most convenient installment terms and old pianos 
taken in part payment are allowed most liberal credit possible. 



Send for 1908 catalogue and 
name of dealer nearest you. 



KRANICH & BACH 
PIANOS 



233-247 East 23d Street 
New York City 






32 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINANCIAL 



BANKERS TRUST 

COMPANY 



1 7 Wall Street, New York f 

Capital .... $1,000,000 
Surplus & Undivided Profits . 1,292,000 



DIRECTORS 

STEPHEN BAKER, Pres. 

Bank of Manhattan Co., N.Y. 
SAMUEL G. BAYNE, Pres. 

Seaboard Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
EDWIN M. BULKLEY, 

Spencer Trask &Co., N.Y. 
JAMES G. CANNON. V. Pres. 

Fourth Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
EDMUND C. CONVERSE, 

President, N. Y. 
HENRY P. DAVISON, V. Pres. 

First Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
WALTER E. FREW, V. Pre5. 

Corn Exchange Bank, N.Y. 
FREDERICK T. HASKELL. V. Pres. 

Illinois Trust & Sav. Bk,, Chicago 
A. BARTON HEPBURN, Pres. 

Chase Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
THOMAS W. LAMONT, 

Second Vice Pres., N. Y. 
GATES W. McGARRAH, Pres. 

Mechanics' Nat'l Bank, N.Y. 
EDGAR L MARSTON, 

Blair & Co., Bankers, N.Y. 
GEORGE W. PERKINS, 

J.P.Horgan&Co., N.Y. 
WILLIAM H. PORTER, Pres. 

Chemical Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
DANIEL G. REID, V. Pres. 

Liberty Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
EDWARD F. SWINNEY, Pres. 

First Nat'l Bank, KansasCity. 
JOHN F. THOMPSON, 

Vice President, N. Y. 
GILBERT G. THORNE,V.Pres. 

Nat'l Park Bank, N. Y. 
EDWARD TOWNSEND Pres. 

Importers & Traders Nat. Bank, N.Y. 
ALBERT H. WIGGIN, V. Pres. 

Chase Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
SAMUEL WOOLVERTON, Pres. 

Gallatin Nat'l Bank, N. Y. 
EDWARD F. C. YOUNG, Pres. 

First Nat'l Bank, Jersey City. 



YOUR IDLE 

FUNDS ARE 
PRODUCTIVE 

and at the same time 
secure, if deposited with 
the Bankers Trust 
Company. 

Interest is allowed on 
deposits subject to check, 
or certificates of deposit 
repayable upon demand. 

The remarkably strong 
Directorate of this Com- 
pany is assurance as to 
the absolute safety of 
funds placed with it. 

Letters of Credit and 
Travelers^ Cheques 
available in all farts of 
the world issued. 



Inquiries are invited as to the .Company's functions 
as Executor, Administrator, and Guardian; as Fiscal 
Agent, and as Trustee for Individuals and Corporations. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — PIANO FORTES 



S3 




VERTEGRAND 

EBONIZED CASE 

PRICE $550 




The Epochs of 
Piano Progress 

The epochs of Piano Progtess are marked with the name of 
STEIN WAY, for to the STEINWAY family— four generations 
— may be accredited every great advance in piano construction. 
To them belongs the glory of idealizing the tone of the piano — 
of creating that wonderful art-tone, that incomparable singing 
quality, imitated by all, but realized in its purity only in the 

#TEffl\!5SY 

PIANO 

Other makers may claim a high degree of excellence in the 
elemental requisites of piano construction — in the STEINWAY 
these things are taken for granted. It is the inimitable STEINWAY 
art-tone, coupled with matchless durability, that has made the 
STEINWAY Piano the world's foremost musical instrument. 

The latest epoch of piano progress is represented in the 

STEINWAY Miniature Grand, at $800, and in the Vertegrand 

(an upright), at $550, ebonized cases. These 

pianos represent the highest achievement in 

piano construction the world has ever known. 

Steinway Pianos can be bought of 
any authorized Steinway dealer at 
New York prices, with cost of 
transportation added. Illustrated 
catalogue and booklets sent on re- 
quest and mention of this magazine. 

STEINWAY & SONS, 

Steinway Hall, 
107 and 109 East 14th St., New York. 

Subway Express Station at the Door. 




MINIATURE GRANT 

EBONIZED CASE 

PRICE $800 




34 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MUSIC 






Tetrazzini 
on the Victor 

This great soprano, who has scored 
one of the most tremendous successes in 
operatic history in America, has been 
added to the Victor list of celebrated 
grand opera artists and sings exclu- 
sively for the Victor. 

The nine superb records by Mme. 
Tetrazzini are the numbers ^ — -->. 
with which she made her /.<nLA^ 
greatest triumphs. Ap 

I 
Go to the nearest Victor dealer's and ask to hear \ 

these Tetrazzini records—he will gladly play them for you. Vrffl 
Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U. S. A. \^ 

Berliner Gramophone Co., Montreal, Canadian Distributors ^^» 

To get best results, use only Victor Needles on Victor Records 



HIS MASTERS VOICE. 



Every month, promptly on the 28th — the same date everywhere throughout the United States 
Victor records for the following month are placed on sale. The latest music and the best. 



the new 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 



35 




An Overloaded Ship 

Makes slow headway against the heaving, rolling sea. 

It 's the same with the man who overloads his system with a mass of heavy, 
indigestible food. 

It means a heavy, foggy brain and a tired, sleepy feeling when you ought to 
be making " things hum " — skimming along on the high tide to success. 

Are you going to remain in the slow-going u Freighter' 7 class, or would you 
prefer to be one of the " Ocean Greyhounds " ? 

Change your food. Try 

Grape-Nuts 

with rich cream, and get energy and speed ! 
"There's a Reason." 

Postum Cereal Company, Limited, Battle Creek, Michigan, U. S. A. 



36 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MISCELLANEOUS 



THE 

f 



FIDELITY DP EISIIL1T CD. 



1876 

FIDELITY 
LIABILITY 
ACCIDENT 
HEALTH 
STEAM BOILER 
ELEVATOR 
PLATE GLASS 
BURGLARY 
FLY WHEEL 



OF NEW YORK 

GEORGE F. SEWARD, President 
ROBERT J. HILLAS, Vice-President and Secretary 



1908 



This Company has been engaged in the several MINOR MISCELLANEOUS LINES 
of insurance for over THIRTY YEARS, and has built up gradually and pru- 
dently A VERY LARGE CASUALTY INSURANCE BUSINESS. Its annual income 
from premiums is over SIX MILLIONS of dollars. Its business is protected by 
assets of over SEVEN AND ONE-HALF MILLIONS, including an unearned premium 
reserve of nearly THREE AND ONE-HALF MILLIONS of dollars, and a special re- 
serve against contingent claims of over ONE AND ONE-HALF MILLIONS. It has 
paid over TWENTY-SIX AND ONE-HALF MILLIONS to its policy-holders for 
LOSSES. Its constant effort is to give its clients not only INSURANCE indemnity, 
but prompt and effective INSPECTION and ADJUSTING SERVICES. 
INSURANCE THAT INSURES 



capital, $1,000,000.00 surplus {K^ZpSISST^} $1,013,400.24 

directors: 

DUMONT CLARKE, GEO. E. IDE, WM. J. MATHESON, ANTON A. RAVEN, 

WM. P. DIXON, W. G. LOW, ALEXANDER E. ORR, JOHN L. RIKER, 

ALFRED W. HOYT, J. G. McCULLOUGH, HENRY E. PIERREPONT, W. EMLEN ROOSEVELT, 

GEO. F. SEWARD. 

Principal Offices, Nos. 97-103 Cedar Street, New Vork 

Agents in all considerable towns 




MORE MILLIONS 

X ^ 

. -_ : : 

■,■•• 

and neighbor that 

PEARLINE is the 

it works without 
rubbing— hence does 
away with the wor<* 
of the Work a 
Wear and Tear 
which Women a 
Fabrics are subjected 
by following old- 
bar soap ! 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PIANO FORTES 



37 




■MMHMMHBHMMHHiNHHMHHttMMMi 



38 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 



*/£ loJ>e)r TTand-CairvirHX 
in Ootid \M.ahoo'<xny- 




Handmade Jurnitujf e 

Jlle^arrfc inline and rinisn,ana ine 
nearest approach to structural pei^- 
feet ion— the ni£nestkfrown achieve- 
ment 01 the cabinet-makers art. 

JXIaae ox heautifully grained, 
solid wooas in patterns answer- 
ing almost eve±y re^uirennent 
ofxne home. Special designs to order. 

\ye invite you to visit our stores, 
or to correspond. 

jQie^jD^^r*niture Gunpaiy 



CHICAGO 

NX/apaen /Weivue ana 
Vvasnington Street 



NEW YORK 

ll^stTkirt^ 

Second Street 



i. 



® 






A new lamp-chimney 
every few days is a 
needless annoyance. 

A Macbeth lamp- 
chimney never breaks 
from heat. 

There is a Macbeth 
chimney made for every 
lamp — does not just fit 
" tolerably well." The 
exact kind makes perfect 
combustion — keeps the 
air you breathe and the 
ceiling of your room 
clean. My name on 
every lamp-chimney 
that leaves my factory. 

My Lamp-Chimney Catalogue is 
full of practical suggestions about 
lamps, chimneys, wicks, oils, and 
how to keep them in order. Tells 
which chimney gives the best light 
on every kind of lamp. Saves bother 
and money. I gladly mail it, free, to 
anyone who writes for it. Address 

Macbeth, Pittsburgh 



Turquoise 




No. 223 — Price 
$12.50 



Blended with 

the Mother 

stone or 

matrix in the 

cutting and 

polishing. 

We own the best 
producing mine 
of this precious 
gem in the world. 
The exquisite 
blue color and 
beautiful matrix 



markings preserved :n the cutting give 
most unique Art effects in Rings, Brooches, 
Necklaces, Collarettes, Bracelets, Scarf Pins, 
Cuff Links, Fobs, etc. 

We furnish these pieces, in richly designed, 
band-made, HEAVY 14KT. SOLID GOLD 
mountings. As all the work is done in our 
own sbops, we are "FIRST HANDS" 
FROM MINE TO WEARER. 

Send for Catalog No. 1 showing mounted 
turquoise jewels from $2.50 to $75.00 with 
many pieces in the new Art Craft designs. 

Arizona Turquoise Mines Co., Inc. 

We invite you t J call ivhen in New York 

and see the rough stones being cut, polished N °- j° 4 T"! >rice 

and mounted at our shop and office. $8.00 

171 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 




CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PAINTS 



39 



How Can I Know 
About Paint 
Before I 
Use It ? 




asks the cautious man or woman. After the 
paint is on the house it is too late. The money, 
not only for the paint, but for the painter's 
labor, has been spent. Why not do as the big 
paint users do — railroads, contracting painters, 
factory owners, etc.? — they test White Lead, 
which is the solid ingredient of all good house 
paint, before it is applied. 

The paint ingredients (White Lead, Linseed Oil and 
coloring matter) should always be bought separately and 
mixed by the painter fresh for each job. The test for 

quality is then made before the paint is mixed. It is not a bit complicated; 
all one needs is a flame (candle, gas or spirit lamp) and a blowpipe to intensify 
the heat. 

White Lead is corroded metallic lead, the same as shot, lead-pipe or home- 
made sinkers for fishing lines. Intense heat forces the pasty "White Lead" back 
into its original form of metallic lead. 

If, therefore, your experiment fails to wholly reduce the 
White Lead to metallic lead, you may be sure that the supposed 
White Lead is either adulterated or totally bogus. 

We will furnish the necessary 




SSI 



*R: 



FULL WEIGHT KEGS 

The Dutch Boy Painter on 
a keg guarantees not only 
purity, but full weight of 
White Lead. Our packages 
are not weighed with the 
contents; each keg contains 
the amount of White Lead 
designated on the outside. 



Blowpipe Free upon request 

if you wish to test paint. We are glad to 
have you test our White Lead. Would 
we dare to do this, if there were any 
doubt as to the purity of our product ? 
Ask for Test Equipment A. Address 

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 

in whichever of the following cities is nearest you: 

New York, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland. 

Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis. 

Philadelphia [John T. Lewis & Bros. Co.]; 

Pittsburgh [National Lead <fc Oil Co.] 



4-0 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS—FOR THE HOME 



When You Think 
of Writing 
Think of WHITING 

You know the name Whiting is a guarantee of quality. You 
know Whiting Paper is right in shape, size and style. You 
know that in shade, surface and texture it meets every demand 
of to-day's social or business requirements. 




WHITING Papers 

are made for every conceivable writing purpose in 
a large number of desirable textures and styles. An 
output of over*50 tons a day proves conclusively the 
general recognition of the superiority of Whiting 
Papers. For sale at all leading dealers. 

WHITING PAPER COMPANY, 

1 48-1 50-1 52 Duane St., New York. 
Chicago Boston Philadelphia 

MIttS : HOIvYOKE;, mass. 




THIS TRADEMARK ON EVERY BOX 





Fine China. Rich Cut Glass. 




Graceful, 

Heavy, 

Brilliantly 

Cut 

Comport 

$5.00 

(Safe delivery 
guaranteed) 



Our assortment contains 
the most choice and artistic 
designs, executed in fault- 
less style. Rich, brilliant 
and distinctive. 

Our Catalogue No. 15B 
illustrates a large number 
of equally attractive pieces. 
Send for it today and 
learn how to " Buy China 
and Glass Right." 





Size : 9% in. high and $% in. across. 

Prices are always " % less than elsewhere." 
Satisfaction by mail assured. 

West 21st & Wes* 22nd Sts., near Sixth Ave., NEW YORK. 




The 
serving pieces 
here illustrated are the 
equal of sterling silver in de- 
sign and finish with the lasting 
quality of the famous 

** 1847 ROGERS BROS." 

———— " Silver Plate That Wears." 
This mark is found on the best silver-plate 
that money can buy. Sold by leading dealers. 
Knives, forks, spoons, etc., to match. 
Send for Catalogue " S-10 " Qt a*"L 

Meriden Britannia Co., Meriden, Conn. 

(International Silver Co., 
Successor) 







CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— VARNISHES 



41 



k 



.:- ■ ; -v-;. fe :l!fe 




RE6.US.PAT.OFE 



MMmmM 



D 



AJ/jfou 
need to 



V 









Nome 



J AP-A-LAC is the hardest, most durable and lus- 
trous finish made. Embraces sixteen beautiful colors, and 
can be used for refinishing everything about the home from 
cellar to garret. 

You can keep your entire home looking like new by the 
use of JAP-A-LAC. It costs but a trifle. 

You can do your own refinishing of scratched and scuffed furniture, and of all things 
of wood or metal you may have, just as well as an expert. 

Try JAP-A-LAC today on some old piece of furniture, and learn bow to save money. 

All sizes from 15c to $2.50. For Sale by Paint, Hardware and Drug Dealers. 
A WARNING AGAINST THE DEALER WHO TRIES TO SUBSTITUTE. 

Some dealers will not buy JAP-A-LAC so long as they can substitute something else on which THEY MAKE MORE PROFIT. 

If your dealer offers ycu a substitute, decline it. He will get JAP-A-LAC for you if you insist on it. 

Write for beautiful illustrated booklet, and interesting color card. FREE for the asking. 



The name n GLIDDEN n on a can of var- 
nish is a guarantee of highest quality. If 
you uce varnishes for any purpose insist on 
Glidden's Green Label line and you will 
secure the best results. 







505 Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, O. 



If YOUR dealer docs not keep JAF-A-LAC, 
send us his name and 10c (except for Gold 
■which is 25c) to cover cost of mailing., and 
7ve will send FREE Sample (quarter pint 
can) to any point in the United Stales. 



42 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFITS 




Every feature that the expert requires in a hand camera— that simplicity which 
means so much to the beginner — these are in perfect combination in 

The No. 3 A Folding 

POCKET KODAK 

Broader in its scope than anything heretofore attained in pocket photography. Makes pictures 
3%-x.5 l A inches, yet will go in an ordinary top-coat pocket. Loads in daylight with film cartridges 
for ten exposures, has a Double Combination Rapid Rectilinear lens of 6% inch focus and a speed 
off. 8. and the F. P. K. Automatic shutter for time, "bulb" or instantaneous exposures and fitted 
with iris diaphragm stops Nos. 4 to 128 inclusive. Rising, falling and sliding front, brilliant revers- 
ible finder, two tripod sockets and automatic focusing lock. Made of aluminum and covered with 
the finest seal grain leather. Perfect in every detail, and subjected to the most rigid inspection. 
Price, $20.00. 

EASTMAN KODAK GO. 

Kodak Catalog free at the _ ^^,,„„„,-r,,^ ,.,- -«,- 

dealers or by mail. ROCHESTER, N. Y., The Kodak City. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PAINTS AND VARNISHES 



43 




Mf&& 




Sherwin-Williams 

PAINTS & VARNISHES 



Who makes 
the best 

P&irUs 
&*V&r- 
rxishes 




There is a Book about the Particular 

Surface You Wish to Beautify 

or Preserve 

It may be the surface of a floor, an automobile, a bridge 
or a piece of furniture. You may be interested in its treatment 
as a painter, or as an owner anxious to get what you pay for. 

If a painter, the book will add to your store of knowledge; 
if an owner, you will learn what treatment the surface should 
have and how to get the best quality. 

One paint or varnish cannot be made suitable for many or 
all purposes. The manufacturer of good finishes must specialize. 
Each product must contain certain qualities which make it best 
for certain work. 

You can soon learn enough from our literature to get the 
best finish for your purpose — be it what it may. The proper book 
will be sent you free, if you will write us what your purpose is. 

The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

LARGEST (BECAUSE BEST) PAINT & VARNISH MAKERS IN THE WORLD 

factories: Cleveland, Chicago, Newark, Montreal, London, eng. 

sales offices and warehouses in 23 principal cities 

Address all inquiries to 609 Canal Road, N. W., Cleveland, Ohio 

In Canada to 639 Centre St., Montreal 

London Address: 7 Well Court, Queen St., E.C. 





44 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 




SBHBBBHHHBHHa 



Hot Water 
When You Want It 

No lighting of fires — no coaxing the 
kitchen range — no waiting for the 
kitchen boiler to "get busy" — no scant 
supply of hot water — no muddy or 
rusty water — no trouble of any kind 
if you have a 

RUUD 

Automatic Gas 

Water Heater 

You merely turn any hot 
water iaucet in the house 
and in ten seconds the 
water comes with a rush 
— clean and sizzling hot. 
As long as the faucet is 
open the hot water doesn't 
give out, for the RUUD 
Heater is inexhaustible. 
Think of having an un- 
limited supply of hot water in the laundry, 
kitchen and bathroom with no fires to watch. 
Easy to attach in your basement to pipes 
already installed. 

Our tree book explains it all. 
Write for it, and for names 
of families in your own 
town who use the RUUD. 







Ironing by Electricity 

The Electric Iron — it's just a neat little nickel- 
plated flat-iron with a long cord. Attach that to any- 
electric lamp socket, turn on the current, and you 
can iron as much or as little as you please, working 
in a cool room. No trips to the stove, no fire, no dirt. 

Catalogue F gitjes sizes, prices, and de- 
scriptions of Simplex Electric Irons. 

SIMPLEX ELECTRIC HEATING CO., Cambridge, Mass. 
Monadnock Block, Chicago. 



1867 



^ HEARS ,n Ho 



1908 



'%/ 







ELECTRO 
SILICON 

Is Unequalled lor 

Cleaning and Polishing 

SILVERWARE. 

Send address for a FREE SAMPLE, or 15c. in 
Btamps for a fu.1" boz. 

Electro-Silicon Soap has equal merits. 
The Electro Silicon Co. 30 Cliff St., New York. 
Grocers and Druggists sell it. 






CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 



45 




If FEED 



* i.A.imj. f T r\ 1 A*; n JL/ 




'T^O hear some people talk, you'd imagine fur- 
■*■ naces were simply gluttons, which eat coal 
by the bushel and make holes in the family 
surplus bigger than a picture hat. Hundreds 
know differently, for they have demonstrated 
to their entire satisfaction that the 



Peck- Williamson UNDERFEED Furnace 

Saves One-Half to Two-Thirds of Coal Bills 



The Underfeed is the watchdog of the cellar. Fed from 
below, with all fire on top, smoke and gases are consumed 
and not wasted as in topf eeds. Cheapest slack coal yields 
as much clean, even heat as highest grade anthracite* 
There's where the great saving comes in. 

Frank T. Bradley, of Branford, Conn., writes: "lam 
very well pleased with, the Underfeed and consider it 
very economical. I am using the cheapest coal, heating 
eight rooms and could easily heat three more. There is 
a saving of one-third over other hot air furnaces. Eight 
tons of screenings — which means S»34 — will carry us 
thru a season." 

Mr. Bradley has lots of company and we'll be glad to furni 
fac-simile letters of appreciation from other Underfeed users, 
addition to the illustrated Underfeed Booklet, fully explaining th 
furnace which soon pays for itself. Why not let this Watchdog 
the Cellar economize on your next winter's coal bills? 

Heating Plans and Services o* our Engineering Depart- 
ment are yours — FREE . Write to-day, giving name 
of local dealer with whom you prefer to deal. 

The Peck- Williamson Co., 332 W. Fifth St., Cincinnati, 

Our Nen? Offer To Dealers Is Worth Reading 



Illustration shows furnace without cas- 
ing, cut away to show how coal is forced 
up under fire — which burns on top. 




% 




VIOLIN 



of Smooth, 
Fine Tone 



The purchase of a violin is an important thingf. Why not 
get the best musical value to be had? The Lyon & Healy 
Cremonatone Violin is world-famous, and if you will read 
its history you will ^__ ^^ understand why it 

excels all imita- FKJ j^\ nfm tions and why solo- 
ists everywhere T I"1l %,# IVI gladly pay its 
price, which is $100. The Student Violin 

is also the leader in its class— price $15. Let us send you 
our Musical Handbook, which tells all about violins and all 
other musical instruments. 312 pages. 1100 illustrations. 

LYON & HEALY 



91 Adams Street, CHICAGO 



May 1908 



ALLEN'S FOOT-EASE 

Shake Into Your Shoes 



Allen's Eoot=Ease. a powder for the 
feet. It cures painful, swollen, smarting, 
nervous feet, and instantly takes the sting 
out of corns and bunions. It 's the great- 
est comfort discovery of the age. 
Allen's Foot=Ease makes tight fitting or 
new shoes feel easy. It is a certain cure for 
ingrowing nails, sweating, callous and hot, 
tired, aching feet. We have over 30,000 
testimonials. TRY TT TO-DAY. Sold 
by all Druggists and Shoe Stores, 25c. Do 
not accept any substitute. Sent by 
mail for 25c. in stamps 

Fn p CT TRIAL PACKAGE 
W\. d d sent by mail. Address 



Tn a pinch, 
use Allen's 
Foot-Ease." 



sent by mail. 
ALLEN S. OLMSTED, Lc Roy, N.Y. 



4 6 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 




How "High Standard 5 
Paint Saves Painter's Time 

YOU can't figure that this-much White Lead, 
and that-mnch Linseed-Oil, make a gallon 
of paint. You've got to figure-in the Paint- 
er's time— the mixing — 

And a good Painter's time is worth from 40c to 70c 
or more an hour. 

Now, the Painter mixes by-rule-of-thumb, by 
judgment , by guess— he thins and he, thickens until he 
thinks it's right— but he never gets two batches quite 
alike— 

And he mixes by hand— that's necessarily slow — 
and Painters' time you know, soon counts-up in cost — 

And hand-mixing can't he thorough— Can't thor- 
oughly combine the pigment and oil— 

There'll be drops of oil and particles of pigment 
that haven't united. 

The result is a mixture that won't work right 
under the brush — runs heavy here and light there- 
It takes the Painter longer to put-on that kind 
of paint— More Painter's time for you to pay for— 

High-priced Painter's-time that you can save by 
using 




It's a paint that's all-ready-for-the-brush— It's ground 
by special paint-grinding machinery. 

Ground and reground— first the dry pigments- 
then in oil — then in more oil— 

Until all the paint-pigment is thoroughly com- 
bined with the oil— Until every minute drop of the 
liquid holds in solution its share of paint-pigment 
— And that's the best paint. 

That 'kind of paint— "High Standard" Paint— works 
right — "runs" smooth-and-even — "spreads" better 
covers more surface — takes less Painter's time to 
put it on— And you get a better painting-job. 

And "High Standard" Paint lasts from five to six 
years or more— That's two to four years longer 
than any cheap paint will last. 

There's a "High Standard" Paint, Enamel and 
Varnish for every purpose— On every can there's a 
"Little Blue Flag"— yourprotection. 

Write for our free Booklet— "Attractive Homes, 
and How to Make Them." 

The Lowe Brothers Company 

Paintmakers— Varnishmakers 
450-456 Third St., E., Dayton, Ohio 

New York Chicago Kansas City 






THIS DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATES 
QUANTITY OF GOLD IN 

IMITATION BUTTONS 




THE REASON WHY THE 

KREMEN TZ 

ROLLED PLATE 
COLLAR BUTTONS 
OUTWEAR ALL 
OTHERS 



THIS ILLUSTRATES QUANTITY 
OF GOLD IN THE 

KREMENTZ BUTTON 



Every dealer authorized to give a new 

KREMENTZ COLLAR BUTTON 

in exchange for an old one that is broken from any 
cause, and ask no questions* 

¥c make this offer because Krementz Buttons 
are made for hard service* of honest materials* with 
no solder joints. 

The quality is stamped on the back and guaran- 
teed* Shape is just right. 

Easy to button and unbutton* 

Look for the name "KREMENTZ" on the back 
and be sure to get the genuine. 

At all dealers. Solid gold and rolled plate. 
Send for Story of Collar Button. 

Krementz & Co., 37 Chestnut St., Newark, N. J. 




HOSE 
SUPPORTER 

WORN ALL OVER THE WORLD 



NOT BE DECEIVED 

BY BUTTONS MADE OF WOOD 
PAINTED OR COLORED TO 
IMITATE RUBBER 



THIS GUARANTY 
COUPON-IN YELLOW 

IS ATTACH ED THIS WAY 
TO EVERY PAIR Q*F THE 
GENUINE — BE SURE 
ITS THERE 

Sample Pair, Mercerized 25c, Silk 50c. 
Mailed on receipt of price 

GEORGE FROST COMPANY, Makers 
BOSTON 



Cushion 
Button 

HOSE 
SUPPORTER 

15 GUARANTEED TO 
DEALER AND USER 

AGAINST IMPERFECTIONS 



THE BUTTONS AND 
LOOPS ARE LICENSED 
FOR USE ON THIS 
HOSE SUPPORTER 
ONLY. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE OFFICE 



47 







C (O V 



4 8 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MISCELLANEOUS 



1835 
RWALLACE 

SILVER PLATE THAT RESISTS 



WEAR 




STERLING silver designs made with Sterling silver care; Sterling 
silver in appearance, weight and character throughout; when 
you invest in 1835 R. Wallace Plated Ware you get real Sterling 
silver elegance and service at but one-half of Sterling silver cost. 



We publish a delightful little book on the care of 
silver. It will be sent free to any woman who 
is particular about the appearance of her table. 



R. WALLACE & SONS Mf£. Co., 



— Box 26 — 



WALLINGFORD, CONN. 



ARNICA 

TOOTH SOAP 




Strong's Arnica Tooth Soap 

Antiseptic, preserves while it beau- 
tifies — sweetens the breath — hard- 
ens the gums — whitens the teeth 

— a leading dentifrice for a 

Third of a Century 

The metal pack- 
age is the most 
convenient 
for travel 
or the home 
— 7jio liquid 
o r powder 
to spill or 
waste. 

25c 

At All 
Druggists 

(Sent post- 
paid if yours 



STRONG'S ARNICA JELLY 

Ideal for sunburn, keeps the skin 
soft and smooth; nothing better 
for chaps, pimples, burns, bruises 
and all eruptions. The collaps- 
ible metal tube is convenient and 
unbreakable. If your dealer 
hasn't it, send to us. Sent post- 
paid for 25 Cents. 

Guaranteed under the Food 
and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906; 
Serial No. 1612, 

C. H. STRONG & CO., CHICAGO. U.S.A. 




Fine Inks and Adhesives 

HIGGINS' 

DRAWING INKS, ETERNAL WRITING INK. 
ENGROSSING INK, TAURINE MUCILAGE, 
PHOTO MOUNTER PASTE, DRAWING 
BOARD PASTE, LIQUID PASTE, OFFICE 
PASTE, VEGETABLE GLUE, ETC. 

Are the finest and best goods of their kind. 



'•"Oiai**-* " 



Emancipate yourself from the corrosive and ill-smelling 
kind and adopt the Higgins' Inks and Adhesives. 
Thev will be a revelation to you. The Drawing Inks are 
the Standard of the World. Eternal Ink writes everlast- 
ingly black. The adhesives are clean, sweet and remark- 
ably efficient. For home, office, library or school, for all 
private and public use, we guarantee them absolutely 
THE BEST. 

AT DEALERS 

CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO., Mfrs. 

271 9th Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Also Chicago and London. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY 



49 



25% Off 

Hot-Air Pumps 

We desire to call public attention to a very 
large reduction in the prices of our Rider and 
Ericsson pumps. This is due to greatly im- 
proved facilities in our new plant. The intro- 
duction of special machinery has resulted, not 
only in the absolute standardization of all parts, 
but also in decreased costs of manufacturing. We want our patrons to share 
these benefits with us. The reduction amounts in some cases to 25%. The 
old and new prices printed below speak for themselves: 




THE ERICSSON 



OLD PRICES 

Rider Engines 

5-incli 6-incli 8-incli 10-inch 

$210.00 $300.00 $420.00 $540.00 
Ericsson Engines 

5-incli 6-incli 8-inch 10-inch 

$120.00 $170.00 $210.00 $300.00 



NEW PRICES 

Rider Engines 

5-inch 6-inch 8-inch 10-inch 

$180.00 $240.00 $350.00 $460.00 
Ericsson Engines 

5-inch 6-inch 8-inch 10-inch 

$90.00 $130.00 $160.00 $240.00 



No extra price for deep well attachment. These prices are f. o. b. New York. 

Hot-Air Pumps last a lifetime. Over 40,000 are now in 
use, and the users include the best-known people in America 
and Europe. These reduced prices bring them within easy 
reach of a very modest income. In view of the enormous 
increased demand, orders should be placed as much in 
advance of requirements as possible. Beware of imitations. 
Our name-plate appears upon every genuine pump. 

For further information apply to our 
nearest store, asking for catalogue "R. " 



Rider-Ericsson 



35 Warren St., New York. 

40 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

239 and 241 Franklin St., Boston. 

40 North 7th St., Philadelphia. 
T7* iv T /->« t -* T x-v Z^ 1 y-v 22 Pitt St., Sydney, N.S.W., Australia. 

H/NGlJNb VjO. 234 Craig St. , W. , Montreal, P. Q. 

Amargura 96, Havana, Cuba. 




THE RIDER 



KO 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 




C. E. PATCH, Architect, Boston 



Testimonials Speak for Themselves 

Boston, Mass.. 
Gentlemen : 

After many years experience 1 may candidly say that 

DEXTER BROTHERS' 
ENGLISH SHINGLE STAINS 

are unsurpassed for their wearing qualities and artistic 
effects. I now use them exclusively on all shingled surfaces. 
Sincerely yours, EUGENE L. CLARK, Architect. 
Write for samples and particulars 

DEXTER BROTHERS COMPANY, 205 Broad St., Boston 

AGENTS: H. M. Hooker Co., 128 W. Washington St., 
Chicago; W. S. Hueston, 22 E. 22d St., New York; John 
D. S. Potts, 218 Race St., Philadelphia ; F. H. McDonald, 
619 The Gilbert, Grand Rapids ; F. T. Crowe & Co., Seattle, 
Spokane, Tacoma, Wash., and Portland, Ore.; Klatt- 
Hirsch & Co., 113 Front St., San Francisco, Cal. 




The best 

Dentifrice 

on the 

market 

to-day" 



l 



cl During the past 20 years I have 
been indifferent in recommending 
dentifrices. I could not see any spe- 
cial advantage one over the other. 
CAL OX with its liberation of Oxy- 
gen and formation of milk-of-lime 
appealed to me at once, so I do not 
hesitate to recommend to my patients 
CAL OX as the best dentifrice in the 
market to-day.^ 

Druggists, 25 Cents 

Sample and booklet sent on receipt off cents 

McKESSON & ROBBINS 

91-97 Fulton Street, New York 



MENNEN'S 

BORATED TALCUM 

TOILET POWDER 



"A SAFE HIT" 

When Mennen's was first intro- 
duced it made a hit immediately, 
and was then and is now specially 
recommended b y physicians 
everywhere as perfectly pure 
and safe. It has proven a sum- 
mer necessity, a boon for comfort 
of old and young. 

MENNEN'S 

BORATED TALCUM 

TOILET POWDER 

prevents and relieves Chap- 
ping, Chafing, Prickly 
Heat, Sunburn, and all skin 
troubles of summer. After 
bathing and shaving it is 
delightful: in the nursery, 
indispensable. 

For your protection the 
genuine is put up in non- 
refillable boxes — the "Box 
that Lox," with Mennen's 
face on top. Guaranteed un- 
der the Food and Drugs 
Act, June 30, 1906. Serial No. 
1542. Sold everywhere, or 
by mail 25 cents. Sample 
free. 

Gerhard Mennen Co. 
Newark, N. J. 

Try Mennen's Violet (Borated) 
Talcum Toilet Powder — it has the 
scent of fresh-cut Parma Violets. 






"J" 


JENKINS BROS. VALVES 

For Steam Use 

are made in a variety of types to meet every 
condition of service. They have a reputation 
for superiority that is world wide. Being 
fitted with the Jenkins Disc they are the 
easiest to keep steam tight and in good repair. 
Write for catalogue, and see the guarantee under 
which every genuine Jenkins Bros. Valve is sold. 

JenKins Bros., 75 John St., New YorK 




BBPSpfflTtfnC^W' 



Barnes 7 Foot-Power Machinery. 

WORKERS OF WOOD OR METAL, 

W'.thoutsteam power, using outfits of these Machines, 
can bid lower, and save more money from their jobs, 
than by any other means fordoing their work. Also for 

Industrial Schools or Home Training. 

With them boys can acquire journeymen's trades 
before they "go for themselves." Catalogue Free. 

W. F. St JOHN BARNES CO. 

No. 596 Ruby Street, Rockford, 111. 




PREVENTS TOOTH BRUSH CONFUSION IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD 

Each member buys a different emblem, found near the hole by which you hang brush in your own place to keep 
dry and clean. Curved handle reaches all the teeth. Bristles trimmed to fit and clean between the teeth. 
Made under American, sanitary conditions. Comes in the yellow box that 

protects and guarantees. 

By mail or at 

dealers. 




Adults' 35c. 
Youths' 25c. Children's 25c. 
Send for our free booklet, "Tooth Truths." 
FLORENCE MFG. CO., 113 Pine .Street, Florence, Mas* 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 



5i 



A BOOK TEL 
BOW T 



L o LIWQ Make Floors Beautiful o1fK^5!»| 




i,n 




For Floors, Furniture and Interior Woodwork 



©lb Enslieb S 



ifloor 
a* 



" The Wax with a Guarantee '* 







has become the standard of "quality" with professional decorators simply because it 
is made a little better than any other wax. 

Old English Floor Wax gives that much-sought "rich, subdued lustre." It is transparent and accentuates 
the grain of natural or stained woods. Equally suitable for the finest inlaid hardwood or plain Dine floors. 
Never peels nor shows heel marks. Won't scratch or become sticky. Preserves the floor and is sanitary 
because dust and dirt do not adhere. 

Economical— 1 lb. (50c. 1 covers 300 square feet. Put up in 1, 2, 4 and 8 lb. cans. 

Nothing equals it as a finish for furniture and woodwork. 

Write for Our Free Book, ""^g^SSS HS&SP™* 



which contains expert advice on the finish and care of floors, woodwork and furniture. 
A book to read and keep for future reference. Write for the book now and 



A *,lr Fnr FVoo Stiimnlo an d mention your dealer's name when you write. 
ASM. r or m. rets iiawpie dealers in paint, everywhere. 



Sold by 



We guarantee Old English to give entire satisfaction when used as directed, or money ref unded. 
A. S. BOYLE & COMPANY, Department B, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Largest Exclusive Manufacturers of Floor Wax in the World. 





Have given absolute satisfaction 
for thirty=five years. Remember this fact when 
YOU buy a revolver. 



Simplicity of construction, perfect safety, 
absolute reliability in action and superior 
accuracy are the qualities which characterize 
an H & R Revolver. 



fl Sold by all first 
class dealers. 

fl Send for Illus- 
trated Catalog. 

fl Rather than 
accept a sub- 
stitute order 
from us direct. 



TheTargetGriB 

makes you 
a sure 



The First combination of a medium- 
priced revolver with a perfect full grip — 
the best for target practice. For this reason 
always look for our name on barrel and 
target trade mark on handle. 




Harrington & Richardson Arms Co. 

494 Park Ave., Worcester, Mass. 



r,2 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 




THE HEALTH of yourself and family is in dan- 
ger if you use most other refrigerators than the 
Monroe. •! The Monroe is the only solid por- 
celain refrigerator. Most other refrigerators have cracks 
and corners which cannot be cleaned, tfl The Monroe 
can be sterilized and rendered germlessly clean in every 
part in an instant by simply wiping it out with a 
cloth wrung from hot water, tjj This is not true of 
most*refrigerators — no matter what is claimed by the 

NOTE — You cannot buy a Monroe Refrigerator from any 
dealer. We sell direct to users only. 



makers. ^ This is why The Monroe is installed in the 
best flats and apartments, and why The Monroe is found 
today in a large majority of the very best homes in the 
United States. ^ And it's why you should have The 
Monroe in your home — for the sake of knowing your 
food is clean, and to protect the family's health at the 
same time. Read our liberal offer: 




G» e Monroe 

Is Sent to You, Anywhere, on 

60 DAYS' FREE TRIAL 

Lowest Factory Prices. We Pay the Freight. 



■J 



Q J 



Write today for The Monroe Catalog. Pick out the size 
and style refrigerator you wish to try, convince us in your 
own way that you are entitled to our trust and confidence, 
and we'll send you a refrigerator at once, all freight prepaid. 
Use it in your own home 60 days and prove to yourself that 
The Monroe is all we claim. Then decide whether you 
wish to keep it. Remember, all risk and expense are ours. 

WRITE TO-DAY. 
MONROE REFRIGERATOR CO., Station A, Cincinnati, Ohio 



Buffalo IhmSprwgs Wm 

"In Uric Acid Diathesis, Gout, Rheumatism, Lithaemia, 
and the like, Its Action is Prompt and Lasting'." 

George Ben. Johnston, M. D., ] mm l mm O mf Richmond, Va., Ex-President Southern 

Surgical and Gynecological Association, Ex- President Virginia Medical Society , and Professor 

of Gynecology and Abdominal Surgery, Medical College of Virginia : il If I were asked 

what mineral water has the widest range of usefulness, I would unhesitatingly answer, 

BUFFALO LlTHIA * n ^ r * c Acid Diathesis, Gout, Rheumatism, Lithaemia, 
VvErftM* IrtliniJii and the like, its beneficial effects are prompt and lasting. 

. . . Almost any case of Pyelitis and Cystitis will be alleviated by it, and many 
cured. I have had evidence of the undoubted Disintegrating', Solvent and Eliminat- 
ing powers of this water in Renal Calculus, and have known its long continued use to 
permanently break up the gravel -forming habit." 

Dr. Joseph Holt, of New Orleans ', Ex- President of the State Board of Health of 
Louisiana, says: I Onwraw** 1 vruvm \Umrrw?o * n affections of the kidneys and 
have prescribed DUrHllU LITMIii WATfcK urinary passages, particularly in 
Gouty subjects in Albuminuria, and in irritable condition of the Bladder and 
Urethra in females. The results satisfy me of its extraordinary value in a large class 
of cases usually most difficult to treat." Medical treatment on request. 

For Sale by General Drug and Mineral Water Trade. 

Buffalo UtimSsrows ita Co ***££.*** 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOR THE HOME 



53 




See the Point? 

Do you know whv ice melts in the form of a cone 
in McCray Refrigerators? The fact that it does 
is the very best evidence that McCray Refrigerators 
have an active circulation of pure, cold, dry air. 

Damp walls or a stale smell indicate poor circulation 
of air, and a perfect circulation in your refrigerator is 
just as important to your health as good ventilation 
in your bedroom. 

McCray 
ftgjrigerators 

have the McCray Patent- System of Refrigeration 
which insures a perfect circulation of pure, dry, cold 
air. They are lined with White Opal Glass, Porcelain 
Tile or Odorless White- Wood. No zinc is ever used in 
their construction, as zinc forms oxides that poison 
milk and other food and is very dangerous. 

Let us tell you how easy it is to have a McCray 
arranged to be iced from the outside, thus keeping 
the ice man out of the house. 

Do you know why McCray Refrigerators use only 
one-half as much ice as ordinary refrigerators, and 
why they are the cleanest, sweetest, dryest and most 
sanitary refrigerators made? 

McCray Refrigerators are made in all sizes, ready 
for immediate shipment, and are Built to Order for all 
purposes. Every refrigerator is positively guaranteed 
to give lasting satisfaction. 

Send Us This Coupon 

Ask for catalog No. 83 for Residences; No, 47 for 
Hotels, Clubs, Restaurants; No. 65 for Grocers 
No. 58 for Meat Markets or No. 71 for Florists 
They are the best refrigerator catalogs 
published 



McCray Refrigerator Company 
680 Mill Street, 
Kendallville, Ind. 



cCray 
efriijerator 
Company, 
680 Mill Street, 
Eeodallville, Indiana. 




Branches in all 

principal 

cities. 



Street 



Gentlemen: — Please send 
me your free Catalog of 
cCray Refrigerators. No. — 



City State 




Masterpieces in Brass" 



is the title of a beautiful book on Art 
Beds, superbly illustrated in colors on 
fine plate paper, and shows Art Beds 
in French, English, and Dutch Colonial, 
Italian and French Renaissance, Arts 
and Crafts, Louis XIV, New England, 
Queen Anne, and Empire designs, and 
gives complete information about them. 
Sent free for the name of your best 
furniture dealer. 

Art Beds give comfort, tone, and char- 
acter to the home. i hey are made espe- 
cially for people who appreciate good things done 
in good taste and purity of style. Art Beds have 
wonderful durability — proof against denting — are 
made in velvet or bright gold finish which will 
last a lifetime, requiring no attention. 

Art Beds will always shine — 
just dust them. 

Ask your dealer to show you Art Beds. 

As the edition of our interesting book is limited, 
send us your name and the name of your dealer 
now, and you will receive a copy by return mail. 
Art Bedstead Co., 37 11 Rockwell St., Chicago 





^J 



:- 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— VEHICLES 







V , PART of a fine vehicle becomes such by chance. There :? 
Jl ■ but one best material for vehicle hubs, one best wood for 
• ^^* ' spokes and rims — another for panels — still another for frames. 

There is one best way of treating each material and best methods of 
tring the m all together. 

In short, e ehicle is a fine vehicle just so far as it is made of the besi 

materials, and according to intelligent knowledge of the best construction 
It has taken over pears of progress for the name-plate on Studefl 

baker vehicles to reach its present signifi- 
cance. The story is interesting — tl 
result is convinc'r _ 

Studebaker vehicles, harness and 
accessories are sold at all Studebaker 
* repositories, 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 

- - 

SOLTH BEND. JND. 




rO. ILL.— Scadefcaker Bros. 
:>dt wiVrr Bras. 



REPOSITORIES 

- 
Bras. '- - '-- California, Misaioa aad 

LT LAKE CITY. UTAH— Stade- 
taterT B f Utah, 157 aad 139 

- - - •-■-'.- 

TJLAXIi. OBE.— Stadefeu: 
'ortinrest, 3* to S3* East Morri- 



.SEATTLE. W 

■.:-.-. 

DE>~ lO.— Studebaker 

.:-. :: -.-. . ;:.,,_■ = -- ■--■:- 

DALLAS. TE -debater 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— RUBBER TIRES 



55 




Whatever Hie "Road 



Goodrich Tires 



are ready for it— 

whether rocks and ruts, 
mud and clay, or granite blocks, they are ready to carry their load with 
speed and safety. With boulevard ease and resilience, but with cross-country 
durability, they take roads as they find them — because they are made 
ready by the Goodrich method of building tires, in the largest rubber 
factory in the world. The proof of their superiority is recorded on every 
highway in America — and the records are yours for the asking. 

The B. F. Goodrich Company, Akron, Ohio 

Our Products are also handled in 



CHICAGO. 24 East Lake St. 
PHILADELPHIA, 1332 Arch St. 
BOSTON, 161 Columbus Ave. 
DETROIT. 266 Jefferson Ave. 
CLEVELAND, 2188 Ninth St., S. E 
ST. LOUIS, 3926-28 Olive St. 
DENVER, 1536 Glenarm St. 



SAN FRANCISCO, 50-60 Fremont St. 
LOS ANGELES, 818 S. Broadway. 
SEATTLE, 310 First Ave., South. 
LONDON. 7 Snow Hill, E. C. 
PARIS, No. 2 Rue Brunei, 

Avenue de la Grande Armee. 



NEW YORK, 66-68 Reade St. 
BUFFALO, 731 Main St. 

By 

THE B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY 

of New York. 



V ** 



Our Goodrich Solid Rubber Tires started in the lead fifteen years ago and have held their own ever since 






i ,«■ - . --— — -m ma a ft f-^-*.. -.■>...- 



,.#....^.....— »,,V.I«J<iJ.. 






56 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— AUTOMOBILES 



Model G 
4 cylinders— 25 h. p. 




Here are two men : One bought a Cadillac Model .G at $2,000 and got 
a car of superior performance, of thorough reliability, luxurious and comfortable. 
The other paid $5,000 for a car and got exactly the same qualities — he couldn't have gotten a 
better machine than the Cadillac for average needs had he paid twice that amount. 

•Investigate Model G ! It's a racy, stylish car full of life and ginger, just bubbling over with 
energy and "go," with power that seems to defy all resistance; smooth, positive, silent action, 
the result of proper principles properly applied. 

Rated at 25 horse power, but since power is as power does , the average Model G owner feels 
as though he had "40 horse" under him. Cadillac construction makes every ounce count. 

All the touches of refined appointment you could 
wish for are found in Model G. It's the car that brings 
every phase of motoring at its best — with the incon- 
venience and needless expense left out. 

Nothing but a demonstration can convince you 
why. See your nearest dealer. Send for Catalog G 33. 



Trices include pair dash oil lamps, tail lamp and horn. 

CADILLAC MOTOR CAR CO., Detroit, Mich. 

Member A.L.A.M. 




Roadster 

$2,000 




THE NEW NATIONALS 

TOURING CARS, ROADSTERS, AND LIMOUSINES 

meet every requirement of the experienced purchaser in ac- 
cessibility, simplicity of construction, ease of oper- 
ation: are quiet, and have ample power. The 
National has a ball-bearing motor, aluminum body, 
two complete ignition systems, perfect spring sus- 
pension, and contains everything that has proven best 
in modern motor car construction. 

Model K— 4 C'vl., 4%x 5. Model R— 6 Cvl.,4% x 4%. 

Model N— 4 Cyl., 5x5. Model T— 6 Cji., 5x5. 

Write for particulars and our booklet, 
"What Owners Say About Their Nationals." 

THE NATIONAL MOTOIt VEHICLE CO., 1010 E. 22nd Street, 
INDIANAPOLIS, 1ND. 




Putting the Car in Commission 

When you put your car "in commission," you 
want it to "stay put." Good lubrication is al- 
most the first requirement. Avoidance of car- 
bon deposits is of prime necessity. Both are 
accomplished by the use of ZEROLENE,thenew 
friction-proof, trouble proof, carbon-proof oil. 
This oil is produced in only one place in the world. 

IER0LENE 

Auto-Lubricating Oil 

is made in only one grade. This one grade works 
perfectly in every type of gasoline engine, in 
both summer and winter. Leaves practically 
no carbon deposit, and keeps cylinders and 
spark plugs clean. 

Sealed cans with non-refilling spout protect 
against substitution of inferior oils. Also put up 
in barrels for garage trade. Sold by dealers 
everywhere. 

STANDARD OIL COMPANY 

(Incorporated) 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — MISCELLANEOUS 



57 



" The World's Best Table Water " 



\he Hit of the Hour, "Richard's Poor Almanack," beautifully bound and illustrated humorous hook, sent for 10c. Address 

While Rock, Flatiron Building, N. Y. 




ocomooue 





40 RUNABOUT 
$4750. 

60H.P. MOTOR.' SEATS FOUR PERSONS 

ThzSoCOmobile Company of America 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Branches 
NEW YORK. - PHILADELPHIA- CHICAGO- 30STON 




I. o. b. Factory, with five lamps, horn and tools 



C More power, greater refine- 
ment — is the message of our new 
Catalog. "It's a pleasure — not 
a crucifying luxury — to own 
a Northern" because it has 
the simplest control and 
simplest mechanism of any 
car. You can drive and 
care for it yourself. Write 
for new Catalog — explains 
its exclusive advantages 
in detail. 



5* 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS—RUBBER HEELS 




O'Sullivan s Heels of New Rubber bridge the chasm between 
the barefooted savage and civilized man. The savage walked gracefully because 
he used his foot muscles and his toes and had the earth for a cushion. The disuse of 
the foot muscles and the impact of hard leather heels cause improper attitude in walking, 
which in turn causes flat foot and kindred deformities. Walking is man's natural means of loco- 
motion and is universally conceded to be the healthiest and best exercise. 

Heels of New Rubber fitted to your walking shoes enable you to walk naturally, gracefully, 
and faster, with the same effort. The new rubber absorbs the impact at each step, saves nervous 
and physical strain, and restores the natural cushion to the human foot. Price, 50c. All dealers. 
Specify "O'Sullivan's" for new rubber. By mail send 35c. and diagram of heel to the makers. 

Valuable Booklet on Walking, Walk- r\>0 11* D 11 - r* T 11 TV /T „ 

ing Shoes, and Foot-fitting for a postal. CJ bulllVan Rubber L>0., Lowell, MaSS. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— RUBBER TIRES 



59 




After a vehicle tire has persistently made good 
for over twelve years, it isn't necessary to do 
more than remind you of the name — - 

Kelly-Springfield 

Made at Akron, Ohio. Sold by carriage manufacturers everywhere. 
" Rubber Tired is a book about them. Sent free on request. 

CONSOLIDATED RUBBER TIRE CO. New York Office, 20 Vesey St 




6o 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — MISCELLANEOUS 






A Summer Vacation Trip 

to Alaska on the S. S. n Spokane of the F 
Coast S. S. Co., is a unique, picturesque and cc 
fortable experience. Leave Puget Sound ports 
1 6, July 1,16 and 3 1 , and August 1 5. 

Splendid train service between Chicago and 
the Pacific Coast <via the 

Chicago & North Western Railw 

Low round trip excursion rates daily from all points 
Steamship rate for round trip, including meals and berth, $ 

Write for maps, itineraries and full particulars. 

W. B. Kniskern, Passenger Traffic Manager, C. & N 
NW675 Chicago. III. 



,<; 



^ 






3$ 9$3& 

S? NEW YORK. 4?%T 

SPECIAL 



£aj£39£gwrv'' 



Exclusive, smartly 
shaped hosiery in 
latest New York, Lon- 
don, and Paris styles. 

Special : for men, 
women and children ; 
fine silk lisle, cotton 
soles, beautifully 

shaped ; brilliant, fast 
black, and splendid 
shade of tan. Sold near- 
ly everywhere at 6oc. a 
pair. P. & P. Special, 
35c., 3 pair for $100. 

No. 8oo — Beautifully 
hand embroidered silk 
lisle for ladies. Value 
$1.50 pair; special, 85c. 
(Silk, $1.98.) 

No. 801 — Finest qual- 
ity silk lisle, very elas- 
tic, value 75c. pair; 
special, 49c. 



' 



No. 802— Pure silk, 
all colors, cotton 
soles. Value $2.00 j 
pair; special, $1.19. 

No. 803— Children's | 
linen knee ribbed I 
stocking. F.xcep- 1 

tional value (P. & 
P. only), 35c. pair, 3 
for $1.00. 

No. 804— Latest Fifth i 

Avenue fad. Men's set | 

of sox and necktie to 1 

match. Pure thread silk H 

sox. Cotton soles- 1 

$3.00 a set. 

Large stock reserved i 

for mail order patrons. 1 

Shipped immediately . 

Express Prepaid on re- 1 
ceipt of special price. 



Our "Finest Hosiery " Catalogue C illustrates hotu much 
■we save you. Mailed Free. 

PECK & PECK, 481 Fifth Avenue, New York 




SUMMER TRIPS 

to the delightful wonderland regions, NOR- 
WAY, SPITZBERGEN, ICELAND and 
to the NORTHERN CAPITALS; by 

magnificent twin-screw cruising vessels 
Oceana, Kronprinzessin Cecilie and 
Meteor, leaving Hamburg during June, 
July and August. 

Send for our illustrated booklet 
giving full particalars. 

HAMBURG=AMERICAN LINE 

37 Broadway, New York 

BOSTON PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 

ST. LOUIS SAN FRANCISCO 







CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MISCELLANEOUS 



6t 




'T'HREE things to remember 
in buying silk gloves : 

1 Pure silk wears best as well as 
looks best. 

2, Cheap dye injures the fabric, 
lessens the wear. 

3. Get as good a fit in silk as you 
do in glace or suede, it is just 
as important. 

BUT if you are careful 
to get 

F^WNeS 

Gloves 

you can forget all these things, 
because "If it's a Fownes, that's all 
you need to know about a glove." 
For one hundred and thirty^one 
years, one ambition, one accomplish^ 
ment; to make the best gloves in 
the world for Men, Women 
and Children. 



Sold by good stores every- 
where — never under any 
other name than Fownes. 



May 1908 





Where will I spend 
this year s vacation? 

A DIRONDACK MOUNTAINS 
/-\ may be just the answer to 
this question. You can 
wear business clothes or a dress 
suit, fish, hunt or camp, play 
tennis, golf, bowl, dance or lose 
yourself among the mountains' 
jL shady nooks and quiet retreats. I 
^ You can stop at palatial hotels, ^ 
boarding-houses, farm-houses, 
cottages or camps, just as you 
desire. 

I will gladly send you an itinerary of a trip 
from your home city to the Adirondack 
Mountains and return (side trips if you wish) 
— illustrated literature, maps, information 
on hotels and incidental expenses — and sum 
up the entire trip into an approximate cost. 
Hoping you will avail yourself of this oppor- 
tunity for additional information, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 

J. F. FAIRLAMB, 
Room 339 Gen. Passenger Agent. 

Grand Central Station, 
New York, N. Y. 



0? 



\9l 



^fSuEmnt^ 



(ENTRAL 

1 LINES ■:■' 



62 CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 




On the list of The Bookman's "best-selling 
books" for eleven consecutive months. 

THE LADY OF 
THE DECORATION 

By Frances Little 

" The plot is as tenuous as gossamer, but the charm of the brave and incorrigible 
little widow breathes from every page. The laughter and pathos of her kinder- 
garten work, the thrill and the horror of the war with Russia as seen in the mil- 
itary hospitals at Hiroshima, the joy of living and the unquenchable cry of her 
own lonely heart — these keep one constantly alternating between smiles and an 
unexpected mistiness of the eyes. " — Chicago Record-Herald. 

" BRIM FULL OF CHARM." . Only $1.00 



"The wholesomeness of it — that's what particularly appeals to me 
in it, besides the cleverness of workmanship, the sanity and sweetness 
of it. " — From a letter from a stranger. 

UNCLE WILLIAM 

By Jennette Lee 

" It is a book worth carrying with you to read by the side of still waters — this 
story of an old sailor fisherman on the coast of Nova Scotia who managed to do 
so much good to a New York artist and his sweetheart, and incidentally others. 
It is a little on the Mrs. AViggs order, but still radically different. . . . Anyway 
it is a charming and original bit of literature. , , — Des Moines Mail and Times. 

"It is full of so much tenderness and compassion and human sympathy that an 
effort to skeletonize the story would look like stretching a clothes-line across a 
bed of roses. READ IT YOURSELF. "— Los Angeles Express. 

Frontispiece by Steele. Only $1.00 

i 

THE CENTURY CO. UNION SQUARE NEW YORK 



CENTURY AD VERTISEMENTS— MISCELLANEOUS 



63 



The Thousands who have 

Cabot's Shingle 

have not done so hap-hazard. They have investi- 
gated, calculated — and adopted. They have got 
beautiful coloring effects, with a depth and rich- 
ness impossible in paint, and at half the cost — 
50% cheaper than paint. 

Investigation costs a postal card 
request /or samples and catalogue. 

Samuel Cabot, Inc., Sole Mfrs. 
143 MilK St., Boston, Mass. 

Agents at all Central Points 




Hunt &• Grey, Architects, Los Angeles 




£ if BAYS 

•■V Known as the 

"Killarney of 
America " 




Write for copy of Handsome Booklet descriptive of the terri 
tory, to any of the following : 

G. W. VAL'X, 917 Merchants Loan & Trust Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
F. P. DWYER, 290 Broadway, New York City. 
K. H. BOYNTON, 360 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 
W. R0BI1VS0N, 506 Park Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 



W. E. DAVIS. 

Passenger Traffic Manager, 
MONTREAL. 



G. T. BELL, 

Gen. Passenger & Ticket Agent, 
MONTREAL. 



^HablaV. Espanol? 

Parlez=Vous Francais? 
Sprechen Sie Deutsch? 
Parlate Italiano? 



I3ST TDHJNT -yjST JbJJbJ 

You can at your own home, by the 

MEISTERSCHAFT SYSTEM, 

Learn to speak fluently either Spanish, French, Italian or German. 
Pupils taught as if actually in the presence of the teacher. Terms 
for membership, $5.00 for each language. All questions answered 
and all exercises corrected free of charge. Part I (3 Lessons), 
either language, sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

MEISTERSCHAFT PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

313 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 



$10,000 for one R.EEL 

To produce the first perfect 

"TAKAPAR.T 



99 




REEL 



Cost us over $10,000. Other 
reel makers say we'll go 
broke selling a $10 reel 
for $5. We'll take the 
risk, because we know 
every angler who sees it 
will buy it. Up-to-date 
dealers sell it. We make 
repairs (if any) free. Send 
for circular. 

A. F. NEISSELBACH ©. BRO. 
61 PROSPECT STREET. NEWARK, N. J. 



64 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINE SHIRTS 



THE exclusiveness of the 
color -fast patterns and the 
very clever way in which they 
are made leave little between 
Cluett Shirts and the product 
of the custom shop, aside from 
what the wearer saves in first cost 




TOWN AND 
COUNTRY 

SHIRTS 

Sold only under the Cluett Label. 

$1.50 §j more 




"To-day's Shirt," a booklet, on request 
CLUETT, PEABODY & COMPANY, 
439 River Street. Troy, N. Y. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINE COLLARS 



°5 



,..^<^ 






"Lusitania" 

The new 

Arrow 





COLLAR which will meet 



every summer requirement 
and do it at no sacrifice to either 
one's comfort or appearance. 
While new it is conservative, and 
will prove a becoming collar to 

a 1 m r\ C t a r» T r t-n on Clupeco Shrunk, Quarter Sizes, 

d-llllUM ally llld.ll. 15 C ents each — 2 for 25 cents. 

Sold only under the Arrow Label. Send for"Proper Dress, ' 'a style book by an authority- 
CLUETT. PEABODY & COMPANY. 439 River Street, Troy. N.Y. 



66 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINE HATS 




KNOX 

NEW YORK 



^m 




ASHION permits just enough variety 
in the shape and weave of straw hats to 
suit every man's requirements, but it forbids 

extremes. Of course, the only way to be 

sure of style is to get a 

KNOX 

HAT 




And that is not the only reason you should 
purchase a hat with the Knox trade-mark in it: 
quality and durability must be present, if you 
want a fresh-looking hat all Summer. 
Quality, Durability and Style — only the Knox 
trade-mark will guarantee all three. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MATTRESSES 



67 




Our 144 page book "The Test of 
Time/* is mailed free on request 

For many years we have been advertising to YOU — and to you personally. We have 
told you truthfully that we have something you need, that is both better and cheaper 
than the mattress you now try to sleep upon. Don't you think you should look further 
into this question of comfort and health in sleep? Frankly — isn't it "your move? " The 

Ostermoor Mattress $ 15. 

is positively and without question the best mattress ever 
made. It is built — not stuffed. It is clean, sanitary and 
attractive — not repulsive like the thought of slumber on the 
manes and tails of unknown horses of unsavory memory. 
Let our book tell the whole story in word and picture — over 
200 illustrations help make the argument convincing. Use 
the coupon or send postal. If you need no further proof — 
buy an Ostermoor at once — but get the genuine. 

You Can Buy of the Ostermoor Dealer in Your City 

(We will give you his name on request) 
IP HE HAS NONE IN STOCK, WE WILL SHIP YOU ONE DIRECT. 
EXPRESS PREPAID, SAME DAY YOUR CHECK IS RECEIVED 

We sell on 30 Nights* Free Trial and refund your money if dissatisfied. Accept no 

I substitute ! The Genuine Ostermoor is not for sale at stores 
anywhere, except by Authorized Agents, whose names 
we will furnish ! Don't go to anybody else — you will 
be deceived. We lose a sale and you lose the value 
of your money through a "just as good" imitation. 
You will find the name "Ostermoor" sewed on 
the end of every genuine mattress. Insist that 
the dealer shows it to you or refuse to buy. 

Write for the Book To-day 

OSTERMOOR & CO. 

122 Elizabeth St., New York 




Mattresses Cost 

Express Charges Prepaid 

4 r -6 n — 451bs.$15.00 
4'.0"— 40 " 13.35 
3'-6 n — 35 " 11.70 
3'-0 n — 30 " 10.00 
2«_6«— 25 " 8.35 

All 6 feet 3 inches long 
In two parts, 50 cents extra 



Cut off 
coupon or 
send postal 
card 



/ OSTERMOOR & CO. 
/ 122 Elizabeth St., New York 

' Without obligation on my 
part, please send me your 144- 
page book and free 

SAMPLES 

of ticking used on the Ostermoor, and 
the name of my Ostermoor dealer. 



Name 



Addi 



Canadian Agency: Alaska Feather & 
Down Co., Ltd., Montreal 



es 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINE TOBACCO 




CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS- FINE TOBACCO 



6 9 



w^stuS™"' **■ 










<0fo Cttglfef) Curbe Cut 

41, The mild smoke — no "heaviness." The cool smoke — burns gently. 
Convenient— in a curved box that fits the pocket. Economical — "a 
slice to a pipeful." Made of the richest Burley leaf. Sold in more 
countries than any other pipe tobacco. 

$3,750 Prize Limerick Contest 

C. The makers of OLD ENGLISH CURVE CUT are conducting a fascinat- 
ing Limerick Contest for May, June and July, 1908. This contest is open to 
everyone, free of any entrance charge or consideration whatsoever. 
C. Prizes aggregating #3,000 in cash and $750 worth of presents are given to 
those who supply the best last lines. This incomplete Limerick for May is as 
follows : 



C The awarding of prizes will be 
done by a committee of three com- 
petent individuals of our selection, 
and their decision must be accepted 
as final and conclusive. 
C The prizes will be sent to the 
successful contestants within two 
weeks after the close of the month 
in which their lines are entered. 
C. In sending in lines, write plainly with full name and address. The above in- 
formation enables you to enter the contest, but if you are interested in regard to 
the details in the matter of prizes, full particulars will be mailed you free, upon 
request to the undersigned. 

Old English Curve Cut is 10c a box 

THE AMERICAN TOBACCO CO., 81 Montgomery St., Jersey City, N. J. 



Cried a smoker, "Alas for my plight ! 

"Wife objects to my smoking at night." 
But his friend said, "Tut, tut, 
"Smoke Old English Curve Cut, 

The fifth line should rhyme with the first two lines, 
and it is for you to compose it. 



7o 



CEXTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



FOR-THE>CHURCH-SERVICE 



HYMNS OF 

WORSHIP 

& SERVICE 

Meets the demand for a hymnal of moderate size and cost. The most 
popular book of the day. Of the 800 churches which have adopted it 
in three years, the following are examples: 

PARK STREET, Boston FIRST, Washington . FIRST, San Francisco 

PILGRIM, Boston ASSOCIATE, Baltimore SOUTH, Chicago 

400 pages, 543 hymns and tunes, with Responsive Readings. 
Introductory price, cloth, 60 cents; hal£morocco, 75 cents. 




CHAPEL EDITION OF 

HYMNS OF WORSHIP & SERVICE 

"A most remarkable book for the money and splendidly adapted to the 
work of the church." — Rev. Carl Sumner Jones, North Congregational 
Church, Detroit. Already widely used. 

282 pageSf with Responsive Readings. Introductory price (full cloth) 35 cents. 




HYMNS OF WORSHIP & SERVICE 
FOR THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 

Ready October first, 1908. 

Good hymns and good music. The children will appreciate it. It 
contains orders of worship consisting of forms for worship suitable for 
different seasons and occasions. 

About 300 hymns and tunes. Introductory price (full cloth) 25 cents. 

Returnable sample copies of any or all of above sent to pastors and* 
committees without charge. 



THE CENTURY CO.- UNION SQUARE -NEW YORK 





CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— MISCELLANEOUS 



7i 




l £AN 




MOUTH 
THROAT 

Dioxogen bubbles as it cleanses in- 
fectious, harmful substances from 
mouth, teeth, and throat. It is a thor- 
ough scientific antiseptic cleanser of all 
tissues. Sold everywhere. 




Book N — "Health Cleanliness for 
School Children" — very inter- 
esting and valuable, MAILED 

The Oakland Chemical Co., New York 



FREE 



EUROPE 



Seven limited, conducted 
parties. April, May, June, July. 
Everything first class. "Old World Tourist Guide" FREE 
DE POTTER TOURS, 33 Broadway, X.T. (39th Yean 

ri TDAPp Select Parties, Expert Leaders, Choice Routes, 
Ei^Ji^.vrnj Most popular and successful tours. Exclusive 
American Travel Club, Wilmington, Delaware. 

EUROPE and ORIENT 

I Twenty-seventh season of uninterrupted success. Com- 
fort and leisnre. Thorongrh sisrhtseein? under expert guidance. 
Limited parties. All arrangements first-class. 

DR. and MRS. HOWARD S. PAIXE. 
148 Ridge Street, Gleiis Falls, New York 



Delicious Coffee 

demands perfect making. The 

"Marion Harland" 

Coffee Pot fulfils this condition. 
Uses 40 per cent, less coffee. 

Ask your dealer or write 
SILVER tc CO., 310 Hewes St., BROOKLYN. I .¥. 





MONTAUK 




, ^ , r , — - c Send stamp 
CAMERAj for catalog. 
ENSIGN FILMS, PAPERS, 
IMPERIAL PLATES 

Everything Ptiutugrxxphic 

G. GENNERT, Dept.T 
NEW YORK CHICAGO 
24 E. 13th St. 53 Lake St. 




Promoted by Exercise 
and Cuticura Soap 

In the promotion of Skin 
Health, Cuticura Soap, as- 
sisted by Cuticura, the great 
Skin Cure, is undoubtedly- 
superior to all other skin 
soaps because of its influ- 
ence in allaying irritation, 
inflammation, and clogging 
of the pores, the cause of 
disfiguring eruptions. In 
antiseptic cleansing, in stim- 
ulating sluggish pores, in 
emollient and other proper- 
ties, they have no rivals. 

Sold throughout the world. Depots : London. 27, 
Charterhouse Sq. : Paris. 5. Eue de la Paix : Austra- 
lia. R. Towns A Co.. Svdnev : India, B. K. Paul, 
Calcutta: China, Hong Kong Drug Co. : Japan, 
Maruva. Ltd.. Tokio: Russia, Ferrein. Moscow; 
So. Africa. Lennon. Ltd.. Cape Town. etc. : t.>. A., 
Potter Drug A: Chern. Corp., Sole Props., Boston. 
r^-Post-free, Cuticura Book on Care of the t>kin. 



7 2 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BUSINESS HELPERS 



■ ■■■ ..p. ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■«■!!■■■■■ caa: 



■i i y M 



I 



THE MAN WHO DID 




ONE day a manufacturer came to a certain 
city in the Middle West to secure a distrib- 
uting point for a new line of goods. A new line. 
But not new merchandise. For such goods had 
been long in use. This manufacturer, however, 
made a better grade. He charged a little more. 
He proposed to explain, by magazine advertising, 
how such merchandise is produced, how to 
recognize purity and quality, and why a trifling 
extra cost means good value to the consumer. 

This city had three merchants in that line 
of business. 

The first was a merchant-prince — estab- 
lished forty years, rich, .prominent in business 
and public affairs. He refused to handle this 
new line. 

"Why should I lend our reputation to build 
up your business ? No advertising you can print 
in the magazines will make your word as good 
as ours in this city." 

The second merchant was the largest com- 
petitor of the first. He was wiHing to order a 
small lot of the goods, but said they must take 
their chances — he did n't propose to let any 
outsider build on his reputation, either. 

The third merchant in this town was a be- 
ginner — obscure, hampered for capital. But 
this third man saw that the promotive work 
the manufacturer proposed to do, if actively 
backed up by himself, could be made a strong 
lever in building a new business. 

Now, the manufacturer needed 
tributer in that town. Preferably 
the leading store if possible. But 
his choice between a large luke- 
warm distributer like the second 
merchant, or an enthusiastic little 
one, like the third. Eventually 
he chose the latter and gave him 
the exclusive agency, assisted him 
with advertising in the local news- 
papers, gave him favorable credits. 

When the magazine advertising 
began the small merchant had 
these new goods, in his tiny win- 
dow. Through the mails and the 
newspapers, too, he let people 
know that he carried this identical 
line, in a full range of sizes, and 
that they could be bought nowhere 
else in that town. He backed 



the manufacturer's magazine advertising loyally 
and intelligently, and swung into the current of the 
new demand. 

That was five years ago. 

The other day a curious thing happened. 
Two men boarded trains in that town, went East, 
and walked into this manufacturer's office to- 
gether to bid competitively for the agency for 
those goods. One was the merchant-prince. 
The other was his erstwhile competitor. They 
were eager to secure what both had refused five 
years before. 

Why? 

Because informing advertising, read by hun- 
dreds of thousands of people, had made goods 
bearing that manufacturer's name the standard 
for quality and trustworthiness. 

These two merchants had heard that there 
might be an opportunity to secure this right and 
rectify their past error of policy. For that once 
obscure little merchant had grown to a point where 
he was selling his business to seek a wider field. 

Neither of them got this agency, however. 
The manufacturer informed them that it could 
in no way be affected by the sale of the present 
owner's business, because it was part of his 
good-will — an asset that he had helped create, 
to be sold by him to his successor. 



a loyal dis- 
a big one — 
he had only 



/7?QuoinQub 
TITJoT Key 

^HIS little 16- page 
monthly, half the size 
of magazine page, will be 
sent on request to any Bus- 
iness Man who is interested 
in advertising. Address 

Quoin Club 

in Fifth Ave., N.Y. 



National advertising by manufacturers in the 
monthly and weekly periodicals has put hun- 
dreds of new commodities on the merchant's 
shelves, increasing his turnover, and adding to 
the public comfort. 

The advertised commodity is 
what causes trade to grow fastest, 
not only in volume, but in quality 
of demand. For only the manu- 
facturer can undertake nowadays 
to show the consumer where 
quality lies, and only national 
advertising will do it. 

The best interests of merchant, 
consumer, and producer require a 
free channel for the advertised 
commodities from factory to fam- 
ily. The wisest retail practice to- 
day is that which gives the adver- 
tising manufacturer good facilities 
for delivering what he has sold. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— WEARING APPAREL 



73 



DE pinna 

394 FIFTH AVENUE AT 36th STREET 
NEW TORK 

Boys', Young Men's and Girls' 
Summer attire now ready 

Novelties in Little Boys' Wash Suits, 

Boys' Norfolk Suits in light weight woolens 

and Imported linens. 

Girls' and Misses' Jumper Dresses, Sailor Dresses, 

Coats, and Riding Habits. 

SHOES 

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

The "Anniped " Registered Shoe comes in 
all styles for all ages — from $ 1.65 to $4.75 



SEND 4 CENTS IN STAMPS FOR OUR 
HANDSOME ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 





Socks 



have been 
worn by 
particular 
people. 



During all these years the trade-mark ' ' <&**%*& - » ' branded on the toe has stood for QUALITY. 
The demand for these goods has for several years exceeded the supply, for which there 
must be a reason, and the reason is that Shawknlt Socks maintain their standard of quality 
and are the greatest hosiery value ever offered the buying public. 

From 1898 to 1908 we have more than doubled our manufacturing capacity. Thousands of 
new dealers are selling and recommending Shawknit Socks because of superior quality and the 
satisfaction they give. 

For a trial we recommend that you ask your dealer for Styles 19 s 9 Snowblack — a rich fast 
black — and 5 P 1 Oxford mixture outside, Sanitary white inside, medium weight cottons — 25c. 
per pair, 6 pairs in box, $1.50. If your dealer cannot supply you, order direct, stating size 
desired. 

Beautiful colored 
catalog free. 

Shaw Stocking COi 

Shaw Street 
Lowell 9 Mass* 



Sent to any address in 
United States upon 
receipt of price. 
Sizes 9 to 11>£. 




Shaded lines indicate our mil) in I 898 
Those in outline added since I 898 




74 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— BOOKS 



f; THE LADY 
2FTHE 
DEC2R, 

(U ATI2N 




friend going 
to Europe, 

Why not a 
package of 

BOOKS? 



TH F 

CENTURY 
CO. 



THE 

CENTURY 

CO. 



century CENTURY 
co CO. 



Century 



Seeing England with Uncle John 

Just out. Anne Warner's latest. The book 
to give to one who is going to England and who 
can appreciate fun. Richly illustrated. $1.50. 

Seeing France with Uncle John 

By the same author. Uncle John, followed by 
his family, does sight-seeing on the whirlwind 
order. Richly illustrated. $1.50. 

TWO ENDURING BOOKS 

How to Study Pictures 

For a friend who is about to visit the picture 
galleries. By Charles H. Caffin. 56 illustrations 
cf well-known paintings. 513 pages. $2.00 net. 
Postage 19c. 

Handbook of English Cathedrals 

By Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, illustrated 
by Joseph Pennell. A handy guide which no 
traveler in England should be without. 500 
pages. Cloth, round corners. $2.50. 

THE LATEST FICTION 

Come and Find Me 

Elizabeth Robins's new novel of the Far North 
— "a remarkable book with the widest human 
appeal." Illustrated by Blumenschein. $1.50. 

The Four-Pools Mystery 

Everybody likes a good detective story and here 
is an unusually clever one. It will keep the 
reader up until the last page is turned. Anony- 
mous. $1.50. 

A Fountain Sealed 

A remarkable novel by Anne Douglas Sedgwick. 
Plot, characters, description, are handled with 
consummate skill. 405 pages. $1.50. 

My Lost Duchess 

One of Jesse Lynch Williams' delightful stories. 
A romance of Fifth Avenue. Illustrations by 
Wallace Morgan. $1.50. 

The Cheerful Smugglers 

Here Ellis Parker Butler, author of "Pigs is 
Pigs," and "The Confessions of a Daddy," 
writes one of his very funniest books. A young 
married couple put a tax on everything that en- 
ters their house, including the clothing of their 
guests, to raise money for their baby's education. 
Delightfully illustrated. $1.00. 

AND DO NOT OMIT 

Uncle William 

Jennette Lee's delicious story of an old Nova 
Scotia fisherman. A book of great charm, hav- 
ing in it both humor and pathos. $1.00. 

The Lady of the Decoration 

For the past year one of the six best selling 
books in the United States. A story that goes 
to the heart. By "Frances Little." $1.00. 

Sold by all dealers. Postpaid by 

THE CENTURY CO., 
Union Square New York 



FLOWERS FADE 
and are thrown away 
BOOKS LAST 
and can be passed along 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 



75 



McIGolliei &Son 

America's Largest Publishing House 

£1 





F. COLLIER &> SON are not 
| only publishers of Collier's 

The National Weekly 

They manufacture^ and sell, by 
subscription {entirely separate from Collier's") 
over four million standard books a year 
A few titles on the Collier catalogue follow 



•I 



Balzac (Saint- Aub in Edition, 25vols.) 
Carlyle (Schiller Edition, 20 vols.) 
Cooper (Barley Edition, 25 vols.) 
Crawford, F. Marion (Authorized 

'Edition, 32 vols.) 
Dickens (Cruikshank Edition, 30 

vols.) 
Disraeli (Primrose Edition, 11 vols.) 
Dumas (Historical Edition, 25 vols.) 
Eliot (Arbury Edition, 12 vols.) 
Foreign Classical Romances (20 vols.) 
French Classical Romances (20 vols.) 
Goethe (Complete works, 10 vols.) 
Haggard, H. Rider (Authorized Edi- 
tion, 23 vols.) 
Hugo (Valjean Edition, 9 vols.) 



Irving, Washington (Biographical 
Edition, 15 vols.) 

Kingsley, Charles (Bideford Edition, 
Ik vols.) 

Lincoln (Centennial Edition, 8 vols.) 

Muhlbach (18 vols.) 

Reade, Charles (Ipsden Edition, 16 
vols.) 

Roosevelt, Theodore (Executive Edi- 
tion, 16 vols.) 

Schiller, Friedrich von (Centenary 
Edition, 8 vols.) 

Scott (Bryburgh Edition, 25 vols.) 

Shakespeare (Comedies and Trage- 
dies, 8 vols.) 

Thackeray (Complete icorks, 21+ vols.) 



A complete illustrated catalogue — ioo pages — of 
P. F. Collier & Son's publications will be mailed 
to any address on receipt of five cents in stamps 

Address 

P. F. Collier & Son 

408 West Thirteenth Street 
New York City 



7 6 CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 



In St. Nicholas Homes are 
Necessities, 
Generosities, some 
Extravagances and always 
Buying Power 



Wm. P. Tuttle, Jr., 

Advertising Manager, 

St. Nicholas Magazine. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — PUBLICATIONS 



77 




THE> ARE^l OF Pfi OFKT 

Associarcq^unday M^a^fn^ reache^fbout one- 
the adufejreading population of the United States 

^that is, one-fifth of the buying population— fifty-two 

times a year. Weigh that. 



C. Practical experience has proved that the great profit comes 
from concentrating in important commercial territories. 

C, It is in this Area of Profit that the distribution of the 
Associated Sunday Magazines is concentrated. With the 
exception of a few cities of intermediate size, it practically 
covers that part of the United States between the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Rocky Mountains, and from Canada to a little 
beyond Mason and Dixon's line. 




Issued every week co-opera- 
tively and simultaneously as 
a part of the Sunday editions 
of 



Chicago Record-Herald 
St. Louis Republic 
Philadelphia Press 
Pittsburgh Post 
New York Tribune 
Boston Post 
Washington Star 
Minneapolis Journal 
Rocky Mountain News 
and Denver Times 



THE 

ASSOCIATED 
SUNDAY 
MAGAZINES 

1 Madison Avenue 

NEW YORK 

309 Record-Herald Bldg. 

CHICAGO 



[BOSTON 
[NEW YORK 




Area of Concentration of Wealth and Population of the United States as 
Covered by the Circulation of the Associated Sunday Magazines. 



C The Associated Sunday Magazines reaches 
people who are in the habit of buying what 
they want — a habit that increases as people 
draw together in communities. 



May 1908 



7 8 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 



L'Art de la Mode Patterns 

Are The Best Made 
Because 

1st They are cut by experts in the art of dressmaking. All errors can 
be avoided if you will profit by the experience of these experts. 

2nd The delays, annoyance, and expense of refitting are eliminated. 
With L'Art de la Mode patterns the gown or suit is right the 
first time. 

3rd L'Art de la Mode patterns give each costume the style and grace 
of the original. Choose your next costume, waist or gown from 

L'ART de la MODE 

(The Fashion Authority of America) 

A magazine devoted entirely to fashions. Its designs have a smartness 
and finish equaled by no other fashion publication. 

THE JUNE ISSUE 

(Out April 25th) 

'contains the latest Paris designs for 
summer gowns and wraps, as well as 
many by the foremost fashion artists of 
America. 

Patterns are cut for every design illus- 
trated in L'Art de la Mode — L'Art de 
la Mode is the gruide for the woman who 
makes her own clothes, the woman who 
superintends the making of her clothes 
by others, and the practical dressmaker. 

SOLD BY ALL NEWSDEALERS 




SINGLE COPIES, 35c. 
ONE YEAR, $3.50 



SIX MONTHS, $2^ 
Sample copy, 10 cents 



L'ART de la MODE, 31 East 21st St., New York 

L'Art de la Mode patterns are sold only at the above address. Mail orders 

receive prompt and careful attention. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 



79 




^ 



! 

!: 
I 



Is Hearticulture 
An Exact Science ? 

Oliver Herford says it is, and tells all about it in the 
May Woman's Home Companion — a notable magazine. 
" Is There a Panic in the Marriage Market?" cc Are we 
ready for Our Children ? ' " Europe on Five Dollars a 
Day," "The Garden in May," "The Summer Fashions" 
— all these and many good stories in the May 

WOMAN'S HOME 

COM£AgION 

WOMAN'S HOME COMPANION 

is woman's home companion in 600,000 homes 
One Dollar will make it so in yours. Address 
MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK CITY 

io 'Cents On All Newsstands 



8o 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— PUBLICATIONS 




Are Your 
Children on Board ? 

Children's ideals, standards, characters, and 
opinions are largely moulded by what they read. 

A copy of ST. NICHOLAS in any house- 
hold steadily tends to develop healthy and vigorous 
minds. 

ST. NICHOLAS can be bought at any news- 
stand for twenty-five cents. It will 
give children a voyage to Storyland 
they will never forget. 






The One Great 



Dear Editor: 

I wish to congratu- 
late you on your 
April number of ST. 
NICHOLAS; it is 
excellent. 

A Boy's Mother. 

March 31st. 



Children's Magazine 

ST. NICHOLAS 

25 cents a copy at all news-stands and book-stores 
THE CENTURY CO. UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — MISCELLANEOUS 



MITCHELL'S SKESS 

AN Art Book for 1908, which enables you to make selections 
in your own home. Illustrates 1200 Mitchell Designs in 
High Grade Furniture — Standard for 72 years. Colonial and 
Period Reproductions of exceptional beauty for refined tastes. 





We invite correspondence. 



Our stock of 
Oriental and 
Domestic Rugs is large. 

Although Catalog costs 81.50 to publish, we'll send copy 
Free to those interested for 25 cents (to cover mailing 
expense), giving credit for that amount on first order. 

THE ROBERT MITCHELL FURNITURE CO. 6i6 cinIinASti? o? ct 




is the Underwear of luxurious comfort and durability at a moderate price. It is designed by 
experts, made in a thorough manner, and finished as a dainty woman would have it. 

THERE'S QUALITY IN EVERY THREAD 

Do not fail to see these special grades: Women's two-piece and Union Suits, No. 475 
white lisle. No. 480 Sea Island mercerized. Men's Union Suits, No. 575 white lisle. No. 
580 Sea Island mercerized. If you cannot get Carter's Underwear at the stores, write us and 
we will forward you samples. 

Made in Union Suits and two-piece suits for women and children. 
Unicn Suits for men. Also infants' 1 shirts and bands. 

For sale by nearly all first-class dealers. Insist on the L ook FOR THIS 'I 
genuine. Send for samples of fabric. TRADEMARK 

THE WM. CARTER CO., Dept. "O" 

Needham Heights (Higlilandville), Mass. 




fefca 



82 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 



Clicquot Club 

( Pronounced " Click-O '*) 

Ginger Ale 




is a most delicious 
and pure Ginger Ale. 
CJ Produced with 
scientific care and 
epicurean judgment. 
CJ Of pure water, 
sugar and ginger, it 
is always the same. 
If your dealer has it 
not, let us know. 

CLICQUOT CLUB CO. 

Millis, Mass. 




When you have an old-fashioned candy 
pull — how good and wholesome it tastes — how 
different from the ordinary " store candy." 

Necco Sweets are the good wholesome kind 
— they include every sort you may want 



are one of 500 different 
kinds. Try a box. How 
much better they are 
than nameless kinds. 

For your pleasure's 
sake — for health's 
sake — for your chil- 
dren's sake look for 
the seal of Necco 
Sweets. 

At all dealers tyIio Bell 
high grade goods. 

NEW ENGLAND CONFECTIONERY CO. 
Summer and Meleher Sts., 
Boston, Mass. 




Necco 

OWEETS 



Ne» Ei\gta(\d~ 

C orvfectioneiy C° 

BOSTO.H- 




HE CENTURY 
COOK BOOK 

By Mary Ronald 

Richly illustrated. 600 pages, $2.00 

"It takes the place of all others." On every 
side it has been declared the most complete of 
its kind ever published. It covers every point 
in cookery, from the humble meal to the state 
dinner, with a group of New England dishes 
furnished by Susan Coolidge, and a few receipts 
for distinctly Southern dishes. It saves its cost 
in a month. Garnishing and table decoration 
specially treated. 

Something far more than the traditional cook 
book. — New York Evangelist. 



As a cook book it is simply perfect. 
and Hygienic Gazette, New York. 



■Dietetic' 



AN ATTRACTIVE 
ILLUSTRATED CIRCULAR 

describes this and other similar books 
fully and it will be sent to any address 
for the asking. 

Tne Century Co., Union Sq., New York 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS — MISCELLANEOUS 



83 




See that LEA & PERRINS' sig- 
nature is on the wrapper and label 



SOUPS 

Stews and 
Hashes 



are given just 
that "finish- 
ing touch" 
which makes 
a dish perfect, 
by using 



LEA & PERRINS SAUCE 

THE ORIGINAL WORCESTERSHIRE 

It is a perfect seasoning for all kinds of Fish, Meats, Game, Salads, 
Cheese, and Chafing-Dish Cooking. It gives appetiz- 
ing relish to an otherwise insipid dish. 

Beware of Imitations* John Duncan's Sons, Agents, New York 



40 TOURS TO EUROPE EE&rM£p&2 

sive and attractive ever offered. F. C. CLARK, Times Bldg. , Blew York. 



$250 



FOR 57-DAY SELECT SUMMER TRIP TO EUROPE. 

THE TEMPLE TOURS, 
P.O.Box A-S178 Boston. Ma**. 








That Dainty MintCovered 
Candy Coated 
Chewing Gum 



At All the Bctterkirtd of Stores 
5 cents the Ounce 

or in 5<U01and 25<t.,Packcrs 



REALLY DELIGHTFUL 



i H your neighborhood store can't supply you send us 10c for sample packet. 

jFRANK H. FLEER & COMPANY, INC., Philadelphia, U. S. A., and Toronto, Can 




8 4 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SALADS 





THE RETURN OF THE FISHING FLEET 



Fish Salad 

smacks of the sea and is an easily prepared luncheon for any 
season. 

Cut cold boiled cod, salmon or other boiled fish into small pieces, 
an inch square. Marinate and keep in a cool place till ready to 
serve. Place in a salad bowl and smooth the top, leaving it high 
in the center. Mask it with a thick covering of 

DurKee's Salad Dressing 

Sprinkle over it the chopped yolk of an egg. Place on top a slice of lemon, 
and around the salad a thick border of crisp lettuce leaves. Garnish with hard- 
boiled egg, pickle, cucumber, and sliced tomatoes. The shells saved from 
boiled lobster and filled with chopped hard-boiled egg and pickle make an 
artistic finish when laid on top. 

Our dressing has a certain flavor, due chiefly to the use of the best Olive Oil 
(imported by ourselves) possessed by no other Salad Dressing. 

Our handsome Booklet, "Salads: How to M&Ke and Dress Them,'' is 

the standard authority in its particular field. It contains many valuable recipes 
for a wide variety of delicious salads and is sent free on application to 

E. R. DURtKEE <Eb CO. 

534 Washington St. New York City, N. Y. 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FINE RAZORS 



85 




/ Want You to Try M% Razor 

If you are still depending upon the 
barber or old-fashioned razor you are in the same 
category with the man who climbs ten flight of 
stairs when there is an elevator in the building. 

You are not only like him — losing time 
— which is money — but you are also losing the 
benefits of a clean, comfortable home shave — which 
is not only a great convenience but also economical. 

With the " Gillette " the most inexpe- 
rienced man can remove, without cut or scratch, in 
three to five minutes, any beard that ever grew. 

My razor is always ready, No Strop- 
ping, No Honing'. No other razor so 
durable. The " Gillette " will last a lifetime. 
Blades so inexpensive, when dull you throw 
them away as you would an old pen. 

I have spent years in perfecting this 
razor, which gives you the best possible shave 
at home or away — saving you time, money 
and endless inconvenience. 

Over two million men know how well I 

have succeeded. I want you to enjoy the benefits 

of my razor. All Jewelry, Drug, Cutlery, 

Hardware and Sporting Goods dealers 

sell it. Get it to-day. 




The Gillette Safety Razor Set 
consists of a triple silver=plated 
holder, 12 double=edged flexible 
blades — 24 keen edges, packed in 
a velved lined leather case, and 
the price is $5.00. 

Combination Sets from $6.50 to $50.00 

Ask your dealer for the " Gillette " to-day. If substitutes are offered, 
refuse them, and write .us at once for our booklet and free trial offer. 

GILLETTE SALES COMPANY 

231 Stock Exchange Bldg. 
Chicago 



331 Times Bldg. 
New York 



231 Kimball Bldg. 
BOSTON 



86 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 




CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 



87 



CHARM him 

with Nabisco, 
Please her with 
Nabisco. Delight 
and entertain 



ith 



everyone wi 



NABISCO 

SUGAR WAFERS 

They take the 
place of sweets 
and candies — 
blend harmonious- 
ly with ices and 
desserts. 

lit ten cent tins. 

Also in tweny-five cent tins. 

NATIONAL 
BISCUIT COMPANY 



88 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS—SOAPS 




Fairy Soap Purity 








can /|£ relied upon,^)ecau^TAIRY' SOAP is 
mac|ef only Jlbm edible prodigcte. Pretty colored 
soaj> piakesj pretty bad ; completions. For pure 
completions use pui^ii^i(%id ybapl 

\\ The purest, whitest, cleanest §oap is FAIRY 
SOAP — the floating, oval cake. 'Y 



Xt ^jgE- N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY, CHICAGO' 

Fairy Soap was granted highest possible awards -"St both St. Louis and 

Portland ^Expositions. 

"Have You a Little 'Fairy' in Your Home?" 



; 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— HOUSE FURNISHINGS 



8 9 




*rif3czihroom 

means a 

" ' mm -mmr -"W ;- / ~W 

IVfOT one householder 
in ten realizes the 
health-importance of a 
sanitary bathroom. But 
when you consider for a 
minute that the health- 
barometer of the entire home 
is governed absolutely by do- 
mestic sanitary conditions, and 
that its rise or fall is largely regu- 
lated by the sanitary or unsanitary 
condition of the bathroom, you can 
readily see the extreme necessity for equipping your 
bathroom with only the most sanitary fixtures. 

J&t&ttdfol'd. Porcelain Enameled Ware 

is the standard of sanitary equipments for the home. 

"<$tatf<fe#<f "Green & Gold" Label Fixtures, because of their smooth, non- 
absorbent surfaces without joint or crevice, their one-piece construction, and the 
indestructibility of their snowy enameling, are sanitary to the highest degree and 
safe-guard the health of your home as no other fixtures can. Genuine "£tanda#d" 
Ware lasts longer, is more beautiful, and gives greater satisfaction in use than any other plumbing 
system in the world. You can equip your home throughout with "<$tattdai>d" "Green & Gold" 
Label Fixtures for the same price you would pay for unguaranteed and unsanitary equipment. 

There is but one way to solve your sanitary problem — satisfactorily — economic- 
ally — and for all time. Equip with genuine "Sftattdatfd" Porcelain Enameled 
Ware and look for the label to make sure you are getting what you specify. 

Send for our free 1 00 page book — "Modern Bathrooms" — the most com- 
plete and beautiful book e ^ er issued on the sanitary subject. Write today, 
enclosing 6c postage, giving name of your architect and plumber if selected. 

Address, Standard Sanitates Iflfa. Co* Dept. 21, Pittsburgh, Pa., U. S. A. 

Offices and Showrooms in New York: ^tattdatfd" Building. 35-37 West 31st Street. 
London, Eng. : 22 Holborn Viaduct, E. C. ~. . , „, nAn „ A New Orleans : Cor. Baronne & St. Josephs Sts. 

Louisville : 325-329 West Main Street. Pittsburgh Showroom, 949 Penn Ave. Cleveland : 648-652 Huron Road, St. S. E. 



9° 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— WEARING APPAREL 




'-■:< 



Copyright 1909 by Hart Schaffnor & Mara 



FOR the smart dressers, the two-button Varsity; and several other good 
styles. 

All shown in the Spring Style Book; sent for six cents. 

Hart Schaffner & Marx Good Clothes Makers 



Chicago 



Boston 



New York 




CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— FOOD PRODUCTS 



9 1 





Winter snows and winter 
appetites disappear together. 
The growing warmth of spring 
creates a desire for lighter, daintier 
foods. Begin the days 
right with Springtime 
Breakfasts of 

Swift's Premium 
Bacon or Ham 

The standard of excellent 
quality. 

Look for the name 
Swift's Premium and the stamp 
f" U. S. Inspected" on every piece. 

Swift & Company 

U. S. A. 



T 1 - ftHii ' U" ' 



CENTURY ADVERTISEMENTS— SOAPS 



OOPYRIGHT 1808 BY THE PROCTER & GAMBLE CO. CINCINNATI 







Children like Ivory Soap. They take to it as ducks do to 
water. 

It floats — that is one reason why they like it. They cannot 
quite get it into their little heads why it floats; but they know it 
does. And that suffices. 

It does not irritate their tender skins; and it yields a soft, 
smooth, creamy lather that takes the dirt away and makes their 
hands and faces so pink and white that even father notices it and 
says, "My! My! How clean you are this morning.'* 

Ivory Soap .... 99 4 >loo Per Cent. Pure. 



m 



< 



(Natural Flavor) 

Food Products 



There are so many tasty breakfast, luncheon and dinner dishes possible to be pre- 
pared on a moment's notice from Libby's cooked and ready-to-serve meats, that 
they make housekeeping easy. Try the following recipes, then send for our book 
containing more than 1 50 other suggestions for "Good Things to Eat." 

Libby's Veal Loaf. Libby's Ham Loaf. 



A 



^&>P fefL> 



Slice thin and garnish as above, or Fluffy Veal Omelet: 
Separate yolks and whites of 4 eggs. Beat whites until stiff. 
Stir into the yolks % of a cup of Libby's Veal Loaf, chopped 
fine, and V2 of the beaten whites. Turn into a hot, well 
buttered spider. When nicely browned on under side spread 
with other V2 of whites and set in broiling oven of gas stove. 
When whites are brown remove and fold. 

Libby's Wafer Sliced Dried Beef. 



•Cut in slices and served with tomatoes as above, or Scal- 
loped Ham: Into one cup of sifted cracker crumbs stir four 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Chop fine contents of one small 
can of Libby's Ham Loaf and two hard boiled eggs. Have 
ready two cups of rich white sauce. Butter a baking dish, 
put in a layer of crumbs, then a layer of eggs, sauce, and 
nam, repeating alternately. Bake until brown. 

Libby's Ox Tongue. 




Can be served cold garnished with parsley or Creamed 
Dried Beef and Celery: Melt one and one-half table- 
spoonfuls of butter, add one cup of celery cut in small pieces 
and contents of a small can of Libby's Wafer Sliced Dried Beef 
shredded. Cook, stirring occasionally until celery is slightly 
browned. Add flour, mix until smooth, then pour in milk, 
let boil. Season and serve. Garnish with toast points. 



Cut in dainty slices and serve with hard boiled egg cut in 
small pieces, or Sliced Tongue — Eastern Style: To 
the beaten yolk of one egg, add two tablespoonfuls of 
mustard and ha If a teaspoon f u 1 of curry powder. Add slow- 
ly the juice of half a lemon, a few drops of tobasco sauce and 
two tablespoonfuls of olive oil. Dip slices of Libby's Ox 
Tongue into this, then into sifted bread crumbs. Broil slow- 
1 y until crumbs are brown. Serve with string beans. 



Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago 




How to Make Good 
Things to Eat" — an 84- 
page book free if you 
write to Libby, Chicago. 




The De Vinne Press 



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